Libraries and the
What is the Mobile Web?
What are the components of the Mobile
What are the benefits of the Mobile Web?
What are some mobile library initiatives?
The Mobile Web
Definition: The World Wide Web accessed
through a mobile device such as cellular
phones and the iPod Touch
Mobile phones that have Web capabilities
can search the Internet from anywhere that
the phone can get a signal. The cell phone is
the desk top or lap top counterpart.
Components of the Mobile
operating systems and other software
how users currently engage with information
on the World Wide Web via their mobile
The Users: The Net Generation
Grew up with computers and video games
Work in multimedia environments
Figure things out for themselves without
Work in groups
The Mobile Devices
The mobile phones are the backbone of
mobile communications. They have matured
across four generations (1G, 2G 3G and now
Applications of mobile phones have become
diversified and driven by many services,
including music distribution, GPS autoroute
guidance, electronic money, stock
transactions, digital interactive TV,
telemedicine and many others.
The Mobile Telephone
A Mobile Telephone (also known as a
Cellular Telephone) is defined as a 'portable
electronic device for the purpose of
telecommunications over long distances.’
There are different kinds:
multimedia phones that allow users to
download music, ringtone, watch TV and videos and send
Smartphones( blackberry, Nokia N series) which are
relatives of the PDA offer computing capabilities. These
Include the iphone that presents whole Web pages via its
iPod an MP3 player and Internet device which could
also be used as a mobile device.
Evolution of the Mobile
The mobile industry currently offers 1G, 2G
and 3G devices. 1G is being phased out
while 4G devices are still under developmen
but countries such as Japan and China are
already using 4G technology.
1G (First Generation Wireless Technology).
Is the analog, voice
only cellular telephone
standard, developed in the 1980s. It was
invented by Martin Cooper of Motorola Corp
in 1973. The bandwidth is about 11.4 to 22.8
Before 1G technology was the mobile radio
telephone or 0G (Zeroth G)
1G phones could be cloned
2G (GSM standard)
GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service was introduced in 2001. It
added packet switching protocols to mobile
communications technology and TCP/IP thus
making possible the reading and sending of
mails, instant messaging (IM), and
browsing the Internet. SMS or short message
service is heavily used.
2.5 G added MMS.
UMTS (Universal Mobile
Can reach 384
kbps. The technology made video phones,
watching streaming video, downloading music
and getting broadband access possible. UMTS
can be used on both mobile phones and
computers. It is capable of transferring 385 kbi/s
for mobile systems and up to 2Mbi/s for
3.5G allows for data transfer at 3.6 Mbi/s with an
allowance of 30 Gb of data per month per user.
The fourth generation cell phone is
being championed in Japan. It will boost the
data rates to 20 Mbps. These speeds enable
high quality video transmission and rapid
download of large music files. The first 4G
phones appeared in 2006.
Services available in the
Mobile Web quick piks
Iphone quick picks
Benefits of the Mobile Web
have GPS (global
Includes the whole Web
Can receive and
create content, make comments, take photos,
write and post blogs, etc.
Library mobile initiatives (1)
Library Websites and MOPACs (Mobile OPACs).
Many libraries are offering Mobile versions of their
Websites for their patrons to access from their cell
phones. Some mobile Library Web sites are
Ball State University Libraries mobile site
Boston University Medical Center Mobile Library
Nashville Public Library
Library mobile initiatives (2)
Libraries load digital
collections on the mobile devices for the
duration of the loan period such as all reading
assignments for a class.
Thomas Ford Memorial Library offers e
services and play away.
Crouch Fine Arts Library (Baylor University)
Library mobile initiatives (3)
Library mobile instruction. Provide instruction
via MP3 and video files that can be
loaded/viewed in a video ipod.
Example: SheridanLibraries Podcasts (John
Library Mobile Initiatives (4)
Academic software and
database providers use the mobile web to
provide information. The National Library of
Medicine enables search of PubMed through
Library initiatives (5):Other
Library SMS notification either from the library or
from the user
Mobile audio tours
mail (push e
mail) where the email is directly
“pushed” to the cell phone. As a new message is
delivered, the user is immediately notified that a
message is waiting. This functionality is available in
most smartphones, PDSs and iphones
MSN messenger and Yahoo
offer web based clients and AIM allows IM
forwarding as text messages.
Media sharing social networks
MMS, Photosharing Flckr can be accessed by the
mobile web through yahoo.
Challenges of the Mobile Web
Variety of devices
different screen resolutions, functionalities,
many kinds of browsers
Finding/developing made for mobile content
Difficult to navigate
Slow connection speeds
Potential of the Mobile Web
3G/4G network development
Availability of software designed for mobile Web
browsing sinch as Opera mini, mobi, symbian
Increasing ownership of mobile devices
Longer battery life
Search engines for mobiles allow
searching of the Web. Examples Microsofts
Challenges to Libraries
Have adapted to technology for
modernization and not transformation.People
may be distant from a computer but they are
more likely to have a mobile phone. Libraries
must get their Website and OPACS function
in a mobile
Conclusion: The Library vs. the Web
Net generation users perceive the Internet as
Libraries have to address the information
seeking habits of the Net Generation
Libraries have to learn how to integrate the
physical spaces with virtual spaces and
Libraries have to make their Websites friendly
to the computer and the mobile devices or
Lippincott, Joan K. Net Generation Students and Libraries.
Using Mobile Technology to enhance student’s educational
experiences. ECAR Case Study 2, 2005.
Kroski, Ellyssa (2008) On the move with the mobile web:libraries and
mobile technologies, Library Technology Reports 44:6