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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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What’s Hot & What’s Not

Library Technologies & Trends from Applets to
Z39.50

Roy Tennant

Warnings


My personal opinion of the situation
today

(only fools and geniuses predict
the future)


I can’t cover the entire landscape (I
mean, you want to go home, right?)


I will cover way more Hot technologies
than NOT Hot


sorry!


TMBA: Too Many Bloody Acronyms


Outline


Hot (and Not) Technologies, from
Applets to Z39.50


What Makes a Technology Hot? Or
Not?


Joe Janes’ Six Questions


Making Good Technology Decisions


I Know This Much Is True


3 Things You Must Remember

Applets


Java applets were once thought to be
the

way to deploy rich interactive
services to web clients


Experience demonstrated that Applets:


Often crashed browsers


Took way too long to load


Were less cross
-
platform compatible than
advertised


Hot? NOT!


Use servlets instead…

Digital Reference


Solves the essential problem of not
being where the user needs us (online)


Is much better than it was, but is still in
its infancy


Should be viewed as simply another
tool to provide more effective user
services


Hot? Yes, but be realistic and realize it
is a NEW service that requires
investment


Dublin Core


A common meeting ground for more complex
metadata standards


Co
-
developed by an international community
of librarians and computer scientists (broad
-
based support)


Example of success: it is the one required
metadata format for OAI
-
PMH


Hot? Yes, but should be used only for
cooperative metadata sharing or very simple
metadata needs

eBooks


Major kinds:


Device
-
dependent


Web
-
based


Download
-
based


Uptake varies dramatically based on
format, cost, type of content, etc.


Hot? Varies…from dead
-
cold device
-
dependent ebooks to lukewarm and
slowly heating up for other types

FRBR


Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records (from IFLA)


A method by which we can
bring
together for the user

multiple records
that describe one intellectual object


Example system: Redlightgreen.com
from RLG


Hot?
YES!

May be an effective way out
of the morass of multiple records


HTML


A hodge
-
podge of sloppy
implementations and browser
-
specific
hacks


Meanwhile, a better solution
exists…XHTML & CSS


Hot?
Cold
, dead cold, for anyone
interested in standards and long
-
term
viability


use XHTML and CSS
instead

Institutional Repositories


“Digital collections capturing and
preserving the intellectual output of a
single or multi
-
university community.”
(SPARC)


A way libraries can help change
scholarly communication from a profit
center to a social good


Hot? Yes!

repositories.cdlib
.org

dspace.mit.ed
u

Java Servlets


“Servlets” = Server
-
side applications


Java is a common language for web
-
based application programming


Hot? Yes.

Metasearching


Only librarians like to
search
, everyone else
likes to
find


Searching in a Google World


A powerful tool, but…


Challenges remain:


Deduplication


Ranking


Target Response


Hot? Yes, but still at an early stage

METS


Metadata Encoding and Transmission
Schema


An XML “wrapper” for various metadata
“packages”, as well as component files
or the internal structure of a file


Increasingly used as an all
-
purpose
metadata package for digital objects


Hot?
Red

hot, and getting hotter!

MODS


Acronym


A bibliographic standard similar to
MARC expressed in XML


Probably the closest thing to a
replacement for MARC


Currently used as an alternative to
MARC XML


Hot? Lukewarm, and getting warmer…

OAI
-
PMH


A protocol for “harvesting” (as opposed
to searching) metadata from content
repositories


A digital library interoperability “home
run”


Simple, easy to implement and
understand; other uses are being
layered on top (e.g., dynamic
searching)


Hot?
Red

hot and getting hotter…


Open Source Software


Software for which anyone can obtain the
source code (the human
-
readable code that
is normally compiled into code that isn’t)


Essential services are running on OSS; e.g.,
Apache web server, MySQL


OSS is particularly important for libraries, as
it is now much easier and cheaper to
prototype and build new online services


Hot?
Red

hot, and likely to continue to be

OpenURL


A standard way to encode URLs for
information objects that are computer
parseable, and therefore
actionable
in

ways
that standard URLs are not


Key benefits:


Links are not 1
-
to
-
1 (multiple targets can be
presented)


Links can be presented that are unique to a user
community (based on local licenses)


Hot? You bet! A simple way to solve the
“appropriate copy” problem as well as offer
new capabilities

RDF


Resource Description Framework


Do you understand, and can you
explain to someone else, what a
labeled directed graph is? No? Then
forget about understanding RDF


Can you implement what you don’t
understand?


Where is the killer app?


Hot? NOT!

RSS


Pick your acronym definition: Really
Simple Syndication (my fave), Rich Site
Summary (from Netscape), or RDF Site
Summary (for those into the RDF
version of RSS)


Useful for current awareness:


Blog readers


Automatic web site updates


Hot? Yes! But for specific purposes

Storage


Storage is going for about $1/GB


Buy this 1 terabyte disk for $1,000
-
>



Put this 4 GB card in your camera
-
>



Carry this 1 GB USB drive in your
pocket



Hot? Like, duh!

Web Services: SOAP + REST


SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol


A lightweight way to exchange encoded
information between applications


REST (Representational State Transfer) is a
URL (HTTP Get) based way of sending a
SOAP request and receiving an XML
-
encoded response


Both Google and Amazon can be searched
via Web Services


Hot? Definitely!


XHTML and CSS


An XML
-
compliant version of HTML


Benefits: forces markup to be valid and
properly structured; forces display
directives into a separate stylesheet
(CSS) where they belong


Ongoing maintenance of documents
thereby simplified and standardized


Hot? Definitely! Migrate NOW!

http://csszengarden.com/


XML


A simple and yet powerful way to
encode information in a structured
format for processing and
communication


All kinds of hot new services use it,
from OAI
-
PMH to RSS and SRU/SRW


even library catalog systems


Hot?
Super Red Hot!

If you want job
security, learn XML now!

Z39.50


A standard for searching remote
databases that has been around for
years


Still
not widely implemented in a
consistent and effective manner


Meanwhile, OAI
-
PMH and other XML
-
based protocols (e.g., SRU/SRW) are
rapidly replacing it


Hot? NOT! But see SRU/SRW

SRU/SRW


SRW = carried by a form (uses HTTP
POST)


SRU = carried by a URL (uses HTTP
GET)


A Web Services implementation of
Z39.50


The best chance Z39.50 has of
surviving


Hot? Warm and getting warmer (it may
be a useful method for database
vendors to expose their databases to
metasearching)


What Makes a Technology
Hot?


Simplicity


Power


Flexibility


Cost
-
effectiveness


Kills a pain or fulfills a strong desire

What Makes a Technology
NOT Hot?


Needless complexity (more complexity
than is required to solve the problem at
hand)


Greater cost (in either money or time)
than users are willing to pay


Addresses a problem that no one feels
that strongly about


Competition that is more compelling

Joe Janes’ Six Questions


Is there a benefit to the user?


Is it accessible, affordable, and worth
the cost?


Does it help uphold the values of the
profession?


Does it play to our strengths?


Is it likely to endure?


Does it feel right?

Reference:

Making Good Technology
Decisions


Keep an ear to the ground and an eye
on the horizon


Hold new technologies up to the light of
your mission and priorities


Watch out for 800 lb. Gorillas


Don’t ignore an upstart with a
compelling product

Making Good Technology
Decisions



Don’t bet the farm on things you can’t
control


All things being equal, open is better
than proprietary


Technology with market share often
prevents or kills better technology


However…market share is everything


Get good advice


Know your source of support

I Know This Much is True


Neither an early adopter nor latecomer
be


It’s the user, stupid!


Don’t expect users to know what they
want until they see it


Never underestimate the power of a
prototype


Back it up or kiss it goodbye


Buy hardware at the last possible
moment

I Know This Much is True


Don’t buy software with a zero at the
end of the release number


Burn, baby, burn: the only good CPU
cycle is a used one


Never let anyone bitch at you about
disk usage


disk space is cheaper
than dirt!


If you can’t be with the operating
system you love, love the one you’re
with

3 Things You Must Remember


XML


It’s not the technology, but the
user!


Never stop learning!