Collection Management Working Party report 2002x

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-

1

-

1.

Remit and membership


The remit of this group is to facilitate the development of a service that supports
independent use and meets users’ information needs in terms of content and format, in
the context of the University’s collections and external resources. To express it in
the
terms in which it was conceived at a Radcliffe Science Library Senior Management
Group Away Day in
2000
, ‘to provide users with the information they want, in the
format that they want, in the place that they want’.


Membership

developed out of a prelim
inary ad hoc group assembled under Matthew
Searle. The permanent

group consisted of Bob Wyatt (c
onvenor), Andrew
Colquhoun, Theo Dunnet, Yvonne Hibbott and Gill King. On the appointment of
Nick Watts to a post in Life Sciences, he was
co
-
opted

to the wor
king party.


The group
represents the main interest groups in the work of collection management


reading rooms, stack, technical s
ervices.


-

2

-

2.


Timescale and methodology


The group was set up in
2001
, and regular meetings were held to discuss different
issu
es. From
early 2002
,

four events

supervened to delay reconvention of the group:
the necessity for Bob Wyatt, Gill King and Nick Watts to spend a large proportion of
their time on the collection moves for the Jackson Wing electrical works;
the
moves
out of

the RSL of Andrew Colquhoun and Nick Watts
; and

the need to get down in
writing a digested acco
unt of the story so far.


The context

in which the Working Party carries out its task is

as follows:




The OULS Collection Management Policy
, representing

the position of OULS
as a whole
.



Moves towards
integration

of the University’s libraries
,
initially

of the
‘central’ and ‘faculty’ libraries, now of the ‘departmental’ libraries as well
.



The nature of printed information and its use.



The increasing availa
bility of electronic journals and other non
-
traditional
information formats
.



Past
decisions and practices, and the sheer size of the RSL collections.


The group set itself the task of identifying
desirable

goals
in advance of
working out
the route to them
.

It sees its work as a once
-
in
-
a
-
generation opportunity to get things
right
, then keep them right.


It began by collecting
and assessing
evidence on intake, on usage, and on the
physical
infrastructure

for book storage
.

This evidence is examined in detai
l later in the report.
However, the next three sections will attempt to impart a clear understanding of




the principles or ‘natural forces’ which underlie collection usage



constraints which are implicit in the Bodleian systems of collection disposition



unspoken assumptions which have informed RSL’s collection management
activities to date.


They are written in fairly close


not to say tedious


detail, in order to avoid a future
‘dialogue of the deaf’.


-

3

-

3
.
Zipf
-
a
-
dee
-
doo
-
dah

:
the laws of
collection usa
ge


The usage of items in collections conforms to a mathematical
format

which is found
to describe many

facets of human activity


World Wide Web use
,

frequency of
words in texts
,

income distribution, warehouse activities,
to name just four.

A Zipf
distribution
results in a graph (rank on the x
-
axis, frequency on the y
-
axis) showing
many uses of the highest
-
ranking items, but few of the lowest
-
ranking. As portrayed

on ordinary graph paper
, this is not a linear


straight
-
line


graph.
The g
raph only
becomes a straight line when plotted on graph paper with logarithmic scales on both
axes (log
-
log paper).


Related to the Zipf distribution is Bradford’s Law: a core of journals in any subject
provides the most compactly spaced arrangement of cit
ations; outer circles provide
further groups of citations less compactly stored according to an inverse square ratio.


For example, if the ‘top ten’ journals
in a subject provide 1000 citations, the next
1000 citations will be provided by 10x10=100 journal
s, the next 1000 by
100x100=10,000 journals, and so on.


The third

way of
describi
ng
what is essentially the same

phenomenon is Pareto’s
80/20 rule: roughly 20% of items get 80% of the activity.


For
a good account of Zipf and related distributions, see
Eu
gene Garfield ‘Current
comments : Bradford’s Law and related statistical patterns’,
Current contents

#19

(May 12, 1980), 5
-
12 (reprinted in
Essays of an information scientist

4

(1979
-
80)
476
-
483 and available on the WWW).


There is one more feature of scie
nce library collections that is worth pointing out:
assuming you want to retrieve information, storing it in a print journal is not an
efficient way of achieving that aim
. It is a
commonplace
that the unit of scientific
communication is the paper in its v
arying forms (journal article, conference
contribution, rapid communication, etc). Yet papers are bundled together by
publishers into journal issues; issues are bound or boxed together by librarians; and in
the typical library bound or boxed volumes are k
ept in a single linear sequence. The
unwanted is stored and retrieved with the wanted
.


The pattern of usage

within a periodical title conforms to the Z
ipf distribution outlined
above, which accounts for the often
-
repeated statement that only one
-
quarter
of

periodical articles ever impinge

on the scientific consciousness.


Summary



We should expect a lot of our stock to be unused.



Printed periodicals are intrinsically inefficient stores of information

for
retrieval
.


-

4

-

4. Rearranging
the
d
eckchairs on t
he
Titanic

: Nicholson and the Bodleian


The methods of E
.W.B.

Nicholson, Bodley’s Librarian
1882
-
1912,

continue
to impose
severe constraints on the Bodleian and the RSL
. Certain assumptions underlie
Nicholson’s system
. They have been internalised by genera
tions of staff and accepted
as normal.


Let us compare notional “typical” librar
ies

with the Bodleian.

Such libraries almost
invariably add all their new stock to the open shelves

(having purchased it for
immediate use)
, using closed stacks, if at all,
for relegation of dead stock.

M
uch of
Bodley’s stock is not purchased

for use
, but received by legal deposit

for storage
.


“Typical” libraries tend to be “steady
-
state” or “self
-
renewing”. Old stock is
discarded to make room for new. In

a self
-
renewin
g library, simultaneous ac
quisition
and relegation enable

relative location to be maintained with ease.
By contrast,
Nicholson’s Bodleian c
ollected obsessively and threw away nothing. Consequently
for every size (a.
-
f.) of
thousands of

classes there had to be a growth point, and there
was no counterbalancing shrinking point. Every time a growth space filled or a new
class was created, items had to be moved to the right; on the rarer occasions when a
class was closed, items had to be mo
ved to the left. It is easy to see that this meant
the whole collection, in ever
-
increasing numbers, had to be

handled and moved
repeatedly, and that the higher the class number the further it had to be moved.


As the stack expanded, location (stack floor
, for example) had to be deduced from a
look
-
up table of sizes and classes, and committed to memory.


In the “typical” library,
the permanent unique identifier for items of library stock is
the
accession number
. To show their position relative to other it
ems on the shelves,
items
are
also
marked with class marks (from e.g. LC or Dewey classification
schemes), perhaps supp
lemented with a filing suffix.

Location in a general sense
(branch, reading room, etc)
is determined at the stage of selection or orderin
g.

The
intellectual business of c
lassification, the transcription of class mark from system to
book or vice versa, and the affixing of the class mark label, are all done in the
processing section Class marks change if reclassification takes place. They d
o not
change at
a move from one branch to another, or on
relegation to a closed store.

The
location, held separately in the copy record, does.



The accession
number

links the copy record with the copy. It is usually used for
circulation, for stocktakin
g, for mass changes of records (when locations are changed)
and for de
-
accessioning
. Today it normally appears on the item in barcode format
.


Nicholson’s method was to combine the functions of the classmark and the accession
number in a single unique ide
ntifier, the
stack
shelfmark.

The stack shelfmark

was
intended to be permanent:
open
-
shelf collections appear to h
ave been regarded as
temporary
borrowings from the stack. Open
-
shelf shelfmarks were never put in the
pre
-
and post
-
1920 catalogues
. Instead
,
symbols to show the
temporary

location

(i.e.
the reading room)
were added to the
catalogue entry
.



-

5

-

Changes were made in 1988, concurrently with the introduction of OLIS:




Subject classification for the stack was abandoned.



Open
-
shelf classification bec
ame completely independent: shelfmarks were
thus now temporary, not permanent.



Copy numbers, i.e. accession numbers, were generated by OLIS. Only at the
RSL were they marked on a new item of stock as its unique and permanent
identifier.



Location (library,

repository, stack floor, etc.) became a separate part of an
item’s record.


The significance of this chang
e has not been fully recognised, however, and the
shelfmark is still seen as the unique identifier for many practical purposes, even if it is
an
im
permanent one.

Every item must have a
unique
shelfmark
. This has been an
obstacle to the straightforward adoption of an international classification scheme and
to the arrangement of open
-
shelf periodicals in a new way (alphabetically, for
example).


Othe
r legacies are:




Movement from open shelves to stack requires a change of shelfmark (a classified
one to a non
-
classified one)

as well as a change of location
.



Movement from stack to repository
is customarily done by the movement of
whole sequences, not se
lections, because for practical purposes staff derive their
understanding of location from the shelfmark, not from the location on OLIS
.


Summary



The Bodleian system is inefficient because of the record
-
changing that has
to be done to move anything



“Typical” libraries
have major advantages when it comes to moving stock


-

6

-

5. I
wouldn’t start from here

: unspoken
assumptions at the RSL


Simply because the
Jackson

Wing had two floors of reading rooms, open
-
shelf stock
became divided into Life Sciences a
nd Physical Sciences
, with general science being
lumped in with the physical sciences
. This has come to dominate the way the library
organises itself
. Practices have been allowed to diverge.


There is one very important area of divergence.
Long
-
establis
hed p
ractice in Life
Sciences has been to cram as many periodical titles as possible into the available
space, but to keep only the latest five or ten years on the open shelves.
Life Sciences
still has very many split runs, while Physical Sciences has few
. Before OLIS, “latest
n years” appeared in the holdings statement in the serials catalogue.
The onset of
OLIS
and the introduction of the serials module
meant that these statements had to be
translated in
to specific volumes and parts.



In the RSL gene
rally, s
election and de
-
selection (relegation or ‘weeding’) have not
been related to space considerations.
For example,
there is no quota for acceptance
onto open shelves or for relegation to the stack.


Conversely, s
pace considerations have not been rela
ted to selection or deselection.
This
has shown

itself in two ways. The first
has been

a tendency to relegate from
areas where growth is fastest, i.e. where knowledge is developing quickly and
literature might be expected to be in high demand. The secon
d
has been

a tendency
for the Stack to
have a veto on

decisions over what is or is not relegated
.


Reading room
space
has tended to be allocated on a historical basis, regardless of
usage on the one hand and equitable sharing of resources on the other.


Some items of stock have become part of the furniture. The most glaring examples
are
National Union Catalog
, at the end of the Entrance Hall, and the
11th

edition of
Encyclopedia Britannica
, at
or around
the Life Sciences enquiry point.


The quick referen
ce collections are not logically related. Physical Sciences items
have largely been incorporated into appropriate subject sections; there is
unsatisfactory duplication between the Main Ref. collection and the U. Ref.
collection; and the internal organisat
ion of the U. Ref. collection is very difficult to
follow.


The 4
°

shelfmarks in Life Sciences


Med. Per. 4
°

1
-
21

and Biol. Per. 4
°

1
-
2

cause
much difficulty to readers.


-

7

-

6
. Demand and usage


We looked at several groups of evidence for establishing deman
d for, and usage of,
library materials, two in considerable detail.


The first source of evidence for potential demand is, of course, reading lists. We are
committed as a library to obtaining relevant material on reading lists, and it is fair to
say that
the Working Party feels that, whatever else does not get onto the open
shelves, reading list material should. There is a body of opinion that feels that having
it in the stack gives greater control and traceability. The reductio ad absurdum of this
argum
ent would be an entirely closed
-
access stock. However, it is possible to see a
short
-
loan collection (for use within the library only) as meeting both points of view.

We looked at
SCI Journal Citation Reports. In theory, one might suppose that citation
could be used as a surrogate for usage. This would ignore



The importance of local, Oxford,
preferences v. a world overview



The

tendency to self
-
citation



The predominance of ‘methods’ papers in certain fields of science.

While it might have been interestin
g, useful and informative to have compared ranked
lists of usage and citations we have not so far pursued this.

Some data was collected on the replacing of books. This data proved very difficult to
utilise, and we already know that a more satisfactory


b
ut cost
-
effective


method
needs to be devised.


We also took note of the dust test and professional judgment. However, both of these
are more or less subjective. The two sources of objective evidence we had were the
16
-
week photocopying survey and the v
ery full records of stack requests.


The photocopying survey


This survey was conducted and the results analysed by Andrew Colquhoun on behalf
of the library. Its primary purpose was to underpin with hard evidence decisions on
periodicals cancellations, and to proof them against opinion
-
based attack. We need to
be
aware of three problems. One, photocopying is not necessarily exactly the same as
usage. Reference material, tables of constants, etc are likely to be consulted, not
copied. The most general periodicals


New Scientist, Science Policy

etc are likely to
be browsed, not copied for future reference. Two, the photocopying survey was
conducted over a short period in comparison to the stack request statistics. It may be
flawed by seasonal variation. Three, we know that not all photocopying events were
captur
ed in the survey. There may be systematic biases, because labour was not
allocated to over
see the collection of returns.


The
graph

below

shows the frequency of copying of open
-
shelf periodicals by rank.




-

8

-




The following table analyses the copying by

subject:




Total

Copie
d

Dea
d

Copy
-
right

%
copie
d

%
dead

%
copy
-
right

DIVISIO
N

Rank:
deman
d

Rank:
'deadnes
s'

Rank:
%
copyrig
ht

Anthr.

6

3

4

2

50.00

66.6
7

33.3
3

LES

4

1

13

Ast.

46

8

22

20

17.39

47.8
3

43.4
8

MPS

18

2

5

Biochem.

228

90

88

99

39.47

38.6
0

43.4
2

LES

6

6

6

Biol.

262

138

84

117

52.67

32.0
6

44.6
6

LES

1

11

4

Bot.

70

16

33

25

22.86

47.1
4

35.7
1

LES

15

3

12

Chem.

476

175

159

220

36.76

33.4
0

46.2
2

MPS

7

8

3

Eng.

465

81

100

183

17.42

21.5
1

39.3
5

MPS

17

17

7

Gen.

182

46

79

55

25.27

43.4
1

30.2
2

X

14

4

15

Geol.

171

61

43

67

35.67

25.1
5

39.1
8

MPS

9

15

8

Hist.

72

29

16

18

40.28

22.2
2

25.0
0

X

5

16

16

Math.

255

81

71

79

31.76

27.8
4

30.9
8

MPS

12

14

14

Med.

1397

429

479

730

30.71

34.2
9

52.2
5

MS

13

7

1

Met.

52

17

17

19

32.69

32.6
9

36.5
4

MPS

10

9

11

Min.

52

11

16

4

21.15

30.7
7

7.69

MPS

16

13

18

Phys.

271

98

87

61

36.16

32.1
0

22.5
1

MPS

8

10

17

Physiol.

99

50

21

38

50.51

21.2
1

38.3
8

MS

3

18

9

Psych.

170

87

53

83

51.18

31.1
8

48.8
2

MS

2

12

2

Zool.

112

36

46

41

32.14

41.0
7

36.6
1

LES

11

5

10

Journal photocopying
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1
168
335
502
669
836
1003
1170
1337
1504
1671
1838
2005
2172
2339
2506
2673
2840
3007
3174
3341
3508
3675
3842
4009
4176
4343
Rank
Copies

-

9

-



4386

1456

141
8

1861

33.20

32.3
3

42.4
3












































678

283

255

284

41.74

37.6
1

41.8
9

LES






1788

532

515

653

29.75

28.8
0

36.5
2

MPS






1666

566

553

851

33.97

33.1
9

51.0
8

MS






254

75

95

73

29.53

37.4
0

28.7
4

X





-

10

-

The
most striking conclusions are:




Only 1456 out of 4386 periodicals were copied once or more in the period of the
survey. Even allowing for statistical vagaries, these simply cannot be in great
demand.
Nil copies might reasonably reflect a real usage of 5
or 10 photocopying
events, or it might actually mean zero. Whatever it means, it means something
pretty low.



1418 titles were identified as ‘dead’


cancellations or cessations


in the analysis
of the survey results. Only 149 of these attracted any copy
ing, and only to the
extent of 329 copies out of 9411.




Life and Environmental Sciences subjects have the highest proportion of dead
titles.



In spite of the possible bias
against
the capture of photocopying events which took
place on the upper floors, a
higher proportion of the available periodicals in every
Medical Science and in every Life & Environmental Science except Zoology and
Botany was copied than in any Mathematical & Physical Sciences subject.



More than half the Medicine periodicals were shown
to be obtained by legal
deposit.



Purchased periodicals attract more copying than copyright periodicals.



Stack request statistics


Computerised records of stack requests have been
carefully
kept by Theo Dunnet for
well over 10 years.


The reports derived
from them show the number of successful requests for any
requested shelfmark in the relevant time span.
Unsuccessful requests (even for items
actually held by the RSL) are excluded by the method of data capture. Under the
manual system, a major cause of
fetching failure was that the requested item was
already out to another reader. This means that demand for (as opposed to supply of)
popular shelfmarks is likely to be underestimated. Also excluded is the relatively
small number of items requested, fetch
ed, but not correctly replaced. Shelfmarks for
which there was no demand at all do not feature in the statistics.


We should also note that there is not a 1:1 correspondence between titles and
shelfmarks. For periodicals, a change of size means 2 shelfma
rks for 1 title; a change
of title means 1 shelfmark for 2 titles.


Any disadvantages of these statistics are, however, wholly and overwhelmingly
outweighed by the two great advantages of the series: virtual completeness and long
time span. There is

a hug
e amount of information available: the task is to use it
wisely
.


In analysing the fetching statistics, attention has been focussed on the second five
-
year cumulation of data (1995
-
2000), and in particular, for technical reasons, on the
4616 shelfmarks fet
ched 5 or more times in the 5
-
year period. It should be pointed
out that, in all, 112,198 shelfmarks were fetched once or more in the period, out of a
total of c. 500,000 shelfmarks in the stack. Requests in the period approached a

-

11

-

quarter of a million.

In general terms we can conclude that 20
-
25% of stack
shelfmarks attracted some demand, and that the mean number of requests, over all
stack shelfmarks, was about two.

Fetching of books is approximately one
-
tenth of
fetching of periodicals.


The mean dema
nd is, of course, grossly misleading. The graph of frequency of
fetching against rank
(not shown)
conforms roughly to the Zipf distribution mentioned
in 3 above


i.e. linear on a log
-
log scale. The upper, left
-
hand, end of the graph
curves lower than th
e idealised straight line. A possible explanation for this is that the
figures show items fetched, not items requested. Requests which could not be
satisfied because the item was already out are not included, and the more an item is
requested, the more l
ikely this is to happen.


The next table analyses
fetching by
class
.


Class

Books

Periodicals

Total

Rank

150

218

1731

1949

11

151

254

1904

2158

9

152

25

478

503

26

153

260

2133

2393

8

154

10

35

45

34

155

14

96

110

32

156

75

813

888

18

157

65

642

707

22

160

18

217

235

31

161

93

1077

1170

15

162

20

272

292

29

163


25

25

36

165

74

791

865

20

166

851

10799

11650

1

167

91

239

330

28

168

65

602

667

23

169

174

1336

1510

13

180


27

27

35

181

98

1338

1436

14

182

48

600

648

24

183

6

9

15

37

184

66

656

722

21

185

16

247

263

30

186

576

7629

8205

4

187

177

1915

2092

10

188

177

1444

1621

12

189

609

8157

8766

3

190

77

872

949

17

191

371

2777

3148

6

193

314

2850

3164

5

194

5

41

46

33

195

21

411

432

27

196

73

800

873

19

197

27

599

626

25

198

92

1026

1118

16

199

292

2841

3133

7

264

654

9583

10237

2


-

12

-


The greatest demand is for 166x (physiology and post
-
1982 psychology), 264x (pre
-
1982 psychology), 189x (biology and topographical zoology) and 186x (mechanics
and engineering). This is
true of both periodicals and books. These four broad
classes attract about one
-
fifth of satisfied requests.


To relate the fetching statistics to the photocopying statistics required some rather
crude calculations. The photocopying survey covered one
-
thir
d of a year, and
recorded about one
-
third of photocopying events. Multiplying by 9 would give usage
comparable to one year’s fetching figures; multiplying again by 5 ought to give an
indication of usage over 5 years.


I
n

attempting to combine the stack r
equest and photocopying statistics that have been
gathered, we need to be aware of three problems. One, photocopying is not
necessarily exactly the same as usage. Reference material, tables of constants, etc are
likely to be consulted, not copied. The m
ost general periodicals


New Scientist
, etc


are
likely to be browsed, not copied for future reference. Two, the photocopying
survey was conducted over a short period in comparison to the stack request statistics.
It may be flawed by seasonal variation
. Three, we know that not all photocopying
events were captured in the survey. There may be a systematic bias.

Nevertheless, since it is clear that the stack request figures reveal substantial numbers
of items which should be on the open shelves, and that

the photocopying survey
reveals large numbers of items which are on the open shelves and attracting little or
no demand, the attempt to combine the two series is worthwhile.

Taking everything into account, it is
estimated

that 1 photocopying event in the
period
of the survey is the equivalent of 45 requests over a 5
-
year period.

Expressed another
way, anything with 0 photocopying events ranks with items requested less than 45
times in a 5
-
year period.

For example,
Journal of physiology

was requested 985 t
imes (
from
three
stack
shelfmarks). This corresponds to 22 photocopies, equivalent to the open
-
shelf
periodical ranked 74 out of 4386.

This doesn’t seem wildly wrong.

Appendix 1 shows the 61
2

shelfmarks requested 45 times or more over 5 years.

These
612 shelfmarks were

analysed (by a 10% sample
for some purposes
).
They
belong to these ranges of shelfmarks:


Range

Number

P.A

0

P.B

60

P.C

21

P.D

32

P.E

28

P.F

1

Per. 15x

12
3

Per. 16x

1
32

Per. 18x

110

Per. 19x

92

Per. 26x

2

N.

2

books

8


-

13

-


The most striking conclusions are:



All in all, they attracted 63,603 requests over the five
-
year period


about a
quarter of all requests.



16% were associated with Life & Environmental Sciences; 20% with
Mathematical & Physical Sciences; and 64%
with

Medic
al Sciences.



44% were ‘split runs’: more recent issues were on the open shelves.



51% were also available in another library of the University.



Duplication


This leads on to the whole question of duplication in the University. We took two
different looks

at the extent of duplication between science libraries: one was an
overview provided by the libraries themselves; the other was an analysis of a sample
of titles from Journal Citation Reports.




About 2500 different journal titles were acquired on subscrip
tion by the science
libraries (including RSL) in 1981; the figure now is about 1750.



Departmental library subscriptions have fallen from about 1950 to about 1650
over the last 20 years, a fall of 15%. Most of this fall can be attributed to the
closure of
the Agriculture library and the merger of Botany and Forestry. Many
libraries have the same number of subscriptions now as they did in 1981.



In the same period, 1981
-
2001, RSL subscriptions have fallen by 40
-
50%.



In 1981, the level of duplication was abou
t 70% of the then total number of
departmental subscriptions; it is now about 55% of the present total. About 450
duplicate subscriptions have been cut, but just over half of these, again, can be
attributed to rationalisation of the plant science departme
nts and libraries.


Turning to
the

sample of 100 titles from the 5550 serials used as the source for
Science Citation Index:




Oxford libraries take 49%

of this core of 5550 journals
, of which legal deposit
contributes just over half (26% of the sample).



The RSL takes 42%; departments take 19%, but only add 4% in titles not held by
the RSL.



Looking at it another way: departments take 19%; RSL takes 42%, and adds 31%
in titles not held by departments.



2% of the core is provided by other libraries in the Bod
leian group.



Approximately 25% of the Oxford titles are duplicated.


What we cannot tell is how the presence of a duplicate af
fects the usage of our own
copy


or the reverse phenomenon.


-

14

-

7. The impact of electronic journals


8560 electronic journals are
now available on TD
-
NET. Of these, about 1700 are in
the areas of science, technology and medicine.


About 45% of journals showing usage in the photocopying survey are available
(mostly for recent years) in electronic format.


The John Rylands Universit
y Library of Manchester has ceased to provide open
-
shelf
access to journals for which there is a subscription for an electronic version.


If we do the same, the implications are:




Many journals cease to require growth space on the open shelves



The same num
ber of journals require growth space in the stack.



For readers from outside Oxford University, access to the electronic version
may be impossible; we would have to fetch the print version for these readers.



-

15

-

8
. The infrastructure


W
e have to make the bes
t of the infrastructure we have. This amounts to:


Lankester Room



fixed shelving with movable shelves, positioned to hold B size material;
standard lengths of 1 m


Jackson Wing



fixed shelving with some movable shelves (the 2nd shelf from the bottom is
key

to the structural integrity and is fixed; many shelves are not high enough
to take the material intended for them; there are at least 4 different lengths of
shelving



freestanding shelving of a variety of designs



demountable Remploy shelving


Worthington W
ing



fixed shelving with movable shelves; there are several different lengths of
shelving



freestanding shelving of a variety of designs


Entrance Hall



fixed shelving with movable shelves of different lengths



some of these shelves are much too high for safe
storage of books


Main Stack



Bruynzeel mobile shelving with mobile shelves of notional 1 m length, in two
different depths (
block

A
290 mm deep, blocks B
-
J

215 mm
deep)



Remploy demountable shelving



freestanding cases for a. size material



wooden mobile shel
ving reused from the pre
-
1975 stacks

(blocks K
-
Q 260
mm deep


Reserve Stack



Bruynzeel mobile shelving with movable shelves of notional 1 m length.


Cage



A mixture of wooden mobile shelving and new Remploy shelving.




-

16

-

Current distribution of space among su
bjects



Space allocation
53%
36%
9%
2%
Phys Sci
Life Sci
Gen / Hist
EH
Current allocation by division
13%
23%
53%
11%
Life & Env
Med
Math & Phys
Gen, Hist

-

17

-

9
. Dividing the cake


We investigated how space could be distributed formulaically, taking the University’s
RAM (Resource Allocation Model) as a basis.


In this context, departmental and divisional income is an irrelevance. The four
relevant
parameters are




Numbers of research
-
active staff (RAS)


by department and division



Numbers of postgraduate research students (PGR)


by department and
division



Numbers of postgraduate students undertaking taught courses (PGT)


by
course



Numbers of underg
raduates


by course


For the three divisions we primarily serve, the figures and proportions are as follows


Category

LES

MPS

MS

all 3 divisions

RAS

212.1 (19.8%)

446.4 (41.7%)

411.0 (38.4%)

1069.5

PGR

499

947

499

1945

subtotal

711.1

(23.6%)

1393.4

(46.2%)

910.0

(30.2%)

3014.5

PGT

60

75

17

152

subtotal


771.1

(24.3%)

1468.4

(46.4%)

927

(29.3%)

3166.5

UG

1071

2715

900

4686

total

1842.1

(23.4%)

4183.4

(53.3%)

1827.0

(23.3%)

7852.5


We make the assumption that the role of the RSL is to
support research and
postgraduate teaching in the sciences (i.e. for the Medical Sciences, Mathematical &
Physical Sciences, and Life & Environmental Sciences Divisions). It seems sensible
to relate the allocation of space to the numbers of people engaged

in these activities.
While at least two
-
thirds of our users are undergraduates, it is arguable that their
demand can be directly satisfied by the provision of items on reading lists. Their
main library provision is by the colleges and the Hooke Library.

For present
purposes, therefore, we should ignore undergraduates. That would give a 24 : 46 : 29
allocation of space between the three divisions.


That would be an oversimplification, however.


The RSL’s collections


especially the very strong 19
th
-
century coverage


support the
work of the Modern History Faculty in History of Science. This is a different type of
use from that of the other divisions.


As far as the Life and Environmental Sciences are concerned, the RSL supports,
historically, only
physical geography (geomorphology, for example), while other
aspects of geography are served by the Bodleian Map Room. Again, only biological
(originally physical) anthropology is supported, not social or cultural anthropology.




-

18

-

We must also consider oth
er provision available in the University. This is of two
types. First, there are other libraries within OULS which support research in science.
At present, Plant Sciences and the Cairns Library are the only ones, but Geography,
Physiology and Zoology ar
e in the process of joining. In default of any other plan, it
makes sense to regard these libraries as collaborators, not competitors, and take some
account of their contribution, space
-
wise, to the support of research.


In the case of the Cairns Library,

there is an additional factor: the current and future
geography of the Medical Sciences Division. At present, non
-

(or pre
-

) clinical
departments are based in the Science Area, and clinical departments are split between
the Radcliffe Infirmary (very clo
se to the Science Area), and the Headington sites (the
John Radcliffe and the Churchill and their environs). It is arguable that when, on the
one hand, the Infirmary closes in 2007, and when, on the other hand, the planned new
medical library opens at the

Churchill site in a new academic centre, the RSL will be
very badly placed to serve clinical medicine, and we ought to plan for a future in
which we do not do so.


On the other hand, there are libraries outside OULS. It makes sense to ignore these
comp
letely in our calculations. If divisions choose to fund these libraries in addition
to OULS, presumably they hope for an advantage from their policy. If they do not get
it, through duplication of provision, that is entirely their lookout, to put it blunt
ly.


Conclusions



Present division between Physical Sciences and Life Sciences is probably
not so far out as to make it worth changing



Division within Life Sciences between Medical Sciences Division and Life
&

Environmental Sciences Division needs more work, but we really need
to know what the libraries coming into OULS are
for



Plant Sciences role is clear. We should reduce coverage of Plant Sciences
to minimum



2007 will bring dramatic change in usage of Med.
material




-

19

-

10
. Intake



By quantity




Over the 10
-
year period 1990/91
-
1999/2000, we received 124,689 books and
554,902 periodical parts.

Intake varied significantly from year to year


By linear measure




Intake of books averaged 250 m per annum; in
take of

periodical parts averaged
342 m per annum; total intake 592 m per annum.


By size




Sizes A, B, E, and G are currently used
.



About 4000 reports etc in A4 format are received per annum. These go into size
B. Most journals are now in A4 format and are thus

B size.



Most academic monographs and similar books are size E. About 60
00
-
7000 are
received per annum.




About 600 items go into size G each year. These are almost entirely paperbacks.


Additional information on periodicals




Over the 10
-
year period
1990/1
-
1999/2000, 3896 new periodical titles were
received and 4334 were cancelled or ceased publication. A further 1478
periodicals changed their title (this could be viewed as an extra 1478 new titles
and an extra 1478 cessations). Changes of size amou
nted to 355.


Intake has been curtailed by (a) removing children’s literature from the scope of our
copyright intake and more recently by (b) arranging for most non
-
academic books on
computer hardware and software to be sent straight to BOD X shelfmarks.
These
were 25
-
30% of our intake.


Subject to this proviso, appropriate guide figures for intake and space requirements
might be:




12,500 books p.a @ 50 per m = 250 m



55,000 periodical parts p.a. @ 162 per m = <350 m



total linear measure = <600 m



400 new pe
riodical titles,
35 changes of size p.a. = <600 new periodical
shelfmarks p.a.



430 cessations, 35 changes of size p.a. = <500 closed periodical shelfmarks p.a.



-

20

-

1
1
. Costs

A typical tier of six one
-
metre shelves requires a 1.2m² footprint. Acquisition and
setup costs for shelving are £
22
per m. Typical rental cos
t
of space
is £22

per m² per
annum. Premises costs are £19 per m² per annum.

Writing the initial cost of the

shelving off over 10
-
15 years, we can say very roughly
that it costs about £10 per metre per year just to store stock.

You can also express a cost for volume of shelf
-
space


assuming a metre shelf has a
depth of 0.3 m and a height of 0.33 m, one shelf oc
cupies 0.1 m³
-

1 m³ costs £100 per
annum
.

Moving costs vary from £2 per m for a straightforward in
-
house move, to £3.50 per m
for a move from one building to another, to £7 per m for a two
-
way decanting and
return operation.

These costs are based on labo
ur at P06 and supervision at C3, as in
the Book Storage Team.

Record
-
changing for periodicals costs about 20 minutes @ C3. On average, one
periodical title occupies about 0.5 metres of shelving, so for periodicals the record
-
changing costs associated with

moving 1 metre of stock approach £6.

There may be
additional labelling costs on top of this.

Summary



Storage costs about £10 per metre per year



Moving costs £2
-
£7 per metre, depending on distance



Record
-
changing (periodicals) costs about £6 per metre


-

21

-

11
.
Where do we want to be?


Ideally, these are our requirements:



the printed stock in the ‘right place’ according to usage



logical and easy
-
to
-
follow arrangements within reading rooms and in the
library as a whole



use of electronic versions where possible



a fair allocation of space



minimal record
-
changing



more easily planned book moves



minimal unprofitable book moving


From the logistical point of view, we need to reduce the amount of unnecessary
moving. Movement is undesirable if it adds no value to the s
tock.


For example, moving an item to the open shelves because it is popular adds value to
the item. Moving an item to the stack because it is unpopular takes away negative
value. Its continued presence on the open shelves
has

an opportunity cost. Moving an
item simply because the system demands it adds no value at all.


The essential movements are:



Open
-
shelf to stack


lower

use material



Stack to open shelves


higher use

material



Stack to repository


nil or almost nil use

material


All other movements are inesse
ntial. How can they be avoided?
Minimise the
number of growth spaces
. In an
ideal

world, this is what we would have:



For live periodicals


only one growth space per entity



For all other material


only one growth

space per sequence



Disentangle live periodicals from all other material.


-

22

-

1
2
.
Action points


To create space on the open shelves



Select from the material shown as unused in the Photocopying Survey



Relegate issues of journals covered by electronic version
.



Dead material should go preferably, but not compulsorily, to Per.
s
helfmarks.
1269 dead titles had no usage in the photocopying survey.



Sensible to go in Nicholson class order to do this.



Live copyright material must go to P shelfmarks. There are 613 t
o be
considered.



Issues covered by electronic journal must go to P shelfmarks



We need to know how much to be sent down to stack, vs how much space
there is available



Until measurements are available, sensible decisions on overall arrangement
cannot be made



Work out record
-
changing and other costs


To get the Life Sciences shelves manageable for book moves



Set up all shelves to hold B size material (can be done as weeding progresses)


To get high dema
nd material to the open shelves



Work on the assumption
that almost everything from the top 612 stack
shelfmarks will be moved to the open shelves



Get more details on it: source, status, duplication,
linear measure

(likely to be
in range 300
-
600 m



Do not proliferate split runs (need twice as much growth space)



Temporary shelving can be used for decanting



Work out record
-
changing and other costs


Review unused
live
purchased journals

(510 titles)



Electronic version?



Another copy getting the use?



Part of a deal?

If so, probably the least sensible thing to do is r
elegate to the
stack and put up another obstacle against possible use.



No longer required?



And act accordingly


Work out how to change
4
°
shelfmarks

to something more sensible


Review Med. Res.


does it need to be bigger, smaller, abolished?


Review displ
ays of current periodical parts


are they worth the effort?


Review U. Ref. section


-

23

-

Appendix 1: stack shelfmarks requested 45
or more times in 5 years


Shelfmark

Requests

Title

Rank

Per. 186125 e. 48

172

[ASCE journals]

76

Per. 1512 c. 20

45

[Berliner] Klinischer Wochenschrift

607

Per. 163 d. 48

64

[British] Veterinary journal

415

P.C 24

84

Academic medicine

281

Per. 1658 d. 174

51

Acta anatomica

536

Per. 1933 d. 879

118

Acta chemica Scandinavica

154

Per. 16671 d. 104

52

Acta
endocrinologica

530

Per. 16046 d. 57

93

Acta neurochirurgica

242

Per. 1662 e. 100

250

Acta physiologica scandinavica

32

Per. 16666 d. 746

86

Acta psychologica

274

Per. 15035 d. 105

54

Acta tropica

504

Per. 1535 d. 986

198

Addictive behaviors

53

P.E 343

47

Advances in enzymology …

579

Per. 15125 d. 517

62

Advances in experimental medicine and biology

436

P.E 198

100

Advances in pharmacology

220

Per. 189966 d. 56

69

African journal of ecology [&c]

378

Per. 1692 d. 451

47

Agents and actions

578

Per. 19382 d. 180

116

Agricultural and biological chemistry

160

P.D 45

56

AIDS : education and prevention

493

P.D 39

111

AIDS care

175

Per. 1902 d. 119

349

American anthropologist

10

Per. 1524 d. 248

93

American heart journal

244

Per. 1658 d. 175

66

American journal of anatomy

398

Per. 19113 d. 210

143

American journal of botany

105

Per. 1524 d. 1007

130

American journal of cardiology

132

Per. 193522 d. 223

58

American journal of clinical nutrition [&c]

473

Per. 1618 d. 338

80

American journal of diseases of children [&c]

307

Per. 1672 d. 280

236

American journal of epidemiology

37

Per. 18919 d. 515

74

American journal of human genetics

347

Per. 1512 d. 1054

132

American journal of medicine

127

Per. 162 d. 215

142

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology

107

Per. 15424 d. 142

51

American journal of optometry and physiological optics

535

Per. 1535 d. 550

56

American journal of orthopsychiatry

491

Per. 15125 d. 398

62

American journal
of pathology

433

Per. 190 d. 124

72

American journal of physical anthropology

364

Per. 1662 d. 44

483

American journal of physiology

4

Per. 1662 d. 192

66

American journal of physiology

402

Per. 1535 d. 805

251

American journal of psychiatry

30

Per. 16666 d. 54

82

American journal of psychology

297

Per. 1672 d. 261

126

American journal of public health

141

Per. 15035 d. 75

265

American journal of tropical medicine

26

Per. 163 d. 252

80

American journal of veterinary research

304

Per. 19176 d. 56

238

American naturalist

36

Per. 15697 d. 220

189

American review of respiratory diseases [&c]

58

Per. 19352 d. 651

66

Analytical biochemistry

401

P.C 74

144

Analytical chemistry

104


-

24

-

Per. 1658 d. 176

111

Anatomical record

174

Per. 1603 d. 298

118

Anesthesiology

153

Per. 16686 d. 220

84

Animal learning & behavior

283

Per. 1996 e. 572

73

Annales de chimie [&c]

352

Per. 1996 e. 155

61

Annals and magazine of natural history [&c]

437

Per. 1891 d. 492

47

Annals of applied
biology

571

Per. 19113 d. 151

76

Annals of botany

325

Per. 1512 d. 902

75

Annals of clinical biochemistry

339

Per. 1891 d. 916

72

Annals of human biology

362

Per. 18919 d. 351

140

Annals of human genetics [&c]

112

Per. 1512 d. 1056

102

Annals of
internal medicine

213

Per. 1813 d. 527

88

Annals of mathematical statistics

265

Per. 1507 c. 1

64

Annals of medical history

414

Per. 1813 d. 672

52

Annals of statistics

532

Per. 160 d. 16

56

Annals of surgery

490

Per. 18949 d. 337

64

Annals of the Entomological Society of America

413

Per. 1512 d. 144

217

Annals of tropical medicine and parasitology

42

Per. 18949 d. 387

60

Annual review of entomology

452

Per. 1512 d. 1120

47

Annual review of medicine

580

Per. 189415 e. 226

53

Annual review of microbiology

523

P.E 732

104

Annual review of phytopathology

199

P.E 628

108

Annual review of plant physiology [&c]

189

P.E 445

79

Annual review of psychology

313

P.E 440

58

Annual reviews of genetics

476

Per. 1693 d. 719

52

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

526

Per. 189415 d. 383

134

Applied and environmental microbiology

117

Per. 1891 d. 907

186

Applied animal behavior science [&c]

63

Per. 1891 d. 909

45

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [&c]

602

Per. 1857 d. 215

103

Applied spectroscopy

204

Per. 191305 d. 117

59

Aquaculture

453

Per. 191305 d. 15

45

Archiv fur Hydrobiologie

600

Per. 19352 d. 552

130

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics [&c]

133

Soc. 1618 d 97

116

Archives of disease in
childhood

161

P.B 1132

297

Archives of general psychiatry

17

Per. 1512 d. 1033

75

Archives of internal medicine [&c]

341

Per. 1534 d. 410 *

52

Archives of neurology

531

Per. 1534 d. 410

72

Archives of neurology [&c]

367

P.B 1215

74

Arthritis and
rheumatism

346

Per. 1692 c. 8

129

Arzneimittel
-
Forschung

136

Per. 1842 d. 132

91

Astrophysical journal

252

Per. 1996 d. 881

46

Australian journal of biological sciences

589

Per. 16172 d. 4

79

Aviation space and environment medicine [&c]

309

P.E 437

210

Behavior therapy

46

P.B 2847

88

Behavioral and brain sciences

269

P.E 381

84

Behavioral and cognitive psychotherapy

285

Per. 1666609 d. 50

211

Behaviour

44

P.B 1403

519

Behaviour research and therapy

3

Per. 1699 e. 947

188

Behavioural psychotherapy

61

Per. 1933 d. 881

133

Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin

123

Per. 19352 d. 589

143

Biochemical and biophysical research

106

Per. 19352 d. 536

47

Biochemical journal

576

P.D 253

85

Biochemical
pharmacology

279


-

25

-

Per. 19352 d. 666

270

Biochimica et biophysica acta

25

Per. 1891 d. 275

55

Biological bulletin

500

Per. 1891 d. 905

78

Biological conservation

315

P.B 1406

73

Biological cybernetics

354

Per. 1535 d. 1513

46

Biological psychiatry

593

Per. 16666 d. 757

114

Biological psychology

168

Per. 1891 d. 794

83

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society

288

Per. 1891 d. 826

45

Biologist [&c]

612

P.C 178

67

Biomass & bioenergy

388

Per. 15115 d. 191

209

Biomaterials

47

Per. 1891 d. 801

188

Biometrics

60

Per. 1891 d. 420

158

Biometrika

90

P.B 1293

103

Bioorganic and medicinal chemistry

206

P.D 137

122

Bioorganic and medicinal chemistry letters

146

P.B 1585

51

Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition

534

P.D 266

120

Biophysical journal

151

Per. 193527 d. 279

106

Biopolymers

193

Per. 1891 d. 449

321

Bioscience

11

P.B 831

107

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry

190

Per. 18923 d. 97

54

Biotechnology letters

505

Per. 19381 d. 305

90

Biotechnology
progress

255

Per. 155 d. 245

94

Blood

241

Per. 1534 d. 399

124

Brain

143

Per. 16666 d. 867

112

Brain and language

172

P.D 230

249

Brain research

33

Per. 16686 d. 168

104

Brain, behavior and evolution

201

Soc. 1546 d 98

65

British dental
journal

406

Per. 1524 d. 393

109

British heart journal

184

Per. 1513 d. 11

57

British homoeopathic journal

477

P.B 1182

99

British journal of [social &] clinical psychology

223

Soc. 1557 d 22

126

British journal of addiction

140

Per. 1603 d. 60

89

British journal of anaesthesia

260

P.E 260

70

British journal of cancer

371

P.B 1576

77

British journal of clinical pharmacology

320

Per. 1544 d. 133

59

British journal of dermatology

456

Per. 1666677 d. 22

82

British journal of educational
psychology

293

Per. 26462 d. 86

53

British journal of educational psychology

519

P.D 224

60

British journal of industrial medicine

444

Per. 16666 d. 735

73

British journal of medical psychology

355

Per. 1619 d. 123

85

British journal of obstetrics
and gynaecology

276

Per. 1692 d. 717

137

British journal of pharmacology

115

P.B 1679

56

British journal of preventive & social medicine

492

Per. 1535 d. 126

357

British journal of psychiatry

9

Per. 16666 d. 734

53

British journal of psychology

521

Per. 16665 d. 63

117

British journal of sports medicine

156

P.B 2256

61

British medical bulletin

441

Per. 18962 d. 116

144

British poultry science

103

18612 c. 54

258

British Standards

27

Per. 193 d. 149

109

Bulletin de la Societe chimique de
France

183

Per. 18949 d. 115

66

Bulletin of entomological research

396

Per. 191305 d. 233

80

Bulletin of marine science

303

Per. 15178 d. 178

250

Bulletin of the W
-

H
-

O
-

31


-

26

-

Per. 18949 d. 209

57

Canadian entomologist

482

Per. 19113 d. 211

49

Canadian journal of botany

560

Per. 1991 d. 136

134

Canadian journal of chemistry

119

Per. 18955 d. 58

52

Canadian journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences

527

Per. 189415 d. 332

63

Canadian journal of microbiology

426

Per. 15058 d. 9

67

Canadian
journal of public health

391

Per. 18933 d. 673

58

Canadian journal of zoology

475

Per. 1609 d. 407

85

Cancer

275

P.C 108

102

Cancer causes & control

209

Per. 1609 d. 271

86

Cancer research

272

P.B 1173

61

Cardiovascular research

442

P.B 1098

54

Cellular immunology

507

P.D 28

110

Cellular signalling

180

Per. 193891 d. 64

70

Ceramics international

370

P.D 154

46

Chaos, solitons and fractals

596

Per. 193525 d. 239

51

Chemico
-
biological interactions

540

Per. 193527 d. 245

92

Chemistry and
physics of lipids

249

Per. 1933 d. 424

199

Chemosphere

52

Per. 1618 d. 418

75

Child care, health and development

333

Per. 1666657 d.
120

158

Child development

89

Per. 1512 d. 465

64

Chinese medical journal [&c]

417

Per. 16669 d. 115

114

Circulation

167

Per. 16669 d. 114

362

Circulation research

7

Per. 1512 d. 1213

67

Clinica chemica acta

389

Per. 15169 d. 402

46

Clinical and experimental immunology

594

Per. 1512 d. 1129

56

Clinical chemistry

495

Per. 1614 d. 368

81

Clinical
orthopaedics and related research

301

P.D 23

45

Clinical psychology forum

598

Per. 1512 d. 1092

62

Clinical science [&c]

434

Per. 1512 d. 540

64

CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal

419

Per. 18826 d. 281

98

Coastal management [&c]

224

M 91 D 410

48

Cognitive neuropsychology

569

P.E 138

46

Collection of Czechoslovak chemical communications

592

Per. 1810 d. 144

50

Communications in algebra

549

Per. 1813 d. 900

62

Communications in statistics. Theory and methods

431

Per. 1668 d. 73

72

Comparative biochemistry and physiology

368

Per. 1535 d. 681

64

Comprehensive psychiatry

420

Per. 1877 d. 1287

63

Computer applications in the biosciences

427

Per. 18613 d. 509

105

Computer methods in applied mechanics and
engineering

195

Per. 1877 d. 273

84

Computer physics communications

284

Per. 1938 d. 432

67

Computers & chemical engineering

385

Per. 1877 d. 204

88

Computers and structures

263

Per. 18958 d. 54

181

Copeia

68

P.E 438

57

Cortex

484

P.D 295

81

Cryobiology

298

Per. 1944 c. 2

74

Cryogenics

343

P.C 243

113

Current directions in psychological science

171

Per. 18642 d. 159

50

Desalination

547

Per. 1512 c. 14

58

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift

469

Per. 189126 d. 28

117

Developmental
biology

158

P.E 292

57

Developmental medicine and child neurology

485


-

27

-

Per. 16686 d. 191

80

Developmental psychobiology

305

P.B 1325

85

Developmental psychology

280

P.C 220

123

Diabetes

144

P.B 1184

100

Diabetologia

219

Per. 15766 d. 141

115

Drug and alcohol dependence

163

P.B 2294

59

Drug metabolism and disposition

458

Per. 18626 d. 116

63

Earthquake engineering & structural dynamics

422

Per. 15051 d. 11

56

East African medical journal

489

P.B 1985

75

Ecological applications

338

Per. 1892 d. 87

181

Ecology

70

Per. 15084 e. 82

90

Edinburgh medical journal [this is 1855
-
1925 run]

254

Per. 1666657 d. 86

60

Educational and child psychology

449

Per. 1666677 d. 20

82

Educational psychology

296

Per. 19365 d. 22

46

Electroanalytical chemistry

583

Per. 1534 d. 845

101

Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology

215

Per. 193992 d. 269

82

Electrophoresis

294

Per. 15266 d. 180

127

Endocrinology

137

Per. 1861 c. 1

53

Engineering

512

P.B 340

45

Engineering analysis with boundary elements

601

Per. 19383 d. 554

193

Engineering fracture mechanics

55

Per. 18949 d. 288

97

Entomologist

228

Per. 18949 d. 112

56

Entomologist's monthly magazine

488

Per. 1666691 e.
133

100

Environment and behavior

218

Per. 189499 d. 106

73

Environmental entomology

353

Per. 1677 d. 32

64

Environmental health perspectives

418

Per. 1677 d. 1 a

130

Environmental pollution. Series A

135

Per. 19981 d. 112

80

Environmental technology

306

Per. 156 d. 195

83

Epidemiologic reviews

289

Per. 1666651 d. 12

242

Ethology [&c}

34

Per. 18919 d. 350

74

Eugenics review

342

P.B 1151

98

European heart journal

227

P.C 270

134

European journal of biochemistry

118

P.B 1209

47

European journal of cancer [& clinical
oncology]

572

P.C 287

102

European journal of clinical investigation

212

P.B 1480

73

European journal of endocrinology

357

P.D 236

108

European journal of pharmacology

188

Per. 16666 d. 635

295

European journal of social psychology

18

Per. 193887 d. 304

71

European polymer journal

369

Per. 18911 d. 251

221

Evolution

41

P.E 327

53

Experimental brain research

522

Per. 189193 d. 141

54

Experimental cell research

508

Per. 1542 d. 459

52

Experimental eye research

524

Per. 1860 d. 738

46

Experimental mechanics

582

P.E 305

87

Experimental neurology

271

Per. 1574 d. 261

46

Experimental parasitology

586

Per. 1933 d. 735

85

Experimental toxicology and chemistry

277

P.B 1533

131

FEBS letters

129

Per. 1666 d. 499

74

Federation proceedings

349

Per. 1964 d. 186

141

Ferroelectrics

109

Per. 16672 d. 245

52

Fertility and sterility

525

Per. 19381 d. 163

76

Food chemistry

323


-

28

-

Per. 1517 d. 161

67

Forensic science international

390

97 e. 4905

45

Frontiers of
cognitive therapy

608

Per. 1529 d. 215

52

Gastroenterology

528

Per. 1891 d. 901

92

Genes & development

250

Per. 18919 d. 346

239

Genetics

35

Per. 157 d. 127

110

Genitourinary medicine [&c]

176

Per. 18811 d. 144

57

Geographical journal

479

Per. 18811 e. 224

46

Geological magazine

584

Per. 15777 d. 33

168

Gerontologist, The

79

P.C 156

105

Glycoconjugate journal

198

Per. 1514 d. 60

63

Hastings Center report

424

Per. 1519 d. 175

50

Health Service journal [&c]

555

Per. 15178 d. 241

114

Health visitor

165

Per. 18919 d. 348

65

Hereditas

410

Per. 18919 d. 545

57

Heredity

480

Per. 18958 d. 55

67

Herpetologica

386

Soc. 1991 d 89

72

Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences [&c] [1686
-
1790]

358

Per. 18681 d. 10

60

Horological
journal

443

Per. 1666 d. 433

309

Human biology

14

Per. 1891 d. 920

114

Human ecology

169

Per. 1512 d. 1339

51

Human heredity [&c]

539

Per. 190 d. 165

58

Human organization

472

Per. 1865 d. 81

61

Hydrological sciences journal [&c]

440

Per. 1966 d. 476

60

IEEE communications magazine [&c]

446

Per. 19668 d. 983

53

IEEE electron device letters

514

Per. 1877 d. 992

52

Image and vision computing

529

Per. 15125 d. 9

50

Immunobiology [&c]

556

Per. 189193 d. 54

55

In vitro [&c]

499

Per. 15084 d. 212

98

Indian journal of medical research

225

Per. 1938 c. 23

45

Industrial and engineering chemistry [&c]

604

P.D 204

229

Infection and immunity

40

Per. 18601 d. 389

59

International journal for numerical methods in fluids

457

Per. 1512 d. 770

93

International journal of clinical practice [&c]

245

P.C 232

95

International journal of comparative pathology

238

P.E 581

123

International journal of epidemiology

145

P.C 223

61

International journal of gynaecology & obstetrics

438

P.D 203

72

International journal of health services

363

Per. 1555 d. 63

69

International journal of leprosy and other …

376

Per. 1512 d. 1016

50

International journal of medical informatics [&c]

552

Per. 18601 d. 285

60

International journal of

multiphase flow

445

Per. 15447 d. 55

182

International journal of obesity

65

Per. 1699 d. 218

257

International journal of psycho
-
analysis

28

Per. 1666609 d.
114

73

International journal of psychology

356

Per. 15165 d. 287

51

International journal

of systematic bacteriology

541

Per. 15766 e. 88

55

International journal of the addictions

497

P.E 261

59

International review of cytology

465

P.D 229

64

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science

416

Per. 1512 d. 563

74

Irish journal of medical

science

345

Per. 1666609 d. 60

57

Irish journal of psychology <
-

Per. 2645 d. 813

487

Per. 1512 d. 760

53

Irish medical journal [&c]

511

Per. 193832 d. 37

75

ISIJ international [&c]

328


-

29

-

Per. 15115 d. 48

51

Israel journal of medical sciences

544

Per. 16569 d. 18

67

Japanese circulation journal

392

Per. 1666 d. 496

46

Japanese journal of physiology

597

Per. 1618 d. 389

133

Journal of abnormal child psychology

124

Per. 16666 d. 737

171

Journal of abnormal psychology [&c]

77

P.E 79

47

Journal of adolescent research

574

Per. 15192 d. 448

163

Journal of advanced nursing

86

P.C 10

60

Journal of affective disorders

451

Per. 19382 d. 142

103

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

205

Per. 18124 e. 305

53

Journal of algorithms

516

Per. 1652 d. 6

97

Journal of anatomy

230

Per. 1892 d. 88

89

Journal of animal ecology

258

Per. 18978 d. 72

78

Journal of animal science

316

Per. 189415 d. 104

109

Journal of applied microbiology

182

Per. 1666 d. 506

421

Journal of applied
physiology

5

Per. 16666 d. 550

52

Journal of applied psychology

533

Per. 16666 d. 634

139

Journal of applied social psychology

114

Per. 15165 d. 250

164

Journal of bacteriology

83

Per. 19352 d. 457

131

Journal of biochemistry

130

Per. 1892 d. 122

156

Journal of biogeography

91

Per. 19352 d. 175

358

Journal of biological chemistry

8

P.B 995

106

Journal of biomedical materials research

192

P.D 72

108

Journal of biosocial science

186

Soc. 1614 d 56

63

Journal of bone and joint surgery

423

P.B 2297

75

Journal of carbohydrate chemistry

330

Per. 193525 d. 476

130

Journal of cell biology [&c]

134

Per. 1933 d. 427

62

Journal of chemical documentation [&c]

429

Per. 19382 d. 339

70

Journal of chemical ecology

372

P.E 444

93

Journal of
child psychology and psychiatry …

246

P.B 1139

50

Journal of clinical endocrinology [and metabolism]

553

Per. 1512 d. 1125

150

Journal of clinical epidemiology [&c]

97

Per. 1512 d. 1130

142

Journal of clinical investigation

108

Per. 1692 d. 478

189

Journal of clinical pharmacology [&c]

59

P.B 1137

53

Journal of clinical psychiatry

520

P.B 1457

106

Journal of coastal research

191

P.D 169

45

Journal of community & applied social psychology

606

Per. 16586 d. 82

141

Journal of comparative
neurology

110

Per. 163 d. 8

95

Journal of comparative pathology

237

Per. 16686 d. 217

209

Journal of comparative psychology

48

P.D 251

121

Journal of computer aided molecular design

147

Per. 1535 d. 1633

181

Journal of consulting and clinical
psychology [&c]

69

Per. 1699 d. 134

133

Journal of counseling psychology

121

Per. 1666691 e.
136

78

Journal of cross
-
cultural psychology

317

Per. 1892 d. 86

154

Journal of ecology

92

Per. 18949 d. 289

145

Journal of economic entomology

102

Per. 1677 d. 43

72

Journal of environmental management

365

Per. 1677 d. 19

79

Journal of environmental quality

311

Per. 18923 d. 101

119

Journal of experimental biology

152

Per. 191305 d. 232

74

Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology

344

Per. 15125 d. 255

211

Journal of experimental medicine

45

Per. 16666 d. 462

176

Journal of experimental psychology

72


-

30

-

Per. 18933 d. 358

163

Journal of experimental zoology