Wireless Communication Systems

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Wireless

Communication

Systems

Walter Konhäuser

VL
-
Nr. 0432 L 615


2

2 Overview of the Wireless Communication
Systems



2.1

General overview


2.2

Public Cellular Mobile Radio Systems


2.3

Trunked Mobile Radio


2.4

Broadband Wireless Access (WiFi, WiMax, …)


2.5 Transponder Systems


2.6

Further Systems


2.7 Network Planning and Optimization

Content


3

Net Landscape
-

Today

Breitband Kabel
-

Netz

Mobilfunk

GSM, UMTS,LTE, …

Internet

Content
-
Provider

Coax

Telefonnetz

PSTN/ISDN/xDSL


4

Abbreviations


AMPS

Advanced mobile phone system

CT

Cordless telephone

DCS

Digital personal communication systems

DECT

Digital european cordless telephone

ERMES

European radio message system

GSM

Global System for mobile communications

LAN

Local area network

NMT

Nordic mobile telephone system

PAMR

Public access trunked mobile radio

TACS

Total access communication standard

1.1. History of Mobile Communications


5

Segmentation of Wireless Technologies

WPAN

Connectivity

WLAN

Networking



data centric



high datarates



nomadic access



based on LAN topology



easy access



plug&play PCMCIA cards



licence free

W
-
WAN (Cellular)

Public
Infrastructure



voice centric



widely deployed



high security



high reliability



mobility



big customer base


6

Cellular mobile Telephone Systems (1.& 2. Gen.)

1st generation (analog)

2st generation (analog)

2st generation (digital)

Start of development

Start of
commercial

service

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1995

1990

C net

450
MHz

NMT

450
MHz

EUROPE

NMT
900
MHz

DCS

1800


1800

MHz

GSM


900
MHz

TACS
900
MHz

NTT System

800
MHz

AMPS

800
MHz

USA

JAPAN

J
-
TACS

AMPS
-
D
800

MHz

PDC
800/

1500
MHz


7

Evolution to the universal mobile Communication

(View of 1992)

City call etc.

Radio Call

Business

Mobile

interactive

communi
-
cation

Public

ERMES

Public

Cordless

interactive

communi
-
cation

Office

Home

Network/systems

Services/applications

Telepoint and cordless PBX/LAN (CT2)

1990

91

97

96

92

93

94

95

99

98

2000

01

02

03

04

Universal

mobile

commu
-
nication

system

(UMTS)

Digital

Cordless

Terminals

(DECT)

non standardized: NMT, TACS, C450, AMPS

Analog

systems

PAMR

Digital systems standard GSM 900

Digital systems standard DCS 1800

Private mobile radio

Cordless telephone (CT1)


8

TDD

FDD

1 “unpaired” frequency,

FLEXIBLY shared for uplink and downlink

2 “paired” frequencies,

separated for uplink and downlink

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

TDD

Time Division Duplex


FDD, TDD:
different Requirements




Different Radio Access Technologies


9

Main parameters of different Access Systems

System

User data rates

[

Mbps]

Technology

Range

Mobility

Frequency range

Original application

area

GSM (including

GPRS, HSCSD

and EDGE)

9.6

Kbps

up to 384

Kbps

TDMA, FDD

up to 35 Km in GSM,

lower for data

high

900, 1800, 1900 MHz

public and private

environment

IMT
-
2000,

UMTS (UTRA)

max. 2

IMT
-
2000 family,

WCDMA (FDD) +

TD
-
CDMA (TDD)

30 m


20 Km

high

2 GHz (ITU spectrum)



possibly different

spectrum in China

public and private

environment

DECT /

Dectlink

max. 2

TDMA / TDD

up to 50 m

low

1880


1900 MHz

office and residential

environment

Bluetooth

max. 0.721

Direct sequence

or frequency

hopping

0.1


10 m

very low

2.4

GHz ISM band

cable replacement,

SoHo environment

HIPERLAN 2

25

OFDM, TDD

50


300 m

low

5

GHz

corporate environment,

public hot spots

IEEE 802.11a

about 20

OFDM, TDD

50


300 m

low

5

GHz

corporate environment,

public hot spots

HIPERACCESS

about 25

not yet specified

2
-

10 km

no

5


40

GHz

business access,

feeder

DAB

1.5

OFDM



100 km

high

e.g. 176
-

230 MHz

1452
-

1467.5 MHz

audio broadcasting

DVB
-
T

5
-

31

(mobile: 5


8,

fixed 16
-

31)

OFDM



100 km

medium

to high

TV bands below 860

MHz

video broadcasting

Cable modem

down < 40

up < 10

FDD

QAM /QPSK

5 to ~20 km

no

down ~ 60 to 860 MHz

up 10 to ~ 40 MHz

residential environment

ADSL

down




6.144 (8)

up




0.640

DMT

(

carrierless

AM/PM CAP)

2
-
6 Km

no

base band

SoHo (Small Office


Home Office), SME,

residential environment

TD
-
SCDMA (TDD)


Migration of mobile Networks towards

the vision of an EVERNET

Circuit

switched

CS voice / packet data

IP core

GSM

UMTS

UWC
-
136

CDMA

2G

HSCSD

end to end IP

GPRS

EDGE

WLAN

WIFI/Wimax

802.11a ....

802.16

IMT
-
2000 CDMA

Multi
-
Carrier


EVERNET


Ad hoc Networks

HSPA

LTE

LTE Advanced

Bluetooth

2G

3G and 4G

9.6
-
14.4 kbps

evolved
2G

64
-
144 kbps

384 kbps
-
2 Mbps

1000 Mbps ?

384 kbps
-
20 Mbps

3GPP Rel 0x

IMT
-
2000 CDMA

Direct Spread + TDD

D
-
AMPS

IS 95

GPRS/EDGE

IMT
-
2000 TDMA

Single
-
Carrier

GPRS

EDGE

CDMA

2000

Includes Vertical

Handover between

Technologies

PDC

2G

PDC

PDC

Packet

3GPP Rel 99


11

Evolution to
Global Multimedia Mobility

C. Drewes, S. Haar

Cordless

Standards

Cellular

Standards

1. Generation

2. Generation

2.5 Generation

3. Generation

4. Generation

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

analog

digital

analog

analog

analog

digital

GPRS

HSCSD

GMM

Global

Multimedia

Mobility

64G

4G

256M

16M

Mikroelektronik

Technologie

(z.B. DRAM)

AMPS

Advanced Mobile Phone Service

CT

Cordless Telephone

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

DECT

Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone

EDGE

Enhanced Data Rate for GSM/Global Evolution

GPRS

Genaral Packet Radio Services


GSM

Global System for Mobile Comm.

HSCSD

High Speed Circuit Switched Data

IMT

International Mobile Telecomm.

NMT

Nordic Mobile Telephone

PACS

Personal Access Comm. Services

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecom. System

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

0.50µ

0.25µ

0.13µ

0.07µ

0,10µ

0.18µ

0.35µ

AMPS, NMT, ...

CDMA,


GSM, ...

384 kb/s

<64 kb/s

10 kb/s

<115 kb/s

32 kb/s

PACS,

DECT, ...

CTx

IMT 2000,

UMTS

144 kb/s

... 2 Mb/s

EDGE

LTE,

LTE
-

Advanced

2015


12

Different Radio Evolution Paths



IS
-
136

(TDMA)

2G



2.5G



Evolved 3G



3G



GSM

GPRS



EDGE

GERAN



WCDMA

HSDPA

HSUPA



UTRAN



TD
-
SCDMA

-

PDC

IS
-
95

1xRTT



1xEV
-
DV

cdma2000



1xEV

-

DO



Existing Spectrum (FDD)



Existing Spectrum



New Spectrum (FDD/TDD)

cdma / cdma2000

GSM / GERAN / UTRAN


13

CDMA Systems


CDMA2000

is a hybrid
2.5G

/
3G

protocol of mobile
telecommunications

standards

that use
CDMA
, a multiple access scheme for
digital radio
, to send voice, data, and
signalling

data (such as a dialed telephone number) between
mobile phones

and
cell
sites
. CDMA2000 is considered a
2.5G

protocol in 1xRTT and a
3G

protocol in
EVDO.


CDMA

(code division multiple access) is a mobile
digital radio

technology that
transmits streams of
bits

and whose
channels

are divided using codes (
PN
sequences
). CDMA permits many radios to share the same frequency channel.
Unlike
TDMA

(time division multiple access), a different technique used in
GSM

and
D
-
AMPS
, all radios can be active all the time, because network capacity does not
directly limit the number of active radios. Since larger numbers of phones can be
served by smaller numbers of cell sites, CDMA
-
based standards have a significant
economic

advantage over TDMA
-
based standards, or the oldest cellular standards
that used
frequency division multiple access

(FDMA).


CDMA2000 has a relatively long technical history, and remains compatible with the
older CDMA telephony methods (such as
cdmaOne
) first developed by
Qualcomm
, a
commercial company, and holder of several key international
patents

on the
technology.


The CDMA2000 standards
CDMA2000 1xRTT
,
CDMA2000 EV
-
DO
, and
CDMA2000
EV
-
DV

are approved radio interfaces for the
ITU
's
IMT
-
2000

standard and a direct
successor to
2G

CDMA
,
IS
-
95

(cdmaOne). CDMA2000 is standardized by
3GPP2
.


CDMA2000 is a registered trademark of the
Telecommunications Industry
Association

(TIA
-
USA) in the United States, not a generic term like
CDMA
. (This is
similar to how TIA has
branded

their 2G CDMA standard, IS
-
95, as cdmaOne.)


CDMA2000 is an incompatible competitor of the other major 3G standard
UMTS
. It is
defined to operate at 400 MHz, 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1700 MHz, 1800 MHz, 1900
MHz, and 2100 MHz.


14

2 Overview of the Wireless Communication
Systems



2.1

General overview


2.2

Public Cellular Mobile Radio Systems


2.3

Trunked Mobile Radio


2.4

Broadband Wireless Access (WiFi, Wimax, …)


2.5 Transponder Systems


2.6

Further Systems


2.7 Network Planning and Optimization

Content


15

1 G



analog

air channel



narrow band



national roaming



FDD only










AMPS

TACS

NMT

C
-
net



digita
l

air channel



narrow band



internationa
l

roaming



FDD only



GPRS



EDGE








GSM

TDMA

CDMA

PDC



digital air channel



broadband up to


2 Mbps



international roaming



FDD/TDD



ATM/IP based


networks





IMT 2000


UTRA (FDD/TDD)


cdma 2000


HS
-
TDMA

2 G/2.5G

3 G



digital air channel



higher broadband


radio channel with data


rates
10, 20
and
155

Mbps



IP based cellular network



4 G


Evolution towards 4
th

Generation

LTE

LTE
-
Advanced


16

Mobile Network and Business Evolution

Coverage/

Capacity

GSM

basic services/

network optimisation

Voice

Data

GSM Ph 2

Micro BTS

Dual Band

Half Rate

3. Generation



Introduction

New Business

Opportunities

Wideband

Air I / F

Bandwidth

on Demand

Seamless

Services

FDD/TDD

ATM/IP based

networks

Enhanced
Services

GSM

GSM 2+ and

Intelligent

Networks (IN)

GSM Ph 2+

IN

F M C

GPRS

Camel

Multimedia Mobile


Communication

3. Generation

Mass Market

Enhanced

Multimedia Services

with full

roaming through

different networks

Broadband Mobile


Communication

4. Generation

Broadband

multipath radio

datarates 10, 20 and

155 Mbps

IP based broad band

cellular networks


17

2 Overview of the Wireless Communication
Systems



2.1

General overview


2.2

Public Cellular Mobile Radio Systems


2.3

Trunked Mobile Radio


2.4

Broadband Wireless Access (WiFi, Wimax, …)


2.5 Transponder Systems


2.6

Further Systems


2.7 Network Planning and Optimization

Content


18

TETRA



Te
rrestrial
Tr
unked
Ra
dio

Open Multivendor

standard

Simultaneous

Voice and Data


Digital

Trunked

Radio System


19

What is TETRA

TETRA = TErrestrial Trunked Radio


The

only digital standard defined by ETSI

(European Telecommunication Standard Institute)


Simultaneous voice & data transmission


Worldwide support and promotion

of the European
-
wide standard


Multi
-
vendor principle


20

Who uses TETRA



Public Safety and Service Utilities



Public Transport



Industry and Trading Company



Governmental institutions



Airports



Military



PAMR (Public Access Mobile Radio) Provider


21

TETRA


A cellular network

Radio Base Station

Switch

Management

Terminals


22

TETRA projects in Europe

Jersey Police

West Midlands Ambulance

Millennium Dome

BT
-

Airwave

Gardemoen Airport

ELTELE Ost

GÜZ

Köln/Bonn Airport

Regiocall Hamburg


master
-
talk

walky
-
talky

KELAG

Adonis

Gibtel


VIRVE BOS

Helsinki Energy



ASTRID BOS



23

TETRA Layer Structure

MSW:
Main Switching Centre

LSW:

Local Switching Centre

BTS:
Base Transceiver Station

TE:

Terminal Equipment

LS :
Line Station

NMC:

Network Management Centre

SMC:

Subscriber Management Centre

OMC:

Operation & Maintenance Centre

PCM:

Digital Links or single PCM
-
time
-
slots




24

PEI

O

K

C

SERV

69

F

B

ABC

STOCKHOLM

TRAFIK 2

ISI

LAN/WAN

PSTN

PABX

Command &

Control

Systems

Public

Data

Network

Internet

ISDN

Trunking

Networks

Conventional

PMR Networks


2B+D

30B+D

Conventional

Mobile

Networks

Customer Care &

Billing Systems

TETRA Connectivity


25

TETRA SERVICES

DATA

VOICE

Predefined Messages, SDS


(e.g. I am on duty)

Data Transmission

(e.g. Pictures, Video)

Telephone Mode

Individual Call

Telephone Call (PABX Call)


Radio Mode

Group Call

Direct Mode Operation

TETRA Services


26

Individual Call

Base Station


Calling T125

Calling T122

Captain


27

Telephone Call (PABX Call)

Base Station


Calling


Phone


28

Group Call

Base Station

Calling

Group 1


29

Direct Mode Operation

Base Station


Calling DMO


Receiving

DMO Call

Talkies)


30

PMR type supplementary services



Access priority, pre
-
emptive priority, priority call



Include call, transfer of control, late entry



Ambiance listening, discreet listening



Calls authorised by despatcher



Area selection



Short number addressing



Dynamic group number assignment


Supplementary services (1)


31



Telephone type supplementary services



List search call



Call forwarding
-

unconditional/busy/no reply



Call barring
-

incoming/outgoing calls



Call waiting



Call hold



Calling/connected line ID presentation



Calling/connected line ID restriction Call



Completion to busy subscriber/ on no reply



Advice of charge etc.

Supplementary Services (2)


32

Alert in

C& C Center

Automatic vehicle location

TETRA

Network

GPS


Requirement

Meta Directories

Emergency
service available
within 1km:

ID: 106, 204, 054

TETRA Scenario:

Alert in Command & Control Center


33

Police

Meta

Directories

TETRA
-
vehicle mounted terminal

Geografic data

Photos

Julie M., 24

Accident data

W 994224L

Accident

Highway 6


Sit: Überfall

Einsatzl.:

Olt. Maier

Building plan

TETRA

Network

TETRA Scenario:

Efficient Database Requiry


34

TETRA at a Glance


PMR Functionality (Simplex, Half and Full Duplex)


Effective Usage of Radio Carriers: 4 „channels‟ per
25kHz


Simultaneous use of voice and data


Data transmission up to 28,8 kbp/s


Fast call
-
connection (up to 0,3 sec)


Direct mode operation (no basestation required!)


Security with encryption (End to End, Air interface)


35

Backup


36

CDMA2000 1xRTT


CDMA2000 1xRTT
, the core CDMA2000 wireless air interface standard, is
also known as
1x
,
1xRTT
, and
IS
-
2000
. The designation "1x", meaning "1
times Radio Transmission Technology", indicates the same RF bandwidth
as
IS
-
95
: a
duplex

pair of 1.25

MHz radio channels. This contrasts with
3xRTT, which uses channels 3 times as wide (3.75

MHz) channels. 1xRTT
almost doubles the capacity of IS
-
95 by adding 64 more traffic channels to
the
forward link
,
orthogonal

to (in
quadrature

with) the original set of 64.
Although capable of higher data rates, most deployments are limited to a
peak of 144 kbit/s. IMT
-
2000 also made changes to the
data link layer

for
the greater use of data services, including medium and link access control
protocols and
QoS
. The IS
-
95 data link layer only provided "best effort
delivery" for data and circuit switched channel for voice (i.e., a voice frame
once every 20 ms).


1xRTT officially qualifies as 3G technology, but it is considered by some to
be a
2.5G

(or sometimes
2.75G
) technology.[
citation needed
] This allows it
to be deployed in 2G spectrum in some countries that limit 3G systems to
certain bands.


37

CDMA2000 3x

CDMA2000 3x is (also known as
EV
-
DO rev B
) is a multi
-
carrier evolution of the Rev A
specification. It maintains the capabilities of EVDO Rev A, and provides the following
enhancements:


Higher rates per
carrier

(up to 4.9 Mbit/s on the downlink per carrier). Typical
deployments are expected to include 3 carriers for a peak rate of 14.7 Mbit/s


Higher rates by bundling multiple channels together enhance the user experience and
enables new services such as
high definition

video streaming
.


Uses
statistical multiplexing

across channels to further reduce latency, enhancing the
experience for latency
-
sensitive services such as gaming, video telephony, remote
console sessions and web browsing.


Increased talk
-
time and standby time


Hybrid frequency re
-
use which reduces the interference from the adjacent sectors
and improves the rates that can be offered, especially to users at the edge of the cell.


Efficient support for services that have asymmetric download and upload
requirements (i.e. different data rates required in each direction) such as file
transfers, web browsing, and broadband multimedia content delivery.



38

CDMA EV
-
DO

Evolution
-
Data Optimized

or
Evolution
-
Data only
, abbreviated as
EV
-
DO

or
EVDO

and often
EV
, is a
telecommunications

standard for
the
wireless

transmission of data through
radio

signals, typically for
broadband Internet access
. It uses
multiplexing

techniques including
Code division multiple access

(CDMA) as well as
Time division
multiple access

(TDMA) to maximize both individual user's
throughput and the overall system throughput. It is standardized by
3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

(3GPP2) as part of the
CDMA2000

family of standards and has been adopted by many
mobile phone

service providers around the world


particularly those
previously employing CDMA networks. It is also used on the
Globalstar

satellite phone

network.


39

CDMA2000 EV
-
DV


CDMA2000 EV
-
DV

(
Evolution
-
Data/Voice
), supports downlink (forward link) data
rates up to 3.1
Mbit/s

and uplink (reverse link) data rates of up to 1.8 Mbit/s. EV
-
DV
can also support concurrent operation of
legacy

1x voice users, 1x data users, and
high speed EV
-
DV data users within the same radio channel.



In 2004
-
2005 timeframe, there was much debate on the relative merits of DV and
DO. Traditional operators with an existing voice network preferred deploying DV,
since it does not require an overlay. Other design engineers, and newer operators
without a 1x voice network, preferred EV
-
DO because it did not have to be backward
compatible, and so could explore different pilot structures, reverse link silence
periods, improved control channels, etc. And the network cost was lower, since EV
-
DO uses an IP network and does not require a SS7 network and complex network
switches such as a mobile switching center (MSC). Also, equipment was not available
for EV
-
DV in time to meet market demands whereas the EV
-
DO equipment and
mobile application
-
specific integrated circuits (ASIC) were available and tested by the
time the EV
-
DV standard was completed. As a result, the EV
-
DV standard was less
attractive to operators, and has not been implemented. Verizon Wireless, then Sprint
Nextel in 2004 and smaller operators in 2005 announced their plans to deploy EV
-
DO. So in March 2005, Qualcomm suspended development of EV
-
DV chipsets, and
focused on improving the EV
-
DO product line