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An Introduction


to


Linguistics




语言学概论





by Hu Yining



About the course



Linguistics

is

a

university

course

for

English

majors

in

their

3
rd

or

4
th

year

and

it

involves

many

fields

of

research

(e
.
g
.

psychology,

sociology,

philosophy),

so

it’s

not

surprising

if

you

find

it

difficult

at

the

beginning
.



It’s

a

must

for

language

students

to

learn

something

about

linguistics

and

very

important

for

those

who

want

to

do

further

study

after

graduation
.



The

course

will

be

given

mainly

in

English,

but

in

Chinese

when

necessary
.


A few requests:



Attend

the

course

regularly

since

it’s

a

compulsory

course

.



Not

an

optional

one
.

No

absence

from

class

without

reasonable

reasons
.


Take

notes,

remember

the

terminal

words

and

facts,

and

do

the

revision
.


Continuous

assessment

will

be

given

for

the

course,

so

fulfill

all

the

assignments

satisfactorily

including

the

“Further

Reading”

part

at

the

back

of

the

textbook

(P
.
275
-
298
)
.



A list of reference books:



1
.

语言学教程


(
英语版
),

胡壮麟
,

北京大学出版社


2
.

语言学概论


王德春


上海外语教育出版社


3
.

现代英语语言学概论

英语版

戴炜栋
,

上海外语教育
出版社


4
.

现代语言学

何兆熊

梅德明

外语教学与研究出版社

5
.

简明英语语言学教程


英语版

戴炜栋等


上海外
语教育出版社

6
.

语言学和语言的应用


王宗炎

上海外语教育出版社

7
.

语言学


H
.
G
.
Widdowson


上海外语教育出版社

8
.

语言学入门


英语版


Stuart

C
.

Poole

外语教学与

研究出版社



Chapter 1


Language and Linguistics



The Nature of Language

(P.1~P.13)


What

is

language?


As

human

beings,

we

can

feel

the

existence

of

language

everywhere
.

However,

very

few

of

us

know

the

true

nature

of

language
.

There

is

remarkable

uncertainty

as

how

language

really

functions

in

human

communication
.

Great

efforts

have

been

made

to

define

the

nature

of

language

from

different

points

of

view

(See

the

4

ones

on

P
.
1
)
.




Some additional ones:





Language

is

the

most

frequently

used

and

most

highly

developed

form

of

human

communication

we

possess
.



──

David

Crystal



语言是音义结合的词汇和语法的体系

是人
类最重要的工具

是人类思维的工具

也是
社会上传递信息的工具



──

王德春



Unfortunately,

a

perfect

and

satisfactory

definition

has

yet

to

come
.



Despite

the

differences

in

their

views,

many

linguists

have

agreed

to

accept

the

view

that

“Language

is,

in

essence,

a

system

of

symbols

designed

for

the

purpose

of

human

communication
.




就其本质而言

语言是人类以交际为目的而设计
的一套符号系统

.


They

have

come

to

a

general

agreement

about

the

following

important

features

that

are

typical

of

the

nature

of

human

languages
.



The

defining

properties

of

human

language

(
语言的
特性
)


Design

features

识别特征

:

The

possession

of

language

most

clearly

distinguishes

man

from

other

animals
.



Human

language

has

five

features
:


1
.

Creativity

创造性


We

all

have

the

ability

to



construct

and

understand

an

indefinitely

large

number

of

sentences

in

our

native

languages
.


在母语所规定的限制范围内

人可以在构词

造句


解句子方面有着无限的创造力






2
.

Arbitrariness

任意性

──

Except

the


very

few

onomatopoeic

words

(e
.
g
.


cuckoo,

mew,

bang,

ding
-
dong,

ping
-
pang),


there

is

no

necessary

relationship



between

the

sign/sound

and

what

the


sign/sound

means

(e
.
g
.

a

dog,

un

chien
,




)

除了极少数拟声词之外

语言中大部

分的词与其所表示的意思之间都没有内在



必然的联系

完全是一种任意的选定
.
)


3
.

Duality

of

structure

(or

double

articulation)

结构
的双重性

:



This

property

is

usually

claimed

to

be

unique

to

humans
.

Each

human

language

is

organized

into

two

basic

systems
:

a

system

of

sounds

and

a

system

of

meanings




Higher

level



Language

is

a

combination

of

meaningful

units

(such

as

morphemes,

words)
.



Lower

level

──

Language

is

a

sequence

of

segments

which

lack

any

meaning

in

themselves,

but

which

combine

to

form

units

of

meaning

(such

as

letters,

phonetic

symbols
.
)


(*

Why

is

duality

regarded

as

an

important

feature

of

human

language?

Because
:

i
.

A

far

greater

number

of

messages



can

be

sent
;



ii
.

No

animal

communication

possesses

it
.

)


4
.

Displacement

不受时空限制性


──

Human

language

can

cope

with

any

subject

what

ever,

and

it

does

not

matter

how

far

away

the

topic

is

in

time

and

space
.


语言可以用来表达任何时间


何地点的任何抽象或具体的人





.





5
.
Cultural

transmission


文化传递特性
/
从头学
的必要性



──

The

details

of

the

linguistic

system

must



be

learned

anew

from

the

beginning

by

each



speaker
.

Without

the

environment

of

language



and

communication,

language

can’t

be

acquired

.



语言非遗传所得

人人都得从头学



没有语言

环境

没有交流环境

语言是无法习得的

.




1
.
1
.
1

Language

Is

Systematic

(P
.
2
)



---

This

property

is

usually

claimed

to

be

unique

to

humans
.

Each

human

language

is

organized

into

two

basic

systems
:

a

system

of

sounds

and

a

system

of

meanings
.

This

is

called

the

duality

of

language
.


---

Human

language

operated

on

two

levels

of

structure
.

At

one

level,

elements

have

no

meaning

themselves
.

They

have

meaning

when

combined

to

form

units

at

another

level
.


---

In

the

meaning

system,

these

units

of

meaning

can

be

arranged

in

an

infinitive

number

of

ways

to

express

both

simple

and

complicated

ideas
.



A

language

offers

its

speaker

the

opportunity

to

talk

about

anything
.

The

number

of

words

in

a

language

is

relatively

finite

but

their

possible

combination

can

be

infinite
.



The

syntax

of

a

language

may

deal

with

the

ordering

of

words,

which

actually

is

the

rules

for

the

formation

of

sentences

and

parts

of

sentences

such

as

phrases

and

clauses
.



(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on

P
.

3
.
)





1
.
1
.
2

Language

Is

Symbolic

(P
.
3
-
5
)




People

use

signs

to

communicate,

which

means

that

language

involves

signs
.


The

way

in

which

people

communicate

through

signs

and

images,

or

the

study

of

it

is

referred

to

as

“semiology”

or

“semiotics”
.



Roland

Barthes

and

others

extend

semiology

to

include

complex

cultural

forms

of

communication

such

as

painting,

music,

films,

theatre,

dance,

clothing,

advertising,

architecture,

literature,

and

even

food
.




Traditionally,

signs

are

divided

into

natural

signs

and

conventional

signs
.

According

to

Traugott

&

Pratt,

signs

can

be

categorized

into

3

major

types
:




(
1
)

Icon

(
图像符号
)
---
When

an

object

and

its

sign

are

related

by

a

physical

resemblance,

we

say

the

sign

is

an

icon

(
如:路标

男女图案

刀叉图案
)
.



(
2
)

Index

指示符号

---
When

an

object

and

its

sign

are

associated

to

each

other

by

physical

proximity,

we

call

the

sign

an

index


如:各种天气预报标识

心被
剑射中的图案

.



(
3
)

Symbol

(
象征符号
)
---
When

a

sign

and

the

object

it

signifies

are

associated

by

social

convention,

the

sign

is

called

a

symbol


如:交通灯

结婚戒指

国旗




倒写的福字

条桌上的花瓶和镜子

五只蝙蝠


瑰花等等






One has to learn symbolic signs as part of the
culture. Accordingly, language belongs to this
type of signs. Language is mainly symbolic.




Words

are

associated

with

objects,

actions,

and

ideas

by

social

convention
.



The

symbolic

nature

of

language

is

more

important

and

complicated

than

any

other

types

of

signs,

and

more

embracing

and

representative

of

all

the

features

of

all

signs
.



Without

the

symbolic

signs

of

language,

we

can

not

talk

about

anything

as

we

like
.




In

today’s

multimedia

world,

there

are

many

instances

of

meaning

being

expressed

by

different

types

of

signs

working

together
.

Typical

examples

can

be

found

in

commercial

advertisements

on

TV

(
电视广告:药

洗发水

保健品
)





(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on

P
.

5
.
)


1
.
1
.
3

Language

Is

Arbitrary

(P
.

6
-
7
)




The

forms

of

linguistic

signs

bear

no

natural

resemblance

to

their

meaning
.

The

link

between

them

is

a

matter

of

convention,

and

conventions

differ

radically

across

languages
.



Arbitrariness

does

not

imply

that

the

choice

of

the

signifier

is

left

entirely

to

the

speaker
.

The

individual

does

not

have

the

power

to

change

a

sign

in

any

way

once

it

has

become

established

in

the

linguistic

community
.




The

understanding

of

arbitrariness

is

not

easy
.

Words

are

arbitrary

in

form,

but

they

are

not

random

in

their

use
.

One

thing

we

should

note

that

although

the

link

between

form

and

meaning

is

arbitrary,

there

exists

certain

relationship

between

them
.




(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on


P
.

7
.
)


1.1.4 Language Is Primarily Vocal (P. 7)



The

relationship

between

writing

and

speaking
:



1
.

The

primary

medium

of

language

is

sound
.

No

matter

how

well

developed

are

their

writing

systems,

all

languages

use

sounds
.



2
.

Writing

is

based

on

speaking
.

Writing

systems

are

attempts

to

capture

sounds

and

meanings

on

paper
.

Writing

can

influence

speaking


Why

do

we

say

that

language

is

primarily

vocal?


Because
:


1
)

Children

learn

to

speak

before

they

learn

to

read

and

write
;



2
)

Children

automatically

learn

a

language

as

they

grow

up
.

There

is

normally

no

tutoring,

but

with

writing,

the

learning

process

is

different
.

The

development

of

reading

proficiency

depends

to

a

great

degree

upon

the

pedagogical

skills

or

teachers
.



3
)

The

spoken

form

came

earlier

than

the

written

in



human

history
.

The

written

form

of

any

language



is

always

much

more

recent

than

the

spoken
.


4
)

Writing

is

based

on

speech
.

Writing

system

represents

some

levels

of

the

spoken

language,

such

as

distinct

words,

syllables,

or

sounds
.


5
)

People

use

spoken

language

more

often

than

writing
.

People

use

the

spoken

form

more

frequently

than

writing

as

a

basic

form

of

verbal

communication
.




(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on

P
.

10
.
)



1
.
1
.
5

Language

Is

Human

Specific

(P
.

10
.
)



There

are

certain

characteristics

of

human

language

that

are

not

found

in

the

communication

system

of

any

other

species
.



Attempts

to

teach

animals

more

complicated

systems

have

ended

in

failure
.




Human

children

can

acquire

language

with

ease,

and

without

intensive

and

directed

instruction
.

Yet,

animals

lack

the

capacity

to

learn
.

They

do

not

have

the

mental

capacity

to

be

communicatively

creative
.



The

differences

between

human

language

and

animal

communication
:


Language

has

the

ability

to

refer

to

things

far

removed

in

time

and

space
.



Humans

have

the

ability

to

produce

and

understand

an

indefinite

number

of

novel

utterances

(creativity/openness/productivity)
.

No

animal

can

communicate

creatively

with

another

animal
.



Learning

is

much

more

important

as

a

factor

in

human

language

than

in

animal

communication
.

Human

languages

have

very

much

in

common,

but

they

differ

from

one

another

on

many

specific

points


Language

is

complex

in

its

structure
.

Human

language

structure

and

language

use

are

vastly

more

complex

than

any

known

animal

communication

system
.


Animal

communication

systems

are

closed,

whereas

human

languages

are

open
-
ended
.

People

can

talk

about

anything

they

can

observe

or

imagine
.


Humans

can

perform

acts

with

language

just

as

they

can

with

objects

of

different

kinds
.



(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on

P
.

12
.
)


1
.
1
.
6
.

Language

Is

Used

for

Communication



Language

is

used

for

communication
.

Language

is

the

result

of

our

communication

needs
.

Its

attractiveness

comes

from

its

social

utility
.



Human

beings

communicate

in

ways

different

from

those

used

by

any

species
.

Through

language

we

can

do

things

animals

can

not

do
.



It

is

by

the

use

of

language

that

we

can

transmit

our

social

heritage

from

one

generation

to

the

next
.



Two
-
way

communication

occurs

frequently

when

the

sending

and

receiving

functions

are

performed

with

equal

frequency

by

two

or

more

persons
.



With

the

growth

in

foreign

travel,

the

migration

of

people

to

other

countries,

and

expansion

of

international

trade,

there

has

been

an

increase

in

intercultural

communication

across

national

and

ethnic

borders
.



(Discuss

the

exercises

at

the

back

of

this

part

on

P
.

13
.
)


1
.
2

The

Functions

of

Language

(P
.
14
~
20
)





The

term

communication

can

be

used

to

cover

most

of

the

function

of

language
.

But

the

function

of

language

is

varied,

in

terms

of

using

the

language

to

chat,

to

think,

to

buy

and

sell,

to

read

and

write,

to

greet

people,

etc
.



Language

functions

in

our

society

as

a

principal

means

of

communication
.

It

also

functions

as

social

control
.

It

is

not

only

a

psychological

phenomenon,

but

also

a

social

fact
.



Language

is

not

a

self
-
contained

system,

but

entirely

dependent

on

the

society

in

which

it

is

used
.

We

must

study

meaning

with

reference

to

an

analysis

of

the

functions

of

language

in

any

given

culture
.


Malinowski

distinguishes

three

major

functions

of

language
:


the

pragmatic

语用的

务实的


function
:

language

as

a

form

of

action
;



the

magical

function
:

language

as

a

means

of

control

over

environment
;



the

phatic(
寒暄的

社交的
)

function

language

as

a

means

to

help

establish

and

maintain

social

relations
.




We

can

categorize

the

functions

of

language

into

general

functions

and

metafunctions

(
元功能

纯理功能
)
.

General

functions

refer

to

the

particular

individual

uses

of

language

while

metafunctions

refer

to

the

larger,

more

general

purposes

underlying

language

use
.




1
.
2
.
1

General

Functions

of

Language


Language

enables

humans

to

do

many

things,

thus

serving

different

functions

in

the

society
.


Finch

lists

the

following

7

general

functions

of

language
:


1
.
2
.
1
.
1

Physiological

Function

(
生理功能-发泄


放情绪
)


Language

can

help

get

rid

of

nervous

or

physical

energy
.

This

function

is

also

known

as

the

emotive

or

expressive

function

of

language
.





There

are

many

emotive

utterances

in

our

daily

life

which

serve

no

communicative

purpose

but

allow

us

to

release

inner

feelings

(e
.
g
.

Shoot!

快呀

踢呀

)
.



A

great

deal

of

what

we

say

when

angry

is

simply

to

relieve

our

physical

and

nervous

energy

caused

by

emotional

distress

(e
.
g
.

“bad

language”,

swear

words,

obscenities,

and

taboos)
.




1
.
2
.
1
.
2

Phatic

Function

(
寒暄功能

社交功能
)





Language

can

serve

the

function

of

creating

or



maintaining

social

relationship

between

speakers
.




We

often

use

language

simply

to

express

our



willingness

to

be

sociable
.

No

factual

content

is



involved

(Different

ways

of

greetings

in

different



countries)
.

They

are

just

conversation
-
fillers
.



In

this

sense,

language

can

act

as

a

form

of

social

bonding

that

links

people

together
.

Failure

to

observe

these

social

courtesies

can

cause

considerable

embarrassment

and

even

bad

feelings
.



Cultures

vary

greatly

in

the

topics

which

they

permit

as

phatic

communication

(e
.
g
.

Lovely

day,

isn’t

it?

吃过了吗

)



The

phatic

use

of

language

is

mainly

spoken

but

there

are

some

written

equivalents

(e
.
g
.

Dear

Sir/Madam,

Yours

faithfully)

.




1
.
2
.
1
.
3

Recording

Function

(
记录功能-不受
时空限制性
)



Language

allows

us

to

record

things

we

wish

to

remember
.

It

might

be

a

short
-
term

shopping

list

or

a

long
-
term

diary

or

history

of

some

kind
.



This

function

of

language

is

represented

by

all

kinds

of

record
-
keeping,

such

as

historical

records,

geographical

surveys,

business

accounts,

and

data

banks
.



Without

language,

it

would

be

impossible

for

us

to

trace

the

history

of

humans

and

modern

commercial

life

would

be

impossible
.




This

function

is

the

most

important

function

behind

the

development

of

language

from

being

an

oral

medium

to

becoming

a

written

one
.



1
.
2
.
1
.
4

Identifying

Function

(
识别功能-
-语言的任

意性
)




Language

also

allows

us

to

identify,

with

considerable

precise,

an

enormous

array

of

objects

and

events
.



Without

language,

it

would

be

very

difficult

to

make

sense

of

the

world

around

us
.

Because

we

know

the

names

of

things,

we

can

refer

to

them

quickly

and

accurately

in

good

order
.





Names

are

made

up

and

essentially

arbitrary
.

To

call

a

table

a

chair

would

not

change

the

reality

of

the

thing
.




Words

do

not

exist

in

isolation

but

are

part

of

the

social

network
.


1
.
2
.
1
.
5

Reasoning

Function

(
论证

推理功能
)



Much

of

our

thinking

is

done

with

words

or,

to

be

more

exact,

in

words
.

So,

language

is

commonly

regarded

as

a

tool

of

thoughts
.




When

we

have

ideas

forming

in

our

minds,

we

need

to

find

the

appropriate

words

to

express

these

ideas
.




Our

ideas

are

coded

in

language
.

Although

the

relationship

between

language

and

the

mind

is

complicated,

speaking

and

writing

are

forms

of

thoughts
.

This

is

why

most

people

feel

that

they

have

not

really

understood

something

until

they

have

been

able

to

express

it

in

language
.

(How

about


只能意会

不能言传


)



A

problem

is

that

the

meaning

of

many

words

are

not

stable

and

as

a

consequence

it

is

difficult

to

think

with

any

precision
.

Words

mean

different

things

to

different

people

and

may

have

different

connotations


e
.
g
.

Monday

morning,

十三


二百五

.



In

recent

years,

however,

a

number

of

studies

have

shown

that

not

everything

in

our

mental

life

depends

on

language
.


1
.
2
.
1
.
6

Communicating

Function

(
交际功能
)



As

we

have

seen

in

the

previous

section,

language

is

a

means

of

communicating

ideas

and

facts
.




In

human

society,

people

need

to

understand

and

be

understood,

to

have

their

feelings

and

ideas

recognized

and

acknowledged
.





We

use

language

to

express

ourselves

to

others
.

We

also

need

language

in

order

to

understand

what

others

are

communicating

to

us
.



We

use

language

for

requesting,

ordering,

promising,

asking

for

permission,

and

so

on

(e
.
g
.

All

the

Dialogue

2
.

parts

in

A

New

English

Course

functional

English)
.






All

human

achievements

are

closely

related

to

successful

acts

of

communication
.

Language

is

the

most

developed

and

most

subtle

way

to

perform

communication

acts,

and

it

is

the

natural

inheritance

of

humans
.



1
.
2
.
1
.
7
.

Pleasure

Function

(
愉悦功能
)



Language

allows

us

to

derive

pleasure

from

it
.

A

large

part

of

the

pleasure

we

derive

from

language

comes

from

the

successful

exploitation

of

linguistic

novelty

at

different

levels

of

the

language
.



Advertisers

(cross
-
talking)

exploit

this

capacity

just

as

much

as

poets

and

novelists
.



At

the

simplest

level

there

is

the

enjoyment

of

sound

itself

and

the

melody

of

certain

combination

of

sounds

(e
.
g
.

No

Sun,

no

fun!

沟通从



开始;




你好吗


;斯达



四大叔

)
.




Most

poetry

exploit

this

function

(onomatopoeia,

alliteration
头韵
,

and

assonance
谐音
)
.


Examples



Onomatopoeia
:



The

stream

is

murmuring

through

the

woods
.


Jane

started

giggling
.


The

door

crashed

open
.


Heavy

rain

drops

began

pitter
-
pattering

on



the

tent
.


I

eat

what

I

can,

I

can

what

I

can’t
.



Alliteration
:

Promise,

Problem,

and

Provision
.


Presentation,

Practice

and

Production
.


World
-
wide

web
.



Assonance
:

fair

and

square
;

near

and

dear
;



The

rain

in

Spain

stays

mainly

in

plains
.



At

the

syntactical

level,

we

can

gain

pleasure

from

rearrangement

by

inversion

or

ellipsis

of

normal

phrases

or

clauses

order

and

from

the

conversion

of

words

from

one

class

to

another
.

These

changes

play

against

our

normal

expectation

from

language

and

create

a

sense

of

novelty
.


Examples



Inversion
:

Up

goes

the

prices

of

daily

necessities,

and

down

come

the

living

conditions

of

people
.



Ellipsis
:

Got

troubles?


I

came,

I

saw,

I

conqured
.





At

the

level

of

meaning
,

most

creative

uses

of

language

provide

considerable

pleasure

through

the

generation

of

puns

双关

,

paradoxes

矛盾修辞法
,
反论

,

ambiguities

含糊其 辞

歧 义

,

and

metaphors
.

With

these

the

oddness

is

not

necessarily

syntactic

but

lies

in

the

capacity

of

the

language

to

generate

a

plurality

大量不同的事物


of

possible

meanings
.



Examples

Pun
:



No

sun,

no

fun!

Try

our

sweet

corn

and

you’ll

smile

from

ear

to

ear
.

---
“Fourth

floor!”

shouted

a

passenger

in

the

lift
.


---
“Hear

you

are,

son
.


---
“How

dare

you

call

me

‘son’

?



---
“Sir,

I

called,

or

whatever
.

I’ve

brought

you



up,

anyway
.



Paradox
:

More

haste,

less

speed
.


It’s

a

paradox

that

in

such

a

rich

country



there

can

be

so

much

poverty
.


甜蜜的痛苦,痛苦的甜蜜;


最恨我最爱的人,最爱我最恨的人;


痛,并快乐着。


好得一塌糊涂!


Ambiguity
:

头脑活络

手脚灵活
;


先开花

后结果



买一送一


Metaphor
:



The

sunshine

of

her

smile

wormed

everybody

present
.


It’s

been

a

hard

few

months,

but

we’re

finally

beginning

to

see

the

light

at

the

end

of

the

tunnel
.



军民鱼水情;


儿童是祖国的花朵;


老师是辛勤的园丁;


老师是蜡烛




This

is

not

an

exhaustive

list

and

we

may

well

have

thought

of

other

functions
.


It

is

important

to

bear

in

mind

that

a

specific

use

of

language

may

fulfill

more

than

one

function
.


The

more

functions

something

fulfills,

the

more

complex

it

usually

is
.



(Have

a

look

at

the

exercises

on

P
.

18
.
)


Look

at

the

following

examples

of

metaphor
.



Every pawn
(soldier) has its
uses, but without
the chess board,
it can only be a
pawn.

I may not be
a trump
card, but I’m
definitely a
good card.

I am this bowl of
tea (big
-
bowl tea).

Which looks plain
but has a long
lasting taste.

I am the pure bred
(the hidden talent);
are you the one to
discover me?


1
.
2
.
2

Metafunctions

of

Language


(
语言的元功能
/
纯理

功能
)

(P
.
18
~
20
)



A

metafunction

is

one

which

is

capable

of

describing

one

or

more

other

functions
.



People

do

different

things

with

language
.

They

intend

to

achieve

different

aims

and

different

purposes

by

talking,

writing,

listening

and

reading
.



Language

is

a

system

of

signs

developed

to

express

social

meanings
.

Function

can

be

regarded

as

the

use

of

language

and

be

interpreted

as

a

fundamental

property

of

language
.



According

to

Halliday,

language

has

to

have

an

ideational

function,

an

interpersonal

function,

and

a

textual

function
.


1
.
2
.
2
.
1

Ideational

Function

(
概念功能
)



We

are

using

language

as

a

symbolic

code

to

represent

the

world

around

us
.

The

ideational

function,

then,

is

the

content

of

language

and

allows

us

to

conceptualize

the

world

for

our

own

benefit

and

that

of

others
.



Through

this

function,

the

language

encodes

the

cultural

experience

and

the

speaker

encodes

his

or

her

own

individual

experience

of

the

things

of

the

world

and

his

or

her

own

consciousness
.



The

ideational

function

is

divided

into

experiential

function

and

logical

function
.

In

a

sense

we

bring

the

world

into

being

linguistically
.


1
.
2
.
2
.
2

Interpersonal

Function

(
人际功能
)



According

to

Halliday,

the

interpersonal

component

represents

the

speaker’s

meaning

potential

as

an

intruder
.




It

is

through

language

that

the

speaker

intrudes

himself

or

herself

into

the

context

of

situation
.

He

or

she

expresses

his

or

her

own

attitudes

and

judgments

and

seeks

to

influence

the

attitudes

and

behavior

of

others
.



The

interpersonal

function

expresses

the

role

relationships

associated

with

the

situation
.




We

gain

much

of

our

sense

of

identity,

of

who

and

what

we

are,

from

our

relationships

both

with

animate

and

inanimate

things,

and

language

is

an

essential

part

of

that

personalizing

process
.


1
.
2
.
2
.
3

Textual

Function

(
语篇功能
)


Language

has

the

function

which

enables

the

other

two

functions

to

operate,

namely,

the

function

which

represents

the

speaker’s

text
-
forming

potential
.





This

function

relates

our

abilities

to

construct

texts

out

of

our

utterances

and

writings
.

Halliday

calls

it

the

textual

function
.

We

can

see

it

as

using

language

to

bring

texts

into

being
.



This

function

expresses

the

relation

of

language

to

the

verbal

and

nonverbal

situational

environment
.






These

terms

are

interpreted

as

functional

components

of

the

semantics

system
.

They

are

present

in

every

use

of

language

in

every

social

context
.

A

text

is

a

product

of

all

three
.

The

three

metafunctions

of

language

are

closely

related

to

context

and

realized

in

the

lexico
-
grammar

of

language
.



They

are

interwoven

in

discourse
.

According

to

Halliday,

every

sentence

in

a

context

is

multifunctional

and

has

three

metafunctions

simultaneously
.

This

is

the

essential

nature

of

a

functional

theory
.



(A

quick

look

at

the

2

questions

on

P
.

20
.
)


Assignment

:



Collect

and

write

down

as

many

as

possible

the

following
:


1
.

The

3

kinds

of

signs
:

icon,

index,

symbol
.

2
.

The

pleasure

function

of

language

at

the

three

levels
:

sound,

syntax,

and

meaning
.

1
.
3

The

Origin

and

Classification

of

Language



Man’s

interest

in

his

own

origin

and

his

own

nature

has

resulted

in

many

theories

on

the

origin

of

language
.



A

study

of

the

history

of

languages

show

that

many

languages

develop

from

a

single

one
.



Many

scientists

today

believe

that

man

arose

in

many

different

places

of

the

world
.

If

this

is

the

case,

there

were

many

proto
-
languages

(
原始语言
),

from

which

the

modern

language

families

developed
.



1
.
3
.
1

The

Origin

of

Language


Biologists,

anthropologists


人类学家

,

psychologists,

neurologists

神经学家

,

and

linguists

have

done

a

wide

range

of

studies

in

the

origin

of

language
.







Some

have

looked

at

the

problem

of

whether

primitive

man

had

the

physiological

生理上的


capacity

to

speak
.




The

reports

show

that

the

human

vocal

tract


声道


evolved

from

a

non
-
human

primate

form

to

facilitate

efficient

communication
.






Some

hold

that

learning

to

use

tools

and

learning

language

are

interrelated

skills
.





With

the

development

of

the

human

society,

man

learned

to

use

tools

by

hand

and

tools

promoted

the

development

of

speech,

because

learning

involved

language
.




1.3.2 Language Families



The

role

of

intercultural

contact

is

a

real

problem

in

studying

many

language

families
.


Both

types

of

classification

ignore

the

relevance

of

cultural

links

between

languages
.



With

the

passage

of

time

and

the

development

of

intercultural

communication,

languages

influence

each

other

by

contact

and

may

borrow

words

from

each

other
.



Sometimes

languages

that

have

no

historical

relationship

can

converge

so

that

they

seem

to

be

members

of

the

same

family
.




Thus,

it

is

often

very

difficult

to

decide

whether

two

languages

look

similar

because

they

share

a

common

origin,

or

because

they

have

borrowed

from

each

other
.






However,

many

achievements

have

been

made

in

the

classification

of

languages
.




According

to

Crystal

(
1987
),

there

are

at



least

29

languages

families

in

the

world
.



1
.
4

What

is

Linguistics?



Linguistics

is

the

science

of

language

and

is

usually

defined

as

the

systematic

study

of

language

or,

as

a

discipline

that

describes

all

aspects

of

language

and

formulate

theories

as

to

how

language

works
.



Linguistics

is

the

study

of

language

as

a

system

of

human

communication
.



Linguistics

is

principally

concerned

with

the

universals

of

the

human

mind
.



For

many

scholars,

the

main

purpose

of

linguistics

is

to

develop

a

general

theory

of

language

and

theories

on

aspects

of

language
.



The

primary

goal

of

linguistics

is

to

explain

not

only

how

meanings

are

construed

but

also

how

they

maintain

a

systematic

relation

to

the

already

linguistically

construed

socially

defined

world
.


1
.
4
.
1
.
1

Tasks

of

Linguistics



As

a

science,

linguistics

demands

a

rational

and

scientific

outlook

on

language
.

It

takes

an

objective

view

of

language

and

all

linguistic

phenomena
.



Linguists

study

language

and

reflect

on

it

in

a

detached

and

unbiased

way
.

They

make

no

value

judgments

about

languages
.



Linguistics

formulates

explanations

of

the

phenomena

of

language,

and

also

observes

and

analyses

data

found

in

natural

language

according

to

the

general

principles

of

empirical


经验式的

research

procedures
.


Linguistics

will

find

out

the

common

features

of

all

languages,

the

range

of

variations

among

languages,

the

difference

of

human

languages

from

animal

communication
.





Linguistics

will

also

find

out

the

evolution

of

language,

the

analysis

of

unwritten

languages,

the

change

of

languages,

the

relation

of

language

to

the

society
.



Linguistics

starts

from

such

simple

concepts

such

as

speech

sound,

word,

sentence,

meaning,

and

text
.

These

features

each

correspond

roughly

to

the

major

areas

of

linguistic

investigation

and

each

is

presented

in

one

or

the

other

of

the

branches

of

linguistics
.

1
.
4
.
2

Some

Important

Distinctions

in



Linguistics


1
.
4
.
2
.
1

Langue

and

Parole

(
语言与言语



Langue
:

the

linguistic

system

itself
;

the

abstract

system
;

something

which

differs

human

beings

from

animals
.


是言语社会集体使用的语言系统




Parole
:

the

particular

actualities

of

individual

utterances
;

the

use

of

the

language

in

utterances
.

(
指说话的个人在实际情景中说出的具体语






语言本身是中性的

不带感情色彩的

而语言的使用即言
语是有感情色彩的

因此

我们不能说
:



You

language

is

dirty
.

但可以说:

Your

parole

is

dirty
.


又如

我们不能说:
I

hate

English
.

It’s

a

racialist

language
.

因为不是英语这门语言有种族歧视

而是这语
言在被使用时

parole)

带上了种族歧视的色彩




Language

is

systematic,

but

parole

is

not
.

正如让
50
个人
用同一门语言

langue)

去描述同一个人

就会有完全不
同的言语

(parole)
出现


e
.
g
.

Tom,

donkey!

这句话就可以根据当时的情景理
解成几种完全不同的含义:



Tom,

驴子进来了



Tom,

驴子给你牵来了



Tom,

你这蠢驴



1
.
4
.
2
.
2

Prescriptive

and

Descriptive



(
规定式的和描写式的


Prescriptive
:




Prescribes

rules

of

what

is

correct
;



The

duty

of

grammarians,

schoolmasters,

and

dictionary

makers

is

to

maintain

some

absolute

standards

of

correctness
;




Any

deviations

from

the

rules

are

said

to

be

incorrect

or

nonstandard
;


So,

the

prescriptive

approach

relies

heavily

on

rules

of

grammar
.


Descriptive
:


Claims

that

the

linguist’s

first

task

is

to

describe

the

way

people

actually

speak

and

write

their

language,

not

to

prescribe

how

they

ought

to

speak

or

write
;



Describes

data

observed
.

They

are

interested

in

what

is

said,

not

what

they

think

ought

to

be

said
.



They

are

observers

and

recorders,

not

judges
.




The

job

of

the

linguist

is

to

observe

what

language

is

and

to

explain

why

it

is

so
.

It

is

not

his

function

to

improve

the

language
;








From

the

linguist’s

point

of

view,

“a

language

is

what

the

speakers

do

and

not

what

someone

thinks

they

ought

to

do”
.



In

distinguishing

description

and

prescription,

the

linguist

is

not

saying

that

there

is

no

place

for

prescriptive

studies

of

language
.

The

linguist

is

merely

asserting

that

language

is

used

for

many

purposes
.

1
.
4
.
2
.
3

Synchronic

and

Diachronic


共时与历时




In

linguistic

study,

we

can

either

look

at

a

grammar

at

one

particular

point

of

time

or

study

its

development

over

a

number

of

years
.


Synchronic

linguistics
:



The

synchronic

study

of

language

referring

to

the

description

of

a

language

at

a

single

point

of

time
.



The

analysis

of

language

at

a

single

point

in

time

and

the

knowledge

of

how

a

system

works

at

any

one

time

.



The

priority

of

synchronic

description

is

a

characteristic

of

most

the

20
th

century

linguistic

theories
.






We

rarely

know

very

much

about

the

historical

development

of

our

language
.

Yet,

when

children

are

learning

the

language,

they

come

to

speak

it

according

to

certain

systematic

rules
.



It

is

necessary

for

the

synchronic

description

to

find

out

these

systematic

rules

as

they

operate

in

a

language

at

a

particular

time
.


Diachronic linguistics:



The

diachronic

study

of

language

refers

to

the

description

of

the

historical

development

of

a

language
.



A

diachronic

study

of

the

Chinese

language

might

look

at

its

development

from

the

time

of

our

earliest

records

to

the

present

day
.





Linguistic

study

in

the

19
th

century

was

primarily

concerned

with

diachronic

description
.

The

dominant

approach

to

any

scientific

study

of

language

was

historical
.


1.4.2.4 Speech and Writing



Modern

linguists

regard

the

spoken

language

as

primary,

not

the

written
.





In

the

past,

because

it

was

difficult

to

cope

with

fleeting

utterances

before

the

sound

recording,

grammarians

and

the

traditional

classical

education

overstressed

the

importance

of

the

written

word
.




The

belief

in

the

superiority

of

the

written

word

has

continued

for

over

two

millennia
.




It

was

assumed

that

spoken

language

was

inferior

to

and

in

some

sense

dependent

upon

the

standard

written

language
.



Modern

linguistics

look

first

at

the

spoken

word

and

regard

spoken

and

written

forms

as

belongings

to

different,

though

overlapping

systems,

which

must

be

analyzed

separately
:

the

spoken

first,

then

the

written
.




Written

language

has

a

life

of

its

own