Management development

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Definitions:

„The continous process of developing managers’ knowledge, skills and
attitudes through instruction, demonstration and planned experience to
meet the present and future needs of the business.”

(Tom Roberts 1974)


An attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a planned
deliberate learning process.”

(Training Services Agency 1977)

„An attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a learning
process.”

(Alan Mumford 1989)

Management development

An integral part of the process of Organisation Development

Prerequisite

Effective manpower planning coupled with procedures for recruitment and selection

Programmes of management development

Culture and organisational
requirements

Demands of particular
managerial jobs



Framework of a clear policy


Succession planning and career progression

Performance
review

Training
and
learning

Self
-
development

Motivation
and
rewards

Improvement in organisational effectiveness

An outline of the management development process

Five basics principles for successful
management development I.

1.
Management Development is essentially providing
opportunities for managers to develop themselves.

/’All development is self development’ P Drucker/



2.
All development and training needs should be geared
to the needs of the individual and to the needs of the
company.

(Manager Development and Management Development)

Five basic principles for successful
management development II.

3.
The process of managerial development can only take
place if the climate of the organisation is favorable.
(Top management commitment plus a climate of trust)

4.
The most powerful influence in the development of a
manager is the manager’s boss.

5.
Management development is a long range process
and it is unrealistic to expect quick results.

Management development: Levers of success


Clear appropriate job objectives


Effective selection for the job


Driven by business opportunities/ problems


Ownership shared /
-

hierarchically,
-

by individual self
-
development,
-

by personnel/


Shared diagnosis /
-

of individual needs,
-

of group needs/


Development activities are /
-

appropriate to need,
-

appropriate to
individual,
-

based on management reality/


Development processes are linked


Learning processes are identified and worked on


Outputs are identified and measured

Management development: Causes of failure


Purposes
(
-

unclear,
-

unsupported by managers)


Poor diagnosis of culture and business requirements


Poor analysis o individual needs


Development processes
(
-

unconvincing to managers,
-

inappropriate to need,
-

unreal,
-

unacceptabe to individual)


Overemphasis on
(
-

formal,
-

general,
-

off the job,
-

future
‘succession planning’,
-

mechanics,
-

one off experiences)


Flavour of the month


Owned by personnel

What affects the choice?

Contingency factors affecting choice of development

Approaches will include:




Size of organisation



Market pressures


Money and resources available



Stage in career



Culture/ managerial values



Individual needs/ motivation of



managers


Management style



Calibre of managers


Support from the top



Skills in coaching/ appraising/
delegating/ counselling etc


Technology


Union invlolvement


Product/ service and product



life cycles


Learning theory


Organisation plans



Economic climate

Mumford’s questions

1)
Look back over your managerial career and identify:


Your two most significant learning experiences


Your two least significant learning experiences

2)
Look back at your life and pick out tha major events in it which
helped make you the person you are.


Assess each event by defining:


Your feelings about it then/now


What you think you learned from the experience at the time


Wheather you have learnt something new or different by

looking back at it now.

3)
How far have the best and worst experiences been planned/
formal/ structured as compared with informal experiences
?

Career management

Definition:


Career management plans and shapes the progression of individuals
within an organization in accordance with assessments of
organizational needs and the performance, potential and preferences
of individual members of the enterprise.


Overall aims of the career management:


to ensure that the organization’s needs for management
succession are satisfied


to provide men and women of promise with a sequence of training
and experience that will equip them for whatever level of
responsibility they have the ability to reach


to give individuals with potential the guidance and encouragement
they need if they are to fulfil their potential and achieve a
successful career with the organization in tune with their talents
and aspirations.

Career management process

20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

P

E

R

F

O

R

M

A

N

C

E

Approximate age

Exploration

Establishment

Midcareer

Late career

Decline

Career management process

1)
Exploration:

individuals make critical choices about their career.

2)
Establishment:

search for work, getting the first job, learning on
the job, gaining evidence of the success or failure.

3)
Midcareer:

improvements in performance or begin to deteriorate.

4)
Late career:

for those who continue to growth through midcareer
stage is a pleasant time, for those who have stagnated means they
are locked into their current job.

5)
Decline:

the final stage is difficult for everyone.

Keys to successful management career


Do good work


Present the right time


Learn the power structure


Gain control of organizational resources


Stay visible


Stay mobile


Find a mentor


Support your boss

The integrating approach to management
development


The reality of management



the approach to management
development should avoid making simplimistic assumptions on what
managers need to know or do.


Relevance



management development processes must be related
to the needs of particular managers in specific job.


Self
-
development



managers need to be encouraged to develop
themselves and helped to dod so.


Experimental learning



the principal method by which managers
can be equipped is by providing them with the right variety of
experience.


Formal training

-

courses can supplement bit can never replace
experience.

Mumford’s virtuous learning circle

Effectiveness/ reality/
problem centred/ focus

Enthusiasm for
further learning

Perceived relevance

Rewards for
application

Immediate application /
solution centred

Mumfords vicious learning sequence

Generalised knowledge / skills / theory

Poor transfer to own situation

Difficulties in application

Absence of rewards for learning processes

Full stop

Career management policies

MAKE OR BUY DECISIONS

Makes and grows its own managers (a promotion from within policy)

Recruits and bus
-
in deliberately from outside (bringing ‘fresh blood’ into
the organization)

SHORT TERM OR LONG TERM POLICIES

Short term need (here and now)

Long term plans

Long term flexibility

SPECIALISTS OR GENERALISTS

Developing better and better specialists

Developing appropriate number of generalists who are capable of
exercising effectively all possible managerial functions

DEALING WITH THE „PLATEAUED” MANAGEMENT

Contented maturity

Discontented maturity

Thwarted rising sun



Approaches to management development

FORMAL APPROACH

INFORMAL APPROACH

Develop on the job through coaching,
councelling, monitoring and feedback
by managers.

Emphasizing self
-
assessment and the
identification of development needs by
getting managers to assess their own
performance against agreed
objectives.

Development through work
experience, which includes job
rotating, job enrargement and taking
part in project teams or task groups.

Getting managers to produce their
own development plans.

Formal training by means of internal
or external courses.

Encouraging managers to discuss
their own problems and opportunities
with their bosses or colleagues.

Structured self
-
development by
following self
-
development
programmes agreed with the
management.