The Transient Storage Concept Comprehensive Readings on Applications for Stream Solute Transport With Selected References in the Context of Stream-Catchment Connections, Hyporheic Exchange Flows and Reactive Solute Transport

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The Transient Storage Concept

Comprehensive
Readings on Applications for Stream Solute Transport

With Selected References
i
n the Context of

Stream
-
Catchment Connections
, Hyporheic Exchange Flows and Reactive Solute Transport


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
R
EADER
2

pr
esents a comprehensive reference list of application, analysis, and development of the
transient storage concept, specifically as implemented in the OTIS/OTEQ model packages. The list additionally
includes selected
references in the context of stream
-
catch
ment connections, hyporheic exchange flows

and
reactive solute transport in streams, specifically as such references provide insights to implementation and
interpretation of OTIS/OTEQ applications.


For the essential references for starting an application

of the transient storage concept, specifically as implemented in
the
OTIS

model package, see
T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
R
EADER

1.


For any application
:

T
he
USGS Fact Sheet

on '
”Using OTIS”

illustrates the conce
pts of
the transport model.

C
omprehensive chapters in
Streams and Ground Waters

include thoughtful discussions relating the idealized transient
storage concept to the complex hydro
-
geobiochemistry processes of streams.


The September 2003 Special Issue, “
Modeling

Hyporheic Zone Processes
”, of Advances in Water Resources provides
several examples of the new directions in which the transient storage concept is being developed
.


Topical organization of the Reading List:

T
HE
T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
M
ODEL


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

M
ODEL
D
EVELOPMENT


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION
I
NVESTIGATIONS
-

C
ONSERVATIVE
T
RANSPORT
A
PPLICATIONS


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

I
NTERPRETATION OF
E
STIMATED
P
ARAMETERS


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

P
ARAMETER
E
STIMATION


T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

2
-
ZONE
F
ORMULATION


T
RANSIEN
T
S
TORAGE
-

N
ON
-
STREAM AND
N
ON
-
CONSERVATIVE
A
PPLICATIONS



T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

W
ETLANDS



T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

F
LUME
(P
ERIPHYTON
)

P
ARAMETERS



T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

E
NGINEERED
S
YSTEMS



T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION TO
P
ARAMETERIZE
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT


T
RAN
SIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION OF
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT



T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION OF
H
YPORHEIC
Z
ONE
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT


E
NVIRONMENTAL
C
ONTEXT


H
YDROLOGY


R
ELATED
M
ODELING
F
ORMULATIONS AND
A
PPLICATIONS


H
YDROMETRIC
O
BSERVATION
&

I
NTERPRETATION OF
E
XCHANGE

F
LOWS



T
RANSPORT
C
HARACTERIZATIONS OF
E
XCHANGE
F
LOWS

R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT IN
S
URFACE
-
S
UBSURFACE
W
ATER
E
XCHANGE


E
NVIRONMENTAL
C
ONTEXT
-

E
COLOGY

T
HE
T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
M
ODEL

Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool
-
and
-
riffle stream
-

a transient st
orage model. KE Bencala, RA Walters,
Water Resources Research
,
19
(3), 718, 1983.

One
-
dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS): a solute transport model for streams and rivers. RL Runkel,
USGS WRIR 98
-
4018
, 1998. LINK: [http://co.water.usgs.g
ov/otis].

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

M
ODEL
D
EVELOPMENT

F
IELD
D
ATA
S
ET

Results of a solute transport experiment at Uvas Creek, September 1972. RJ Avanzino, GW Zellweger, VC Kennedy,
SM Zand, KE Bencala,
USGS OFR 84
-
236
, 1984.

A
PPLICATION
C
ONCEPTS

Using OTIS to mo
del solute transport in streams and rivers. RL Runkel,
USGS Fact Sheet 138
-
99
, 4pp., 2000.
LINK:[http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/fac138
-
99].

Quantifying hydrologic interactions between streams and their subsurface hyporheic zones. JW Harvey, BJ Wagner, in
Stre
ams and Ground Waters
, JB Jones, PJ Mulholland Eds., Academic Press, 3, 2000.

Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate
-
limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies. BJ
Wagner, JW Harvey,
Water Resources Research
,
33
(7), 1731, 1997
.

T
RANSPORT
C
ONCEPTS

Transport of reacting solutes in rivers and streams. RL Runkel, KE Bencala, in
Environmental Hydrology
, VP Singh Ed.,
Kluwer Academic Press, 137, 1995.

N
UMERICAL
M
ETHOD

An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations

for solute transport in small streams. RL Runkel, SC
Chapra,
Water Resources Research
,
29
, 211, 1993.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION
I
NVESTIGATIONS
-

C
ONSERVATIVE
T
RANSPORT
A
PPLICATIONS

Interactions of solutes and streambed sediments
-

Part 2 A dynamic a
nalysis of coupled hydrologic and chemical
processes that determine solute transport. KE Bencala,
Water Resources Research
,
20
(12), 1804, 1984.

Characterization of transport in an acidic and metal
-
rich mountain stream based on a lithium tracer injection an
d
simulations of transient storage. KE Bencala, DM McKnight, GW Zellweger,
Water Resources Research
,
26
(5),
989,1990.

Tracer
-
dilution experiments and solute
-
transport simulations for a mountain stream, Saint Kevin Gulch, Colorado. RE
Broshears, KE Bencala,

BA Kimball, DM McKnight,
USGS WRIR 92
-
4081
, 1993.

Transient storage in Appalachian and Cascade mountain streams as related to hydraulic characteristics. DJ D'Angelo,
JR Webster, SV Gregory, JL Meyer,
J North American Benthological Society
,
12
, 223, 1993.

Analysis of transient storage subject to unsteady flow: diel flow variation in an Antarctic stream. RL Runkel, DM
McKnight, ED Andrews,
J North American Benthological Society
,
17
(2), 143, 1998.

Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium,
potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble
-
bed
stream in Santa Clara County, California, USA 2. Mathematical model. AP Jackman, RA Walters, VC Kennedy,
J
Hydrology
,
75
, 111, 1984.

Longitudinal dispersion in a forest stream. C LeGrand
-
Marcq, H Laudelo
ut,
J Hydrology
,
78
, 317, 1985.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

I
NTERPRETATION OF
E
STIMATED
P
ARAMETERS

A new metric for determining the importance of transient storage.

RL Runkel,

J. North American Benthological Society
,
21
, 529
, 2002
.

Evaluating the reliability of t
he stream tracer approach to characterize surface
-
subsurface water exchange. JW Harvey,
BJ Wagner, KE Bencala,
Water Resources Research
,
32
(8), 2441, 1996.

Sensitivity analysis of conservative and reactive transient storage models applied to field

data fro
m multiple
-
reach
experiments
. MN Gooseff
,

KE

Benc
ala, DT Scott, RL Runkel, DM McKnight,.
Advances in Water Resources,

28
, 479, 2005.

Transient storage and hyporheic flow along the Willamette River, Oregon: Field measurements and model estimates.
AG Fernal
d, PJ Wigington, DH Landers,
Water Resources Research
,
37
(6), 1681, 2001.

Alluvial characteristics, groundwater
-
surface water exchange, and hydrologic retention in headwater streams. JA
Morrice, HM Valett, CN Dahm, ME Campana,
Hydrological Processes
,
11
, 2
53, 1997.

The hydraulic characteristics and geochemistry of hyporheic and parafluvial zones in Arctic tund
ra streams, north slope.
KJ
Edwardson
, WB Bowden, C Dahm, J
Morrice
,
Advances in Water Resources
,
26
(9),
907, 2003.


Predicting changes in hydrologic

retention in an evolving semi
-
arid alluvial stream.
JW Harvey
,
MH
Conklin,
RS Koelsch,
Advances in Water Resources
,
26
(9),
939
, 2003.

Estimation of solute transport and storage parameters in a stream with anthropogenically produced unsteady flow and
indu
strial bromide input
.
RJ Ryan, AI Packman, C Welty,
Water Resources Research
,
40
, doi:10.1029/

2003WR002458, 2004.

Comparison of transient storage in vegetated and unvegetated reaches of a small agricultural stream in Sweden
:
seasonal variation
and anthrop
ogenic manipulation. M Salehin, AI Packman, A Worman,
Advances in Water
Resources
,
26
(9),
951, 2003.

Determining long time
-
scale hydrologic
flow paths in Antarctic streams. MN Gooseff,
DM McKnight
, RL Runkel, BH
Vaughn
,

Hydrological Processes
,
17
(9), 1691
, 2003
.

Ground water occurrence and contributions to streamflow in an alpine catchment, Colorado Front Range, DW Clow, L
Schrott, R Webb, DH Campbell, A Torizzo, M Dornblaser,
Ground Water
,
41
(1), 937, 2003.

The influence of aquatic macrophytes on the hydr
aulic and physico
-
chemical properties of a New Zealand lowland
stream. RJ Wilcock, PD Champion, JW Nagels, GF Croker,
Hydrobiologia
,
416
, 203, 1999.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

P
ARAMETER
E
STIMATION

Automated calibration of a stream solute transport model: Implicat
ions for interpretation of biogeochemical parameters.
DT Scott, MN Gooseff, KE Bencala, RL Runkel,
Journal of the North American Benthological Society
,
22
,

492,
2003.

A stream tracer technique employing ionic tracers and specific conductance data applied
to the Maimai catchment, New
Zealand. MN Gooseff
,

BL McGlynn,
Hydrological Processes
,

in press/on
-
line doi: 10.1002/hyp.5685, 2005.

A statistical methodology for estimating transport parameters: theory and applications to one
-
dimensional advective
-
dispers
ive systems. BJ Wagner, SM Gorelick,
Water Resources Research
,
22
, 1303, 1986.

Dynamic identifiability analysis of the transient storage model for solute
transport in rivers. T Wagener, LA Camacho, HS
Wheater,
J. Hydroinformatics
,
4
, 199, 2002.

Parameter
estimation of the transient storage model by a routing method for river mixing processes. TS Cheong, IW
Seo,
Water Resources Research
,
39
(4
), doi:

10.1029/2001WR000676
, 2003.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE


2
-
Z
ONE
F
ORMULATION

Characterizing multiple timescales of stre
am and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in
streams. J Choi, JW Harvey, MH Conklin,
Water Resources Research
,
36
(6), 1511, 2000.

Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida. JW Harvey, J
E Saiers, JT
Newlin,
Water Resources Research
,
41
(5
), doi:

10.1029/2004WR003507
, 2005
.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

N
ON
-
STREAM AND
N
ON
-
CONSERVATIVE
A
PPLICATIONS

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

W
ETLANDS

Conservative and reactive solute transport in constructed wetlands
.
SH Keef
e, LB Barber, RL Runkel, JN Ryan, DM
McKnight, RD Wass,
Water Resources Research
,
40
, doi:10.1029/

2003WR002130, 2004.

Analysis of constructed treatment wetland hydraulics with the transient storage model OTIS. CJ Martinez, WR Wise,
Ecological Engineering
,

20
(3), 211, 2003.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

F
LUME
(P
ERIPHYTON
)

P
ARAMETERS

Contributions of microbial biofilms to ecosystem processes in stream ecosystems. TJ Battin, LA Kaplan, JD Newbold,
CME Hansen,
Nature
,

426
, 439, 2003.

Modeling transient storage and nitra
te uptake kinetics in a flume containing a natural periphyton community. BK Kim, AP
Jackman, FJ Triska,

Water Resources Research
,
26
, 505, 1990.

Effect of periphyton biomass on hydraulic characteristics and nutrient cycling in streams. PJ Mulholland, AD St
einman,
ER Marzolf, DR Hart, DL DeAngelis,
Oecologia
,
98
, 40, 1994.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

E
NGINEERED
S
YSTEMS

Diameter and surcharge effects on solute transport across surcharged manholes
,
I Guymer
,
P. Dennis
,
R O'Brien
,
C
Saiyudthong
,
J. Hydraulic Engineering
.
131
, 312, 2005.

T
RANSIENT
S
T
ORA
GE
-

S
IMULATION TO
P
ARAMETERIZE
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT

Reach
-
scale isotope tracer experiment to quantify denitrification and related processes in a nitrate
-
rich
stream,
midcontinent United States. JK Bohlke, JW Harvey, MA Voytek,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
49
(3), 821, 2004.

Particle transport and transient storage along a stream
-
size gradient in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, MJ
Paul, RO Hall Jr.,

J. Nor
th American Benthological Society
,
2
1
(2), 195, 2002.

Stream morphology controls ammonium retention in tropical headwaters. B Gucker, IG Boechat,
Ecology
,
85
(10), 2818,
2004.

Whole
-
stream metabolism in two montane streams: contribution of the hyporheic zone
. CS Fellows, HM Valett, CN
Dahm,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
4
6
(3), 523, 2001.

Hydrodynamics is a major determinant of streambed biofilm activity: From the sediment to the reach scale. TJ Battin,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
45
(6), 1308, 2000.

Reactive ir
on transport in an acidic mountain stream in Summit County, Colorado: A hydrologic perspective. DM
McKnight, KE Bencala,
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
,
53
, 2225, 1989.

Parent lithology, surface
-
groundwater exchange and nitrate retention in headwater stre
ams. HM Valett, JA Morrice, CN
Dahm, ME Campana,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
41
(2), 333, 1996.

Evidence that hyporheic zones increase heterotrophic metabolism and phosphorus uptake in forest streams. PJ
Mulholland, ER Marzolf, JR Webster, DR Hart, SP Hendr
icks,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
42
(3), 443, 1997.

Pre
-

and post
-
flood retention efficiency of nitrogen in a Sonoran Desert stream. E Marti, NB Grimm, SG Fischer,
J North
American Benthological Society
,
16
(4), 805, 1997.

Importance of transient storage zo
nes for ammonium and phosphate retention in a sandy
-
bottom Mediterranean stream.
A Butturini, F Sabater,
Freshwater Biology
,
41
, 593, 1999.

C and N dynamics in the riparian and hyporheic zones of a tropical stream, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. TJ
Chest
nut, WH McDowell,
J North American Benthological Society
,
19
(2), 1999, 2000.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION OF
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT

Transient storage assessments of dye
-
tracer injections in rivers of the Willamette Basin, Oregon. A Laenen, KE Bencala,
J. Am
erican Water Resources Association
,
37
(2), 367, 2001.

Redox processes controlling manganese fate and transport in a mountain s
tream,
DT
Scott,
DM

McKnight,
BM

Voelker,

DC

Hrncir
,
Environmental Science and Technology
,
36
(
3), 453, 2002.

Transport and cycling

of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: influence of organic acids.
DT Scott, RL
Runkel, DM McKnight, BM Voelker, BA Kimball, ER Carraway,
Water

Resour
ces

Res
earch
,

39
(11), doi:

10.1029/2002WR001768
, 2003.

In
-
stream sorption of fulvic acid i
n an acidic stream: A stream
-
scale transport experiment. DM McKnight, GM
Hornberger, KE Bencala, EW Boyer,
Water Resources Research
,

3
8
(
1), doi:

10.1029/2001WR000269
, 2002
.

Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool
-
and
-
riffle stream with a kinetic
mass transfer model for sorption. KE
Bencala,
Water Resources Research
,
19
(3), 732, 1983.

Performance of sodium as a transport tracer
-

Experimental and simulation analysis. KE Bencala, in
USGS WSP 2270
,
83, 1985.

Coupling of hydrologic transport and chem
ical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage. BA Kimball, RE
Broshears, KE Bencala, DM McKnight,
Environmental Science and Technology
,
28
(12), 2065, 1994.

Phosphate dynamics in an acidic mountain stream: Interactions involving algal uptake, so
rption by iron oxide and
photoreduction. CM Tate, RE Broshears, DM McKnight,
Limnology and Oceanography
,
40
(5), 938, 1995.

Reactive solute transport in streams 1. Development of an equilibrium
-
based model. RL Runkel, KE Bencala, RE
Broshears, SC Chapra,
Wa
ter Resources Research
,
32
(2), 409, 1996.

Reactive solute transport in streams 2. Simulation of a pH modification experiment. RL Runkel, DM McKnight, KE
Bencala, SC Chapra,
Water Resources Research
,
32
(2), 419, 1996.

Reactive solute transport in an acidic
stream: Experimental pH increase and simulation of controls on pH, aluminum,
and iron. RE Broshears, RL Runkel, BA Kimball, DM McKnight, KE Bencala,
Environmental Science and
Technology,

30
(10), 3016, 1996.

Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface
complexation approach for trace metal sorption. RL Runkel, BA Kimball,
DM McKnight, KE Bencala,
Water Resources Research
,
35
(12), 3829, 1999
.

Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen. SC Chapra, RL Runkel,
J Environmental Engineering
,
12
5
(5), 415, 1999.

Transient storage and gas transfer in lowland streams. SC Chapra, RJ Wilcock,
J Environmental Engineering
,
126
(8),
708, 2000.

T
RANSIENT
S
TORAGE
-

S
IMULATION OF
H
YPORHEIC
Z
ONE
R
EACTIVE
T
RANSPORT

Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in th
e hyporheic zone on basin
-
scale geochemical mas
s balance.

JW Harvey,
CC Fuller,
Water Resources Research
,
34
, 623, 1998.

Reach
-
scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream.

MN

Gooseff
, DM
McKnight, RL Runk
el,

Aquatic Geochemistry
,
10
(3), 221, 2004.

Weathering reactions and hyporheic exchange controls on stream water chemistry in a glacial meltwater stream in the
McMurdo Dry Valleys.
MN Gooseff, DM McKnight, WB Lyons, AE Blum,
Water Resources Research
,
38
(12
),
1279, doi:
10.1029/2001WR000834
, 2002
.

Denitrification and hydrologic transient storage in a glacial meltwater stream, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica
. MN
Gooseff,

DM McKnigh
t, RL Runkel, and JH Duff,

Limnology and Oceanography
,
49
(5), 1884, 2004.

Inorga
nic N and P dynamics of Antarctic glacial meltwater streams as controlled by hyporheic exchange and benthic
autotrophic communities.
DM McKnight,
RL Runkel, CM Tate,
JH Duff, DL Moorhead
, J. North American
Benthological Society
,
23
(2), 171, 2004.

A regress
ion approach to estimating reactive solute uptake in advective and transient storage zones of stream
ecosystems.
SA Thomas, HM Valett, JR Webster, PJ Mulholland,

Advances in Water Resources
,
26
(9), 965,
2003
.

Modeling biotic uptake by periphyton and trans
ient hyporheic storage on nitrate in a natural stream. BKA Kim, AP
Jackman, FJ Triska,
Water Resources Research
,
28
(10), 2743, 1992.

E
NVIRONMENTAL
C
ONTEXT


H
YDROLOGY

Hyporheic exchange flows. KE Bencala, In
Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences
,
M
G Anders
on
, Ed., John Wiley &
Sons, In press 2005.

A perspective on stream
-
catchment connections. KE Bencala,
J. North American Benthological Society
,
12
(1), 44, 1993.

Hyporheic zone hydrological processes. KE Bencala,
Hydrological Processes
,
14
, 2797, 2000.

Mode
ling surface
-
subsur
face hydrological interactions.
AI Packman, KE Bencala,
I
n
Streams and Ground Waters
,

Jones, J. B. and Mulholland, P. J., Eds., Academic Press, 45, 2000.

Ground
Water and Surf
ace Water
-

A Single Resource.

TC
Winter,
JW Harvey,

OL
Fra
nke,
WM
Alley
,

USGS Circular
1139
, 1998.
http://wat
er.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/circ1139

Abiotic aspects of channels and flood plains in riparian ecology. P Huggenberger, E Hoehn, R Beschta, W Woessner,
Freshwater Biology
,
40
(3
-

Rivers in the landscape: riparian

and groundwater ecology), 407, 1998.

River Mixing
, JC Rutherford, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 1994.

R
ELATED
M
ODELING
F
ORMULATIONS
,

A
PPLICATIONS
,

AND
C
OMPARISONS

Modeling hyporheic zone processes. RL Runkel, DM McKnight, and H Rajaram,
Advances in Water Resou
rces
,
26
(9),
901, 2003.


Power
-
law residence time distribution in the hyporheic zone of a 2nd
-
order
mountain stream. R Haggerty, SM Wondzell,
MA Johnson
,
Geophys
ical

Res
earch Letters
,
29
(13), 1640, doi:10.1029/2002GL014743
, 2002
.

Comparing transient storag
e modeling and residence time distribution (RTD) analysis in geomorphically varied reaches
in the Lookout Creek basin, Oregon, USA .
MN Gooseff, SM Wondzell, R Haggerty, J
Anderson,

Advances in
Water Resources
,
26
(9),
925, 2003.

A modelling study of hypor
heic exchange pattern and the sequence, size, and spacing of stream bedforms in mountain
stream networks,

Oregon, USA.
MN Gooseff
,

JK Anderson, SM Wondzell,

J laNier,

R Haggerty,
Hydrological
Processes
,

in pre
ss/on
-
line doi: 10.1002/hyp.5790
, 2005.

Surface
-
subsurface water interactions in an alluviated mountain stream channel, NM Castro, GM Hornberger,
Water
Resources Research
, 27, 1613, 1991.

Modeling catchment
scale mixing in the near
-
stream zone

Implications for chemical and isotopic hydrograph
separatio
n.

JG Chanat, GM Hornberger,
Geophysical Research Letters
,
30
, doi:10.1029/2002GL016265, 2003.

Temporal moments routing in streams and rivers with transient storage.
BH Schmid,
Advances in Water Resources,

26
(9),
1021
, 2003.

Simplification in longitudinal

transport modeling: case of instantaneous slug releases. BH Schmid,
J. Hydrologic
Engineerin
g
,
9
, 319, 2004.

On the transient storage equations for longitudinal solute transport in open channels: temporal moments accounting for
the effects of first
-
order
decay, BH Schmid,
J Hydraulic Research
, 33(5), 595, 1995.

Analytic solution of the transient storage equations accounting for solute decay. BH Schmid,
Proceedings of the IAHR
,
Am Soc Civ Eng, San Francisco, 1997.

Relationships between hydraulic parameters
in a small stream under varying flow and seasonal conditions. DR Hart, PJ
Mulholland, ER Marzolf, DL Deangelis, SP Hendricks,
Hydrological Processes
,
13
(10), 1497, 1999.

Parameter estimation and stochastic interpretation of the transient storage model for
solute transport in streams, DR
Hart,
Water Resources Research
, 31, 323, 1995.

Modelling nutrient
-
periphyton dynamics in streams with surface
-
subsurface exchange, CL Dent, JC Henry,
Ecological
Modelling
,
122

, 97, 1999.

On the relationship of transient
-
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Compilation b
y Ken Bencala, May
2
0
, 2005

ht
tp://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/bencala.html

kbencala@usgs.gov

~ ~ ~