Educational Technologies WS2006

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

124 εμφανίσεις

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Dr. habil Erica Melis

ActiveMath
-

Group

Deutsches Forschungszentrum

für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI)

Educational Technologies WS2006

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

About the Field and the Course


Intelligent assistent systems for learning


components of ITSs


AI
-
techniques and related ones


Practical applications


Interdisciplinary and empirically validated



Learn actively!!!


Test described software on Web if available


Make suggestions yourself


Hands
-
on experience and authoring in projects

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Scheme of the Course


http://www.activemath.org/teaching/edtechsws06
07


register with Matrikelnummer



Projects


Start as soon as possible



Author interactive script in ActiveMath


Inform
george@activemath.org

about groups til end of
week


Not everything on the slides…

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Approximate Plan of the Course

18.10.

Introduction and overview

25.10.

Introduction to ActiveMath


XML
-

Knowledge Representation


8.11. Student Modelling

15.11. Web technologies and security

22.11. Tutorial Planning and instructional design

29.11. Media Principles


6.12. Interactive exercises

13.12. Authoring tools, CTAT

20.12. Diagnosis: model tracing and domain reasoning



10.1. Diagnosis: constraint based

17.1. Tutorial dialogues

24.1. Action analysis and ML techniques

31.1. Cognitive tools


7.2. Meta
-
cognitive support

14.2. student projects

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Why Technology
-
Enhanced Learning ?


Independent of time & place


Individu
al tutoring


better learning (
modalities
visualization..)


(Semi)
-
a
utomati
c assessment


Information for teachers


cost effective



Knowledge resources from
the Web

o
Distance learning

o
Virtu
al

Universit
ies

o
Training on the job

o
Milit
a
r
y t
raining

o
Training for disabled




Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Admission Proportion for High Education

19% 4,200,000

81% 17,905,000


Not Admitted

Admitted

Data1

From “Statistics Bulletin on Economic


and Social Development in P.R.China 2004 ”

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Data 2


From CNNIC (China Network Information Center)

“Statistic Report on the Development Status of Network in China ”

The only purpose of 8.4% (7.89 million) users going online is for education

21.3% users prefer more educational information, 20 million broadband users

Million Person

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
2000
2002
2004
January
July
26.5M

45.8M

16.9M

69M

Increment Rate 18.9%

199M in America

From ComScore

94M

79M

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

History: First Generation of Tutors, CAI


IF
the

correct response THEN present new element ELSE goto



Computer
-
Aided Instruction (CAI) or CAL


store and retrieve data, exercise bank with answers


pre
-
defined branches of problem solving


no ‚understanding‘ of problems,
few

anticipated wrong answers


Independent of student‘s understanding, preferenes, behaviour


linear (not individualized) progression of instruction


no diagnosis of errors


1960ies
: Programmed instruction 1970ies: CAI.. PLATO, SHIVA

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

History: Second Generation of Tutors, ITS



Internal domain representation
knowledge base


Problem solver,
inference engine

(XPS)

-
> cause of errors

-
> more appr. response


Exercise bank



Limited dialogue and QA


Student modeling


Domain Expert Module


Model learners‘ errors


Tutoring module

(intervention
modalities)


Ped+cognitive theories developed


more autonomous student



Lab
-

and realistic evaluations



bandwidth of user interface,


more variety of responses


more interaction



1970ies…
Scholar
[Carbonell,Brown]

1990ies…PACT
[And敲son]

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

CAI…ITS
1
Architectures

Exercise

bank

Exercise

bank

Knowledge

Base

Expert system

User interface

selector

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

History: Third
-
Generation Learning Systems


More student modeling:

emotional, motivational, affective, situational

learning from massive log data


Natural language tutorial dialogues


Explorative, interactive, inquiry learning


Collaborative learning


Support of meta
-
cognition


Web
-
based systems


Multimedia and (adaptive) hypermedia based on pedagogy


Semantic knowledge representation (semantic web)



Retention tests, social skills, performance/learning


AHA, Tectonica, ActiveMath, ELM
-
ART, Edutella, Wayang Outpost,
iHelp, Algebra Cognitive Tutor, BEETLE, Help Tutor

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

A Generic ITS Architecture

Feedback

Generator

Action

Interpreter

Interaction

History

Solution

Evaluator

Solution

Graph

Curriculum

Problem

Solver

Domain

KR

Student Model

Graphical user

interface

Intelligent

Tutorial Component

Student

Problem

Selector

Curriculum

Planner

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Andes Architecture

Workbench

Help System

Action

Interpreter

Procedural


help

Conceptual

help

Example

study help

Assessor (BN)

Solution

Graph

Problem

Definition

Problem

Presentation

Physics

Problem

Solver

Physics

Rules

Authoring Environment

Student Environment

tutoring strategy

Student Model

Graphical author

interface

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

ActiveMath MVC Architecture

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Some Intelligent Systems


Cognitive Tutors (Koedinger et al)


ELM
-
ART (Weber et al)


Andes, Atlas
-
Andes (vanLehn et al)


Cabri
-
Geometre (Balacheff et al)


Wayang Outpost (Wolff,Arroyo,Murray)


ActiveMath:
www.activemath.org

(Melis et al)


Belvedere (Suthers)


I
-
Help (Greer et al)


Tectonica, AHA (Murray et al, deBra+Aroyo)


AutoTutor, BEETLE (Graesser et al, Moore et al)


Help
-
Tutor (Aleven, Koedinger)

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Interdisciplinary Field

A
I

Cognitive*

P
sychology

Pedagogy

Web
-
T
echnolog
y

Multimedia

CoLi
nguistics

Content

TEL

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Contributions of AI



Knowledge representation


User modelling


Intelligent

user interfaces


Pr
e
sentation

plann
in
g
,
intelligent sequencing


Diagnos
is


Data mining, Machine Learning


Problem

solving systems/automated reasoning


Agent
-
bas
ed (help) systems



Adaptive hypermedia


Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

AI: User modeling


Bayes
ian nets

Probability distribution

events
,
causes
,

evidences

conditional dependences

d
iagnosti
c/causal update

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

AI: Knowledge Representation


Frames in Cognitive Tutors


(make
-
wme composed
-
cen
-
insc


isa problem


key
-
quantities (angle
-
KHP
-
measure arc
-
KP
-
measure angle
-
KQP
-
measure)


key
-
reasons (angle
-
KHP
-
measure ...)


questions (question1)


given
-
relational
-
quantities (central
-
angle
-
KHP inscribed
-
angle
-
KQP)


table composed
-
cen
-
insc
-
table

)

Quantity WME ...

Relation WME...

angle
-
KHP
-
measure...unit..dimension..labels..

inscribed
-
angle...

inputs (arc
-
KP
-
measure)

output angle
-
KQP
-
measure

Problem WME:

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

AI: Knowledge Representation


Semantic networks


DAML/OIL/OWL
decision logics

for
XML
-
Repr
e
sentation


M
eta

dat
a

(publ, mathematical, pedagogical)

Ontolog
y

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis


Web
-
Languages and Technologies


IEEE LTSC, LOM


IMS Global Learning

Consortium


Apple


Cisco


IBM


Microsoft


Sun


WebCT


Universities


….


Open e
-
Book




Meta data


Interoperability of services


Interoperabilty of content
(ontologies)


Architectures


Presentation of content


Wiki


Security


Standardization!!!

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Contributions from Pedagogy


Goals


Content sequence


Strategies, Methods


Media, tools


Competencies



Didactic


Socratic


Inquiry


Discovery


LearnNew


Rehearse


Collaborate


user modeling


(competencies)

Handling errors

Frequent mistakes

Feedback

Multiple solutions


difficulty

Szenarien, Feedback

exercises

MultiMedia

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Bloom
: taxonomy of educational objectives

Knowledge
recall
information...
describe,
identify,
name,
who,
when,
where
Comprehension
grasp
meaning,understand
info
summarize,
contrast,associate,
explain
Application
Use
information..in
new
situations
apply,
calculate,
complete,
prove,
modify
Analysis
see
patterns,identify
components
analyze,
order,
infer,
select
Synthesis
generalize,
predict,
create
new
ideas
combine, plan,
invent,
generalize
Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

PISA Competencies


Compute


Apply


Model


Argue


Solve problem


Collaborate


Use tools


Meta
-
cognition…


Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Contributions Cognitive Psychology


Behaviourisms vs. constructivisms
[Piaget, Vygotski
]


Feedback


motivation: personalized, self
-
guided, social, active
[Decy&Ryan...]



zone of proximal development

[Vygotsky]


gender
-
specific


meta
-
cognition
[White…]


adaptive support
[Mandl...]


multi
-
modality


structured presentation of solutions
[Catrambone]

Effective design vs on
-
line book with animations

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Cognitive Psychology: Multimedia Learning


Multimedia Principle


Integration Principle


Modality Principle


Redundancy P.


Coherence Principle


Personalization P.


Learner control


Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Cognitive Psychology: some results


Self
-
explanation of worked
-
out examples
[Renkl,Chi,Merrinboer,Siegler]


Why does tutorial dialog help?
[Chi etal 2001]


even if human tutors don‘t know tutoring


no
-
content prompts


ask, don‘t tell ?


students own communication?


Learning from errors/impasses only (?)


Conceptual change
(Vosniadou)


Influence of motivation, self
-
efficiacy
[Bandura]


Evaluation of systems

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Conclusion


Pursue learning


Learn actively and believe in yourself


Ask questions if you don‘t understand


Discover the world of research

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Student Projects

1.Visualization of the pedagogical knowledge domain

Analyze and visualize the structure of pedagogical tasks

2. SLOPERT exercise generator

Explore the problem space and create a ActiveMath exercises.

3. Learner Model for iCMap

Catch and analyze events generated by iCMap

4. Domain Viewer:

Render an ActiveMath domain (concepts, relations)

5. Exercise generation with extended randomizer

to support intervals and (adaptive) randomizing over a set of
elementary functions and their compositions

Educational Technologies

Source: Erica Melis

Student Projects

6. Mathematical Rendering Tester:

Support authors by rendering mathematical formulae on
the fly

7. Analyzing Online Collaborative Data

Generate Machine Learning classifiers from log data

8. E
-
Portfolio Viewer

Implement an interactive viewer for the IMS eP Spec