Computers, the Internet, and New Media

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Computers, the Internet, and New Media


for Learning


Adviser : Ming
-
Puu Chen


Presenter : Li
-
Chun Wang


Goldman
-
Segall, R., & Maxwell, J.W. (2003). Computers, the Internet, and new
media for learning. In W. M. Reynolds & G. E. Miller (Eds.),
Handbook of
Psychology, vol. 7: Educational Psychology

(pp. 393
-
427). New York: JohnWiley
& Sons.

2

Outlines


Introduction


Context and intellectual history


The role of technology in learning


Exemplary learning systems


Challenging paradigms and learning theories


Conclusions

3

Introduction


Apply points of viewing theory to interpret and make
meaning of a variety of theories of learning and technology.


The goal is to
envision the directions

in which the field is
going.


Combining a vast array of perspectives are needed to shape
an educationally sound
approach to learning and teaching
with new media technology
. (called: perspectivity
technologies)

4

Context and intellectual history


Debate: Science could be used not only to
observe the external world

with microscopes and telescopes but also to
change, condition, and
control behavior
.


Pavlov: conditioning theory


Watson: conditioned to learn


Skinner:


Positive/negative reinforcement (S)


shape how human respond


Educators shape, reinforce, and manipulate humans through repeated drills.


1960
-
1980:


S : the computer (applied as enhancement or supplement)




R : improved learning process


-

The approach: using technology in the learning setting is rooted in one’s


concept of the mind
.

5

Context and intellectual history


Piaget:


child meet new experience


(assimilate/accommodate) disequilibrium to
equilibrium.



spontaneous, individual, cognitive process


Technology
-
rich learning habitat : (learning = acculturation)


The acceptance of
diverse points of viewing
, that occurs simultaneously with
both the
assimilation and accommodation processes
.


Learning becomes an
evolving social event



Vygotsky:


The development of concept formation is affected by varying
external and
internal

conditions.


Socially or culturally situated perspectives: Role of social context and mediated
tools


Dewey:


Computational environments for learning based on a soically mediated
conceptualization of how people learning

6

Context and intellectual history


Instructional technology: beginnings of computer
-
aided instruction


Behaviorist : the computer could reinforce activities that would bring about
more efficient learning.


PLATO

(Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations)


Computer
-
based manipulables, student
-
to
-
student conferencing,
and computer
-
based distance education.


Tutorial instruction


Drill
-
and
-
practice
:
computer administers a
question
and

answer

session
with the student,
judging

response correct or incorrect and
keeping track of

data.


Direct instructional approach
: computer give information, quiz the
student on the information, allowing for different constructions or
expression of the same information.


Emulate tutor
-
tutee relationship
:
more sophisticated dialogic systems


Cognitive science and research on artificial intelligence


From internal representation to situated action.

7

The role of technology in learning

1.
Technology as
information source


Hoping that
problems of education could be solved

by providing
each student with access to the most current knowledge.


E.g., computer as textbooks, multimedia resources, and computer
-
based curriculums resources

2. Technology as
curriculum area



Learning about computers

is a curriculum area in itself, and it has a
major impact on how computers and technology are viewed in
educational settings. (computer science: learning about computer,
Information technology: learning with computer)


Computer literacy

8

The role of technology in learning

3. Technology as
communication media


The notion of computer as communication medium


CSCW (Computer
-
supported collaborative work)


Combination of hardware and software that facilitated
the first
networked collaborative

computing, setting the stage for workgroup
computing, document management system, e
-
mail


CMC (computer
-
mediated communication)


Teaching and learning with network technologies, and applying their
insights to
practical problems

of teaching and learning
online
.


VC (virtual classroom)


Emphasizes the importance of assignments using group collaboration
to improve
motivation
.


PLATO (peer to peer conference, online educational communities)


Distance education


Open learning


CSCL

9

The role of technology in learning

4. Technology as
thinking tool

The notion of computer as mindtool from the constructionist perspective
-

a vehicle for interacting with our intelligence


Logo program


Creating procedures and programs, structures within structures,
constructed, deconstructed, and reconstructed into larger wholes.


Make the abstract concrete


Constructionism


Learners build as creative expression of their understanding.


Focused on the stages of thought production.


LOGO/LEGO creatures : distributed constructionism


10

The role of technology in learning

5. Technology as
environment


Constructivist learning theories


Knowledge of the world is to be constructed through experience


The role of education is to guide the learner through
experiences that provide opportunities to construct knowledge


In Piaget vision: the process if structured by the sequence of
developmental stages.


In Vygotsky’s version: the process is mediated by the tools and
contexts of the child’s sociocultural environment.


Perspectivity technologies become expressive tools that allow
learners to manipulate objects
-
to
-
think
-
with as subjects
-
to
-
think
-
with.


Technology is part of the environment itself.

11

The role of technology in learning

6. Technology as
partner

Computing technology as communications medium is the notion of
computer as partners.


Computer as a partner in cognition: admit it into the culture milieu,
to foreground the idea that machine in some way has agency or at
least influence in our thinking.


Interactivity


A partnership of intimacy and immediacy

12

The role of technology in learning

7. Technology as
scaffold


Vygotsky’s ZPD


The distance between the actual developmental level as
determined by independent problem solving and the level of
potential development as determined through adult guidance or
in collaboration with more capable peers.


The scaffold metaphor:
the role of the teacher
, embodying the
characteristics of
providing support
,
providing a supportive tool
,
extending the learner’s range, allowing the learner to
accomplish
task.


13

The role of technology in learning

8. Technology as
perspectivity toolkit


New media technologies for learning is to define: as lenses to
explore both
self and world through layering viewpoints

and looking for underlying
patterns that lead to agreement, disagreement, and understanding.


Perspectivity technologies


Provide a platform for
sharing values

and
building cultures

or
communities of practice
.


Enhance, motivate
, and provide new opportunities for learning.


Address how the
personal point of view connects with evolving
discourse communities
.


Enable
knowledge
-
based cultures

to grow


Creating both real and virtual
communities

within the learning
environment to share information


To alert the
self
-
other relationship
, and to open the door to a deeper,
richer partnership with our technologies

and one another.

14

Exemplary learning systems


Logo


Squeak


Boxer


HyperCard


Constellations/ORION


Adventures of Jasper
Woodbury


Kidpix


CSILE


StarLogo


MOOSE Crossing


SimCalc


Participatory Simulations


CoVis


Network Science


Virtual
-
U


Tapped In


CoWeb


MaMaMedia


WebGuide


Affective Computing and
Wearables


WebCT

15

Challenging paradigms and learning
theories


Cognition: models of mind or creating culture?


From the cognitive revolution to cultural psychology


Bruner: Shifting from
meaning to information
, from
construction
of meaning to the processing of information
.


the role of culture

in understanding the mind


The evolution of educational technology:
cognition approach to
the communication of knowledge, and communities of practice


Cognitive effects, transfer, and the culture of technology


Paradigms of technology in education: CAI, ITS, AI, CSCL


Effect of

a technology:


Situated learning, distribution cognition


changed the framework
of cognitive science for a more “
situated perspective


16

Challenging paradigms and learning theories


Learning, thinking, attitudes, and distributed cognition


The nature of technology
-
based learning systems depends on one’s
conceptualization
of
how learning occurs
.


Epistemological pluralism


Constructionist practice, negotiate approach


Multiple perspectives and thinking attitudes


Learners observing and engaging with the cultural environments in
which they participate.


Learning moved form learning models, to
open
-
ended constructionism,
to problem
-
based learning environment and rich media cases of teaching
practice
.


Thinking attitudes imply
positionality and orientation


Distributed cognition and situated learning


Situated perspective: conceptual knowledge can be abstracted from the
situations in which it is situated and learned.


Knowledge as distributed or stretched across a community of practice.

17

Conclusions


Perspectivity technologies represent the nest phase of
thinking with our technologies partners.


Perspectivity technologies
not only a technology

that enables
us to

see each other’s viewpoints

better and
make decision

based on multiple points of viewing.