ETSI EG 202 416

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DRAFT

ETSI EG

202 416

V

0.0.11

(
2005
-
06
-
22
)

Early
DRAFT

ETSI Guide

Your comments and input is welcome
-

please e
-
mail them to the STF285 Leader,
bruno@vonniman.com

Human Factors;

User Interfaces;

Setup proce
dure design

guidelines


for mobile terminals and e
-
services












ETSI

DRAFT ETSI EG 202 416 V 0.0.11 (2005
-
06
-
22)

3





Reference

<DEG/202 416>

Keywords

<Human Factors, Broadband Services, Setup
Procedures, User Interface Guidelin
es, MMI,
User experience, User Interface >

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2005
.

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ETSI

DRAFT ETSI EG 202 416 V 0.0.11 (2005
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4


Contents

Intellectual Property Rights

................................
................................
................................
................................

6

Foreword (BvN)

................................
................................
................................
................................
.................

6

Introduction (BvN)

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

6

1

S
cope (All)

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

9

2

References (BvN)

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

9

3

Definitions and abbreviations (BvN)

................................
................................
................................
.....

11

3.1

Definitions

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

11

3.2

Abbreviations

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

12

4

Background and motivation (MSch)

................................
................................
................................
......

13

4.1

The importance of setup procedures in a mobile environment

................................
................................
........

13

4.2

What is a mobile setup activity?

................................
................................
................................
......................

14

4.3

Bridging

the digital divide

................................
................................
................................
...............................

14

5

Previous work on setup procedures

................................
................................
................................
........

14

5.1.

Out
-
of
-
the
-
box experience (OOBE)
................................
................................
................................
.................

14

5.2

Generic setup issues from related domains

................................
................................
................................
......

15

5.2.1

PC and network setup

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

15

5.2.2

Complex home appliance/service setup

................................
................................
................................
.....

16

5.2.3

Telephone
-
based service setup

................................
................................
................................
...................

17

5.3

Previous work on mobile set
up

................................
................................
................................
........................

18

5.3.1.

Mobile out
-
of
-
the box experience

................................
................................
................................
..............

18

5.3.1.1.

Availability of set
-
up information

................................
................................
................................
........

18

5.3.1.2.

Power
-
on

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

18

5.3.1.3

Configura
tion

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

19

5.3.1.4.

First use of a service

................................
................................
................................
.............................

19

5.3.1.5.

Doing work & using the service

................................
................................
................................
...........

20

5.3.1.6.

Product and service extension

................................
................................
................................
..............

20

5.3.1.7


Product replacement

................................
................................
................................
.............................

21

5.3.1.8.

OOBE testing and metrics

................................
................................
................................
....................

22

5.3.2

Generic mobile guidelines/requirements

................................
................................
................................
....

23

5.4

Summary of orevious work on setup

................................
................................
................................
...............

23

5.5

Moving forward: Dimensions for considering mobile setup activities

................................
............................

24

5.5.1

Life cycle

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

24

5.5.2

Context of usage

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

24

5.5.3

User activity

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

25

6

Use cases for setup activities (All)

................................
................................
................................
.........

25

6.1

Why we employ use cases

................................
................................
................................
...............................

2
5

6.2

A template for cataloguing use cases

................................
................................
................................
...............

26

6.3

Ensuring use case cov
erage

................................
................................
................................
.............................

26

6.4

From use cases to guidelines: a process

................................
................................
................................
...........

26

6.5

Target use cases

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

27

7

Generic setup guidelines

................................
................................
................................
........................

27

8

Terminal
-
specific setup
guidelines

................................
................................
................................
.........

28

8.1

Example

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........................

29

9

e
-
service specific setup guidelines

................................
................................
................................
.........

29

9.1

Example

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........................

29

10

Setup procedures and design for all

................................
................................
................................
.......

29

11

Development and evaluation of setup procedures

................................
................................
..................

29

Annex A (normative): Collective table of all recommendations (BvN)

................................
.....................

30


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5


Annex B (informative): Use cases (All)

................................
................................
................................
.........

31

B.1

Use cases for setup activities

................................
................................
................................
..................

31

B.1.1

High level vs. low level use cases

................................
................................
................................
....................

32

B.1.2

A template for defining use cases

................................
................................
................................
....................

33

B.1.3

Potential probl
ems that users may encounter in setup activities

................................
................................
......

33

B.1.4

Example use cases using Cockburn's template

................................
................................
................................

35

B.1.5

Moving from use cases to guidelines

................................
................................
................................
...............

36

B.1.6

Use case b
rainstorm

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

36

B.1.6.1

Setup of voice
-
mail box

................................
................................
................................
.............................

37

B.1.6.2

Settings of
MMS

services

................................
................................
................................
..........................

37

B.1.6.2.1

Use case #1: Marja receives birthday greeting movie from Jaakko

................................
......................

38

History

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............................

39



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6


Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information
pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is

publicly available for
ETSI members and non
-
members
, and can be found
in ETSI

SR

000

314:
"Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in
respect of ETSI standards"
, which is available from the ETSI Secr
etariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web
server (
http://webapp.etsi.org/IPR/home.asp
).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI.
No guarantee
can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI

SR

000

314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web
server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.

Foreword

(BvN)

T
his
ETSI Guide (EG)

is being produ
ced by ETSI Technical Committee Human Factors, Specialist Task Force 285,
dur
ing March 2005
-

September 2006.

The development of this EG is coordinated with the

development of ETSI EG 202 417, “User education guidelines for
mobile terminals and e
-
services”
.

The
ETSI
Membership
Voting Procedure
is
foreseen to take place during September

-

November 2006; the published
version i
s anticipated for December 2006
.

Intended users of the present document

are user experience and interaction design professionals, deve
lopers of mobile
terminal
s
, services and applications, mobile network and system providers, terminal approvers and standard writers and
developers.

Introduction

(BvN)

Mobile devices play a key role in the daily activities of many people. The mobile telepho
ne, as an example, is a highly
successful device which meets a deep human need to communicate. However, new mobile applications and services are
increasingly used to perform, not just basis communication, but a variey of tasks such as

commerce and entertai
nment.
Moreover, with technical developments offering seamless and more continuous access to broadband networks, the
vision of a world where
ICT

resources around us improve the quality of our lives is more realistic than ever.

Connectivity and interoperabi
lity between telecommunications networks, personal computing, the Internet and ever
-
smarter mobile devices and services offer enormous potential for improving life, if used as intended and used by
all
.
However, there is concern about whether these new prod
ucts, services and their content will be fully accessible to all
people, including children, the ageing
population, and disabled users.

An effective
e
Society relies on the fact that all citizens are granted access. Users who cannot get over the hurdle of t
he
first installation and set
-
up of their devices, configuration of services, and integrated or additionally offered applications
may be perpetually excluded from the
e
Society. Ensuring access to mobile communication for all is a common goal of
vendors, op
erators, service providers, user associations, as well as politicians, often talking about the creation of the
e
-
inclusive information society.

In the past, the question of the
"
digital divide
"

defined the
"
haves
"

and
"
have
-
nots
"

mainly in economic terms,
describing those who could afford new technology from those who could not. As technological progress in network and
infrastructure deployment and manufacturing and economy
-
of
-
scale effects in household availability and service
provision make access to serv
ices affordable to the largest proportion of the European society, a new facet of a possible
"
digital divide
"

becomes visible, namely the one that is related to the comprehension of how to set up, configure and

use
new devices and services. This latter asp
ect of the
"
digital divide
"

has direct economic and societal consequences as the
uptake of mobile services will only be at a successful level if the new devices and services can actually be accessed, set
up

and used by European citizens.


ETSI

DRAFT ETSI EG 202 416 V 0.0.11 (2005
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7


Many users of mobi
le services experience serious difficulties trying to set up, configure and access data services like e
-
mail, Internet or messaging (
SMS
,
MMS
, voicemail) through their mobile devices. Users lack the expertise necessary to
configure and set up their devices
, services and applications appropriately. Furthermore, even the configuration of
device properties to the desired behaviour is often beyond the users
'

abilities.

Many settings can be stored on the SIM card or the USIM of the mobile device, or in a future,

managed by the
communication system as user profiles. Even so, problems are abundant when new services are introduced, when
moving from one network provider to another, when SIM or USIM cards reach a certain age and the stored information
becomes outdated

or when a user changes service provider.

While many settings may be achieved through
"
Over
-
The
-
Air
"

(
OTA
) or
"
Over
-
The
-
Line
"

(
OTL
) configuration, there
is still a problem of individualization and personalization and, moreover, the problem of inadvertent r
esetting of
individual parameters through
OTA

or
OTL

procedures. Other open issues are the matter
s of privacy and security,
e.g.

if the service provider is able to control specific parameters and to which grade these should provide trusted and
fully functi
onal solutions for the end user.

It has to be recognized that many existing services (both broadband and narrowband) cannot be fully utilized by many
users due to problems in either installing and configuring services on their devices or understanding the
full potential of
these services. These obstacles are even more emphasized by a number of developments in society:



Changing population demographics: The number of elderly people and people with special needs is growing
rapidly, requiring additional support

and dedicated efforts for those unable to cope with every day
'
s
technology
.



Population mobility:More people are accessing services from mobile devices offering limited user interface
capabilities
.



Increasing user expectations: Users are becoming accustome
d to plug
-
and
-
play systems with fully configured
components. Therefore users will have similar expectations of

mobile products and e
-
services.



The deployment of advanced social services (e.g. telecare services): These will require a complex level of
intera
ction between the user and the service over and above voice and text messages increasing the
requirement for

a high level of user interface design also involving a trusted relationship between

service
operator and customer.



Access to services by all: There

is an increasing accessibility gap between technology
-
aware and less skilled
user groups.



Increasing variability in the segmentation of customers: as mobile devices become mass market products the
diversity of users and their capabilities and limitations
has increased.

Children as young as 6 to senior aged
over 80 now make up the
cuctomer base of the ICTmarket.



User
'
s inability and lack of interest to cover important (but in a normal, user
-
centred, functionality
-
oriented
scenario, less relevant) aspects of

their communi
cation such as security aspects.



EU Policy:

The
e
Europe 2005 Action plan aims to

...

give everyone the opportunity to participate in the global
information society.

Specifically, the new EU Commisioner for Information Society and Media, Vivia
ne
Reding, has sta
ted in the European Parliament:

-

"
Ultimately, the development of the new technologies must be to the benefit of citizens and of their
welfare.

It is therefore essential to move towards a more people
-
centred approach where technologies are
used by and for citiazens. Three aspects are fundamental here: combating the digital divide, stimulating
the quality of lif
e and encouraging participation".

All

of the above dynamics in society mean that now, more than ever, there is a need to address the
needs of all people
when designing and developing mobile products and services.

As the hurdle to using remote services is the highest for first
-
time users with limited capabilties, there is a need to
simplify first access to services as much as possible, p
rovide clear guidance on configuration and use, as well as
providing a clear description of service features and the limitations of specific services.


ETSI

DRA
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8


Therefore, understandable set
-
up procedures and the availability of educational material become very imp
ortant. Even
with fully automated set
-
up procedures, user guides and quick reference guides will be necessary for day
-
to
-
day use, as
fully self
-
explanatory user interfaces are far from becoming reality on today
'
s devices with their user interface
restricti
ons and limitations. Furthermore, human memory is far from perfect
-

users will always have a tendency to
forget already learned usage procedures or specific subsets of them (e.g. passwords or commands) over time.


The major goal of this document is to pro
vide clear guidance on the design, implementation and provision of set
-
up
procedures for devices and services such that those can be set up and used by the largest possible range of users, with a
continuity of access and use.

In particular, the present wor
k shall help to define, specify and design configuration procedures for user groups with
special requirements (including young, elderly and disabled users) to configure and use their devices and services at
their potential, with maximum efficiency, as stip
ulated by the European Commission in the
e
-
Inclusion Action 13 in the
mid
-
term review (
"
Guidelines … to increase access to and widen use of
e
-
Services
"
).

Furthermore, the work will
"


put priority on the use of the potential of new technologies to foster t
he economic and
social integration of people with disabilities, promote
e
-
Accessibility and (help to) avoid
"
info
-
exclusion
"
, as required
by the
e
Europe mid
-
term reviews Commission Staff Working Background Paper.


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9


1

Scope

(All)

The present document

provide
s

user interface
design guidelines for the implementation of setup

procedures

with an
emphasis on
mobile access to these services.

It identifies best
-
practice solutions for configuration of devices and
services
throughout the product and service life
-
cycle
. Based
on these solutions,
the document
provides

guidelines
which can be used to develop systems usable to every user
.

Where
ver possible,
a design
-
for
-
all
approach
has been adopted
, taking special needs of children, elderly users or users
with physical, c
ognitive, or sensory impairments into account.

When

appropriate, specific guidelines for
these groups

are presented
, otherwise exisiting guideline documents are referenced.

The design guidelines
provided by the present document

are focused towards
the desi
gn, specification, development,

implementation, deployment and sustaining of
mass
-
market
consumer services and devices; t
hey are, however,
equally

applicable to professional services and
end
users.

For the purpose of the present
document, a
ccess to these s
ervices is achieved through
handheld
devices which are
typically characterized by
a
limited
screensize, a 12 key
-
keypad and

possibly
,

a
dditional function keys or, alternativ
e
ly,
a stylus and/or
a
touchscreen.

2

References

(BvN)

The following documents cont
ain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present
document.



References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or
non
-
specific.



For a specific reference, subse
quent revisions do not apply.



For a non
-
specific referen
ce, the latest version applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at
http://docb
ox.etsi.org/Reference
.

[
1
]

ETSI EG 202 132
: "Human Factors (HF); User Interfaces; Guidelines for generic user interface
elements for mobile terminals and services".

[
2
]

ETSI TR 102 125
: "Human Factors (HF); Potential harmonized
UI

elem
ents for mobile terminals
and services".

[
3
]

ETSI ETS 300 907
: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (
GSM
); Man
-
Machine Interface (
MMI
) of the Mobile Station (MS) (
GSM

02.30 version 5.7.1 Release 1996)".

[
4
]

ETSI TR 102

068
: "Human Factors (HF); Requirements for assistive technology devices in
ICT
".

[
5
]

ETSI ES 202 076
: "Human Factors (HF); User Interfaces; Generic spoken command vocabulary
for
ICT

devices and services".

[
6
]

ETSI ES 202 130
: "Human Fa
ctors (HF); User Interfaces; Character repertoires, ordering rules and
assignments to the 12
-
key telephone keypad".

[
7
]

ETSI EG 202 116
: "Human Factors (HF); Guidelines for
ICT

products and services; "Design for
All"".

[
8
]

ETSI TR 102 1
33
: "Human Factors (HF); Access to
ICT

by young people: issues and guidelines".

[
9
]

ETSI SR 002 180
: "Requirements for communication of citizens with authorities/organizations in
case of distress (emergency call handling)".

[
10
]

ETSI ET
R 297
: "Human Factors (HF); Human Factors in Video telephony".


ETSI

DRAFT ETSI EG 202 416 V 0.0.11 (2005
-
06
-
22)

10


[
11
]

ETSI EG 202 191
: "Human Factors (HF); Multimodal interaction, communication and navigation
guidelines".

[
12
]

ETSI EG 201 379
: "Human Factors (HF); Framework for the dev
elopment, evaluation and
selection of graphical symbols".

[
13
]

ETSI TR 101 767
: "Human Factors (HF); Symbols to identify telecommunications facilities for
deaf and hard of hearing people; Development and evaluation".

[
14
]

ETSI ES 201 38
1
: "Human Factors (HF); Telecommunications keypads and keyboards; Tactile
identifiers".

[
15
]

ETSI ETR 095
: "Human Factors (HF); Guide for usability evaluations of telecommunications
systems and services".

[
16
]

ETSI ETR 329
: "Human Facto
rs (HF); Guidelines for procedures and announcements in Stored
Voice Services (SVS) and Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT) ".

[
17
]

ETSI TS 122 101
: "Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (
UMTS
); Service aspects;
Service principles (3
GPP TS 22.101 version 5.13.0 Release 5)".

[
18
]

ETSI ETR 187
: "Human Factors (HF); Recommendation of characteristics of telephone services
tones when locally generated in telephony terminals".

[
19
]

ETSI TR 101 041
-
1
: "Human Factors (HF);

European harmonization of network generated tones;
Part 1: A review and recommendations".

[
20
]

ETSI EN 301 462
: "Human Factors (HF); Symbols to identify telecommunications facilities for
the deaf and hard of hearing people".

[
21
]

ETSI
EG 201 013
: "Human Factors (HF); Definitions, abbreviations and symbols".

[
22
]

Cockburn, A.
: "Writing effective use cases ". Addison
-
Wesley New York, 2001.

[
23
]

Cockburn, A.: "
Use case guide and template

"

(Cockburn).

NOTE:

Available
at
http://members.aol.com/acockburn/papers/uctempla.htm

[24]

Microsoft

:

«

Customize your computer

»,

2005
.

NOTE:

Available at

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/setup/customize/default.mspx

[25]

Eurostat: Internet usage by individuals and enterprises 2004.
ISSN 1561
-
4840, catalogue number:
KS
-
NP
-
05
-
018
-
EN
-
N, 2005.

[26]


Microsoft: “XP Media Cen
ter”, 2005.

NOTE:

Available at
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/mediacenter/default.mspx

[27]

(
BRUNO REF digital TV


20 percent of Swedish cannot

setup TV service “TV for all


study
)

[28]

Marcus, A. “Out of the Box Home Experience: Remote from Reality”, A
CM Interactions,
May/June 2005.

[
29]

ETSI TR 102 415:
"Human Factors (HF); Telacare services; Issues and recommendations for user
aspects”.

[30]

Orange
-

“Wildfire withdrawal
”.

NOTE: Available at

http://www.orange.co.uk/wildfire/

[31]

Ketola
, P.:


Integrating Usability with Concurrent Engineering in Mobile Phone Development

.
University of Tampere. A
-
2002
-
2. Dissertation, PhD.

[32]

PC Quality Roundtable: “
Peripherals Initial Experience Checklist

. Version 1.0. May 23, 2001.

NOTE: Available at http://www.eouroundtable.com/
Files/PeripheralsInitialExperience.pdf
.


ETSI

DRAFT ETSI EG 202 416 V 0.0.11 (2005
-
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-
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11


[33]

Open Mobile Alliance (OMA): “OMA
-
REL
-
2004
-
0094R11
-
Enabler
-
and
-
W
ID
-
Descriptions”,
2004.

NOTE: Available at
http://www.openmobilealliance.org/docs/enablersurveydocs.zip

-

184393

bytes

[34]

GSM World Site Map

NOTE: Available at
http://www.gsmworld.com/sitemap.shtml

[
35]

J.D. Power and Associates (2003). Report: High
-
Profile Image Campaigns Pay Off in the UK
Mobile Phone Market. http://www.jdpower.com/pdf/2003034.pdf

[36]

Kasesniemi E
-
L. and Rautiainen P. (2001).
Kännyssä piilevät sanomat (Embedded message
s in
mobile p
hones, i
n Finnish). Tampere University Press.
Tampere, Finland.

[37]

Ikonen V., Ahonen A., Kulju M. and Kaasinen E. (2002).
Trade description model


helping users
to make sense of the new information technology products. In Electronic Commerce. Theory and

applications. Ed. Wiszniewski, B. Proc. of ECOM
-
02. 2nd International Interdisciplinary
Conference on Electronic Commerce. November 13
-
15 2002.Gdansk, Poland. Pp. 57
-
63.

[38]

Palen L. and Salzman M. (2002). Beyond the Handset: Designing for Wireless Commu
nications
Usability.
ACM Transactions on Computer
-
Human Interaction (TOCHI) 9,2 2002.

[39]

Venkatesh V. and Brown S.A. (2001). A Longitudinal Investigation of Personal Computers in
Homes: Adoption Determinants and Emerging Challenges. MIS Quarterly 25(1).


NOTE: Available at
http://www.misq.org/archivist/vol/ no25/issue1/vol25n1art4.html

[40]

Landauer T.K. (1995). The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability, and Productivity. MIT
Press Cambridge, MA
, USA.

[41]

Keinonen, T. (1997).
Expected usability
and product preference. Proc. DIS'97 Conference
Designing Interactive Systems, 18.
-
20.8.1997 Amsterdam.
Pp. 197
-

203

[42]

IBM (2002). Out
-
of
-
box experience.

NOTE: Available at

http://www
-
3.ibm.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.nsf/Publish/577PrintView

[43]

tba

3

Definitions and a
bbreviations

(BvN)

3.1

Definitions

design for all:

design of products to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for
specialized

adoption

emergency call:

call from a user to an emergency control centre

end user:

see
user
.

e
-
service:
an ICT service
that provides the complete capability, including terminal equipment functions, for
communication between users, systems and applications
, accor
ding to agreed protocols

function:
the
abstract concept of a particular piece of functionality in a device or service

ICT devices and services:

devices or services for processing information and/or supporting communication, which has
an interface to

communicate with a user

impairment:
any reduction or loss of psychological, physiological or anatomical function or structure of a user
(environmental included)


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spoken command:
verbal or other auditory dialogue format which enables the user to input comma
nds to control a
device, service or application

NOTE:

Main work areas include
user information policy advice, documentation projects management and the
design and creation of user
-
oriented information devices.

terminal:
physical device which interfaces wi
th a telecommunications network, and hence to a service provider, to
enable access to a telecommunications service

NOTE:

A terminal also provides an interface to the user to enable the interchange of control actions and
information between the user and the

terminal, network or service provider.

usability:
effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction

with which specified users can achieve specified goals (tasks) in a
specified context and particular environments, see ETR 095 [Ref] and ISO 9241
-
11 [Ref]

NOTE:

I
n telecommunications, usability should also include the concepts of learnability and flexibility; and
reference to the interaction of more than one user (the A and B parties) with each other and with the
terminals and the telecommunications system, see ETR

116 [Ref].

user:
person

who uses a telecommunications terminal to gain access to and control of a telecommunications service or
application

NOTE:

The user may or may not be the person who has subscribed to the provision of the service or owns the
terminal
. Also, the user may or may not be a person with impairments.

user interface (UI):

physical and logical interface through which a user communicates with a telecommunications
terminal or via a terminal to a telecommunications service (also called man
-
machin
e interface, MMI)

NOTE:

The communication is bi
-
directional in real time and the interface includes control, display, audio, haptic
or other elements, in software or hardware.

user requirements:
requirements made by users, based on their needs and capabili
ties, on a telecommunication service
and any of its supporting components, terminals and interfaces, in order to make use of this service in the easiest, safest,
most efficient and most secure way

3.2

Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document,

the following abbreviations apply:

CLI

Calling Line Identification

EMS

Enhanced Message Service

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GPS

Global Positioning System

GSM

Global System for Mobile telecommunication

ICT

Information and Communication Technologies

I
SP

Internet Service Provider

ITU
-
T

International Telecommunications Union
-

Telecommunication standardization sector

LBS

Location Based Service

MMI

Man
-
Machine Interface

MMS

Multimedia Message Service

M
-
Services

Mobile data Services

OBR

Out of Box Readines
s

OMA

Open Mobile Alliance

OOBE

Out Of the Box Expreience

OTA

Over
-
The
-
Air configuration

OTL

Over
-
The
-
Line configuration

P3P

Privacy Preferences Protocol

PIN

Personal Identity Number

PoC

Push
-
to
-
talk over Cellular

PSAP

Public Safety Answering Point

SMS

Sho
rt Message Service

UG

User Guide

UI

User Interface


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UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Wi
-
Fi

Wireless
-
Fidelity (ISO/IEC local area network standard family 802.11, als
o known as WLAN)

4

Background and m
otivation

(MSch)

4.1

The importance of setup procedures in a
mobile
environment

The world of mobile communication and computing is characterized by continuous environmental change.
Services
available in one environment ma
y not be available after the user moved with his device into another environment, or the
user might be required to modify settings on his device or on in the network for required services to function properly.

A number of different reasons can be identifie
d why the configuration of devices and services become increasingly
important in today’s computational and communication environment:



The average lifetime and usage time of devices has decreased dramatically. While some years ago a
communication terminal w
as installed by a service provider at one location and was expected to be used for at
least a decade, today’s users switch from one communication device to the next generation device often within
less than one year. These new devices offer new functionalit
y and known functionality may be presented
differently or controlled by other means. Using known services may become impossible if users have to
modify the configuration of their device



With the advent of true competition among service providers the freque
ncy of provider changes has risen
dramatically among mobile communication customers. Services offered by different providers may need
different configurations. A device properly configured for one service provider may not allow access to the
same service f
rom another provider.



The automatic change of service providers while roaming creates a lot of uncertainty about the availability of
services as the user interfaces of these services and their availability might change in roaming situations. Also,
services

with identical functionality might require different setups while roaming in a foreign country. The



The above
-
mentioned competition among newly
-
emerging service providers is a main reason for the
development of new services and

the availability of these
services through different access channels (e.g.
packet based vs. circuit switches (GPRS/HSCSD); both these new services and the different protocols require
different setups.

Setup procedures may differ widely for voice
-
based services and non
-
voice
-
based s
ervices. While for voice
-
based
services quite often setup procedures can be found which are based on voice output to the user and DTMF or voice
-
input to the service/device, the setup interface for non
-
voice services. In these situations, detailed knowledge

about
computer and service usage may be required on the user side.

Needless to say that non
-
functioning setup procedures are a major obstacle to the initial uptake and the continued usage
of services. Users are, as a rule, unforgiving when a service fail
s to deliver consistently. Independent of the reason for
service failure the usage of these services will be discontinued if several of these failures occur. For many of the
situations decribbed above it is crucial that service re
-
configuration functions t
ransparently, i.e. the user does not and
doesn’t need to become aware of changes which are done either on the device or in the service.

Another problem that needs to be addressed is the supply of necessary information to the user during setup activities.
G
enerally, mobile device users have no access to user guides or reference manuals as the need to reconfigure may arise
while they are away from home. Necessary information must therefore be stored on the device or be deliverered through
the service interfac
e. In the case of basic services not being configured properly the latter approach my prove to be not
feasible. In these situations the option of automated setup of services becomes extremely important

Automated initial setup proecedures and adaption to c
hanges environmental requirements may be a major factor for the
uptake of new services or users’ continuous usage of these services.

Interaction between various devices and centralised services, issue of “minimal UI” service access.

(Can anyone tell me
wh
at the background for this sentence was?


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4.2


What is a mobile setup a
ctivity?

For the purposes of these guidelines, a
setup procedure is defined as:

“A
n end
-
user/system activity which sets a parameter in the service/device/network that allows the satisfa
ctory
completition of end
-
user tasks
.
"

The user interaction related to setting up a device or service may occur at a number of points in device usage which
correspond to
a life
-
cycle of device and service usage
.

Setup and configuration activies during this

device life
-
cycle can
be
defined in the following steps.

1.

Initial setup / reparameterisation of a device/bearer/service

a.

when a device/service is first purchased, e.g. set up MMS

b.

a preloaded setting which is reparamete
rised, e.g. change IM nick
-
name

2.

A probl
em occurs during normal use of a device/service OR user paramerisation is required

a.

These setup activities can be initiatied
by the user, e.g. user wants to select a lower cost version of
service

while roaming or the

user wants to change
the
home page

of hi
s internet browser

b.

Alternatively, these activities are initiated

by the system
/service
, e.g.
a location
-
based service may

tell
user to activate
the
GPS uni
t before being able to use LBS.

3.

Reconfiguration during phase
-
out of a device or service

a.

the terminatio
n/transfer to a new device of data or a service, e.g. user changes phone, us
er cancels
service subscription

4.3

Bridging the digital divide

The design of setup procedures for mobile devices and services has to adapt to the different abilities and the techn
ical
know
-
how of different users groups. They should not be designed for users with specific technical knowledge thereby
creating an additional devide between those with the relevanz know
-
how and the majority of users who have neither the
interest nor the
ability to acquire this knowledge. Furthermore, it is important for designers to be aware of different
requirements of special user groups in order to make services available to all.

Especially for users without technical knowledge it is important to make
setup procedures as “forgiving” as possible,
trying to automatically correct erroneous user input and automating the configuration as far as possible. This seems to
be the preferred way of preventing the user from getting frustrated through services which
d not work on first try.

5

Previous work on setup procedures

5.1.

Out
-
of
-
the
-
box experience (OOBE)

“The initial experience a user has in taking a new product out of the box and setting it up, in preparation for use, creates
a lasting impression and consti
tutes an important aspect of the to
tal user experience” [42].

Users face practical problems when they start using a new device, system or service for the very first time, or they want
to replace an existing device with a new one.

The consumer device lifecy
cle is typically 2
-
3 years. Service lifecycle may be shorter. At the end of the lifecycle the
device is normally replaced with a new one. We call this activity
product replacement
. The short lifecycle and high
penetration of devices leads to the situation
where the user and the sales person must often cope with
first use

and
product replacement. Positive user experience in these activities is critical for the success of a manufacturer or a service.

[39]

identifies low usage as one consequence of system non
-
acceptance. Also other previous research
[40
-
41]

confirms
that perceived ease of use is “an important factor influencing user acceptance and usage behavior of information

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technologies”. First impression is important, and hence is the out
-
of
-
box experience.

Manufacturers and service
providers must consider OOBE since, for example:



Most help desk calls occur during OOBE or first use when the user is unfamiliar with the product.



The first
-
use experiences are shaping expectations for future interaction and use
.



The OOBE may be the user’s first direct interaction with the company and the brand.



Sales of products through retail and catalog order channels are affected by how the product presents itself to
users.

OOBE and set up activity can be broken down into ty
pical steps
[Need Ref! I
BM,
2000]

covers a wide variety of
activities related to the OUT OF THE BOX experience.

Table x: Stages of Setup Activity (IBM, 2000)

IBM 2000 breakdown of setup

FOCUS for Mobile Setup

Packaging and unpacking


Hardware setup


Pow
er
-
on


Configuration (focus HERE)

X

Initial use (focus HERE)

X

Doing Work (focus HERE)

X

Further assistance


Product extension (focus HERE)

X

Product replacement (focus HERE)

X


OOBE topics for mobile set
-
up are further discussed in section 5.3.1.

5.
2

Generic
setup i
ssues from related domains

In order to understand generic issues that users may face when setting up mobile de
vices or services

it is useful to
consider other information technology domains where setup procedures are important.

Within t
hese domains, we focus
particularly on generic problems that users are facing.

5.2.1

PC and network setup



PC

o

PCs are the most complex consumer digital device which are widely used in a home environment. At
even a presentation level, the user has a wide
variety if customisation setups that can be performed
[24]. However, the flexability and power of these devices present particular challenges in setup
activities:



Home PCs may have many different users within the family. Each user has their specific
needs
with regards applications, email and internet.



Changing PC requires the re
-
installation of software application and software related to
peripherals such as scanners and printers.



New peripherals must be setup with correct software and without conflict with

existing
devices.



Licensing agreements must be understood to avoid unnecessary expense when upgrading or
renewing PC hardware and software.



Home network


o

The explosion of home networks has occurred due to the widespread availability of broadband
connectio
ns.
The number of broadband access lines deployed across the EU rose by over 72% in the
year to mid
-
2004, to 29.6 million, when the share of the EU population actually using broadband

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services was 6.5% (7.6% in the pre
-
accession EU 15 Member States). Broad
band take
-
up is growing
so fast that the latest data, compiled since the Communication was finalised, suggests that 8.8% of the
EU population now has a fixed broadband connection
[25]
. The increase in home networks has also
been driven by
the decrease in p
rice of PC desktops/laptops and desktop equipment.

o

The majority of broadband solutions provided by telephone operators come complete with a
modem/router/switch combo device preconfigured with the users account information and service
access parameters. How
ever, problems occur when:



The service provider changes the name of the service with or without notifying the user.



A temporary service outage causes a user to make unnecessary but catastrophic changes to
network configuration.



The user resets the router/m
odem by accident and loses preconfigured account information



The user wishes to upgrade the modem or router



The user has a technical query and must identify the source of the problem, e.g. the operator
network, router/modem, home network, PC hardware or PC

software.



Users which to change firewall settings

o

The interconnection of components in the home network can cause further problems for users.
Networks based on Wi
-
Fi, Ethernet or USB are becoming increasingly widespread In reality, pre
-
existing technologi
es such as Ethernet which were designed by and for training IT professionals to
install, manage and upgrade are being present to consumers as the components of their home
networks. The consequent gap between target user and actual end
-
user is proving to be

a key barrier
to broadband uptake [25]. Particular problems that emerge are:



Users wish to add components to the network, e.g. laptop



Users wish to share components on the network, e.g. printers



Users to upgrade the Wi
-
Fi network, e.g. Wi
-
Fi 802.11b to 80
2.11g.



The user has a problem, e.g. no internet, no signal : where does the problem lie? How to fix
it?



Users wish to remove/add/upgrade security on the network.



Instruction manuals use technical language that is not easily understood by users such as
DNS,

IP, bridge, WEP, router, switch, modem.



PC
-
based Home Entertainment Systems

o

The home PC can be placed at the centre of the home multimedia experience [26]. However, this
development brings all of the problems of PC setup into the home entertainment domai
n.



How to manage disc space



How to set audio quality



How to add new devices (same issues as a PC)



How to ensure old devices continue to work



Ensuring compatability between components

5.2.2

Complex home appliance/service setup



Video recorders

o

The classic case fo
r poor usability but with very little study of successful solutions. The most
effective method for setup incorporation to date attempt the solve the following issues:


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Channel tuning when the video recorder is first installed. This is accomplished by automa
tic
“strongest” signal scanning and channel name transmission.



Setup of record start, end and channel. Accomplished by bar
-
code scanning directly from TV
listings, “Show
-
View” or access to on
-
line programme guide.



Hard
-
Disk recorder

o

How to set and manage p
rogramme schedules

o

How to setup disk configurations

o

How to install hard
-
disk with other components, e.g. TV, DVD, Hi
-
Fi, PC.



TV/Cable/Hi
-
FI/DVD
[27] (BRUNO REF digital TV


20 percent of Swedish cannot setup TV service “TV
for all” for all study)

o

[28] iden
tifies a number of key problems when installing integrated home entertainment systems.



Poor compatibility between components from different manufacturers



Poor user manuals for setup



Difficult configuration of multiple remote control devices



Diverse and bad
ly design on
-
screen user interfaces for setup procedures

o

The transition from analogue to digital televisions services across Europe is changing the way the
end
-
users interact with their television. The following issues relate mainly to the interaction betw
een
devices.



Installation of digital decoder



Interaction with television channel selection



Interaction with video/hard disk recorder



Setup of common remote control unit



Personal Health systems

o

Personal health systems are developing with certain European m
arkets. Key issues in the setup of
such systems are [29]:



User identification



Parameter threshold setting



Alarm setting



Polling frequency of parameters

5.2.3

Telephone
-
based
service s
etup



Voicemail

o

Voicemail systems rely predominantly on touch
-
tone (DTMF
) input. Key setup issues are:



How and when to set Greeting/Name setup



PIN code setup and what to do if PIN is lost



Setting up voicemail behaviour, e.g. call back/SMS notification



Videomail service


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o

A limited number of videomail services have been launched
in European markets. IN addition,
systems are available for use by hearing impaired users. These visual systems present particular
challenges



Managing image quality



Personal Assistant service

o

Personal assistant services such as Wildfire [30] provide Person
al Information Management features
controlled via voice or touch
-
tone



Setup of appointments



Setup of greetings



Setup of PIN codes and what to do if PIN is lost

5.3

Previous work on mobile setup

A summary of previous work on mobile set up activities.

5.3.1.


Mobile out
-
of
-
the box experience

A terminal needs to be configured prior the use of services. The following sections will discuss some OOBE phases,
and propose guidelines.

Mobile terminal and PC manufacturers face the same challenge: customers have hard
times in making their smart
terminals to connect locally, to Internet, or in enabling basic messaging functionality. The challenge is not made easier
due to smaller user interface, manufacturer and operator specific setup (instead of common conventions or
standards)
and roaming limitations in cellular networks (including socio
-
technical elements, such as service provider policy).

5.3.1.1.

Availability of set
-
up information

Before the set
-
up can take place, user must have the needed data and information. Wi
th mobile terminals this
information may include, for example, Phone number, Phone model, User names/passwords, IMEI code, SW version,
HW version, and bizware information, such as Service plan. Depending on the sales point affiliations, such as operator
re
lationship, the SIM or other subscription method is in a separate package or part of the product package.

The service provider is adviced to consider:



Which information the user may have, and which information should be delivered prior to configuration



Re
-
using earlier/existing customer information

The manufacturer is adviced to consider the following:



The essential set
-
up information is easy to find and access



A quick
-
guide is provided for setup, instead of lengthy user guide.

5.3.1.2.

Power
-
on

The main a
nd critical indication of a successful power
-
on and setup is the attachment to service networks, indicated
with a signal strength bar.

If the power
-
on fails the device does not attach to the service network. If there are problems at this stage, they are
t
ypically caused by troubles with the operator subscription or availability of the network, and not by the phone itself.
The problems in network connection or service availability are often thought to be phone problems (Ketola 2002). The
user guide needs to

give support in solving the typical power
-
on problems.


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5.3.1.3

Configuration

Mobile terminals need work before the services are ready to be used.
[38]

show
s

that simply the insufficient
understanding of different aspects of mobile communication may cause
problems in the use and setup. The most
commonly reported usability problems are setup and initial configuration topics, network failures and wireless hardware
issues.

Mobile terminals have an increasing number of settings to be adjusted prior to first us
e, often related to Internet
connectivity (browser, Email) and messaging functionality (SMS, MMS). Configuring a mobile terminal is one of the
most difficult tasks the user faces [
35]
.

In mobile communication, many settings are operator
-
specific and can be

adjusted when the cellular operator is known.
Internet Email gives several challenges for the phone manufacturer and for the user since the manufacturer or operator
is typically unaware of the user’s Email services, and hence cannot provide default setup.

In the following we will
review SMS, MMS and Internet Email setup.

SMS is the most used and mature messaging function in mobile terminals. In order to use this function the operator
specific
service center number (SCN)

must be configured. SCN is typically

stored in SIM and the phone is capable to
automatically take the number into use. The outcome is that SMS works in a new phone without user’s effort. If, for any
reason, the user is required to enter the number manually it takes about 1 minute (if the num
ber is known) since the
phone user interface straightforwardly asks for the number.

MMS is more complex technology and not yet mature. While SMS requires only one data item to be configured, MMS
requires 20 items. (6 text strings, 14 selections). If the no
vice user is required to enter the required information manually
it takes about >30 minutes to complete, if succeeds at all. MMS setup data can’t be stored in current SIMs due to
technical limitations, and hence different solutions are required:



If the te
rminal is manufactured for a specific operator, the setup can be done
in the factory (factory setup)
.



If the terminal is sold by an operator, the setup can be done
at the sales point
.



User can request
the MMS settings. There are various ways to perform thi
s, such as sending a SMS to a
service number or fill in a form in a web service. The setup data is received as configuration messages.



User can manually configure

the MMS service. The manual configuration can be helped with a software tool
in a PC or in th
e phone.

Internet Email is globally probably the most used electronic messaging method. The two main methods for accessing
Email service are using Email client and using web browser. Several terminals today have an Email client, copied and
downscaled from
PC applications.

In the worst case the user is required to configure manually Intern
et service (10 data items) and e
mail (10 data items).
The small terminal keypad with multitapping text entry is prone to typing errors. Email setup is one of the most
comm
on reasons to contact a service desk or sales point after product purchase.

The design of the Configuration experience should provide:



Immediate feedback that set
-

up was successful (or insuccesfull)



In case of difficulty guidance

5.3.1.4.

First use of a

service

Competition drives the devices to be smaller, have more functionality, provide latest technological inventions and still
they should be more usable for the expanding user base. Very few customers are able to describe even the basic
technological c
oncepts, such as th
e SIM or mobile phone operator [36]
. Even the expert users are not aware of all the
terminal capabilities and are using only 2
-
3 applications in a weekly basis. It is certainly a challenge to tell the user
what a new terminal can do.

In
the first use the user is often in the situation where she is not able to understand what functionality is available, or
which part of the functionality is provided by the terminal, service or operator. When problems are faced, the user has
difficulties in

understanding who should help her and what is the problem. Further, even the different parties in the
service chain can not always decide who should be responsible for solving a technical or usability problem.


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The first
-
use experience is important for the

user’s product acceptance. If the product is designed well and user
-
centered
design is properly applied, the user may not experience first use problems, and there are no barriers for accepting the
device.

Users may have difficulties even in understanding

what the product or service can or cannot do [
37
-
38
]. The design of
the First use experience should address:



Product/Service features and capabilities



Product/Service limitations



Sources of assistance



In case of difficulty guidance

5.3.1.5.

Doing work
& using the service

When the terminal or service is taken into use, the user may perform old tasks in a familiar way, learn new ways to
perform old tasks, learn new tasks, or stop doing old tasks. The question of being able to use old skills or learn new
s
kills becomes interesting. The key elements in Doing work experience:



Help the user begin doing meaningful things they want to do



Provide active assistance as the default



Teach how to use supplied functionality in everyday tasks.



Provide easy and quick

support in case of difficulty

When a user starts to use a new terminal or service, she looks for familiar terms and analogies with earlier experiences
(Sinkkonen et al. 2002, 254). If the analogical reasoning is not enough for learning, the user applies e
xploratory trial
-
and
-
error method. Rieman (1996) studied exploratory learning strategies. He reports that:



Users are primarily concerned with accomplishing their tasks. The time pressures are a major factor in
determining how and what user chooses to learn
.



Users prefer “just
-
in
-
time” task
-
driven learning.



Users learn by trying out different things, and this approach is often combined with looking at manuals and
asking for help.

There are various channels for the user to get support, such as asking help fro
m friends, contacting the sales point or
calling to a service number which is indicated in the user guide.


Changing configuration

(WHAT IS THE RIGHT PLACE FOR THIS? NOT NECESSARILY OOBE section)

The service configuration may change, for example due to se
rvice maintenance reasons or due to expiring passwords.
The user may experience this as a service that does not work anymore.

If the new configuration needs to be manually updated in the terminal or service, it should be noted that most users are
not able
to perform update successfully by themselves.

5.3.1.6.

Product and service extension

Terminal or service functionality can be expanded with with various ways, such as plugging in a GPS modul or
activating new service element. In many cases the existing sy
stem works well, but product and service extension leads
to unexpected problems. It also shows that the problem may not be related to the system’s user interface, but the
system’s
service or external interface
[31]
.

Product Extension experience should addr
ess:



Maintaining old functionality. The product or service extension must not disrupt existing work practice.


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Enable easy attach
and

detach for the extension



Prevent error possibilities.



Provide immediate feedback that extension was successful



In case of
difficulty guidance

[32]

addresses the external interface of products, and gives a checklist for improving the setup and configuration of
peripheral devices and related software. It tries to provide guidelines that can be implemented immediately with curre
nt
technologies, and increase the probability of user success with a device. The list can be used as informative aid when
developing OOBE for mobile phone extensions.

5.3.1.7

Product replacement

In product replacement the user is concerned about being abl
e to continue work practices she has already established.
To enable this in a easy and reliable manner is a challenge for the whole IT industry.

Technical evolution of mobile terminals and services is fast and there are several operating systems in use. Pr
oduct
replacement challenges will emerge along the large
-
scale adoption of smart terminals. The compatibility between
device generations is difficult to build and maintain. It is not always the case that the user can transfer personal data
from the old ter
minal to the new one, or continue using existing applications, accessories and services. Due to technical
advances the terminals may provide different user interaction and data management capabilities.

We will shortly review some specific challenges. Tabl
e x describes three examples where terminal replacement has
impact on user’s work. The example is based on replacing a mobile terminal

Table x. Positive and negative terminal replacement experiences.

Task

Possible positive experience

Possible negative expe
rience

Change SIM to
new terminal

Phonebook data is in the SIM. It is automatically
copied to the memory of new terminal. No
actions required from the user.

The phonebook field names are lost.
The user does not know which numbers
are mobile numbers.

Use
browser

New terminal has defaulf settings for the
browser. Browsing can continue without
configuration efforts.

Browser settings need to be configured
in the new terminal prior to browsing.

Personal
ringing tones

New terminal has new and exciting offering

of
ringing tones. User prefers to use those.

Personal ringing tones can’t be moved
to the new terminal. Must be created or
downloaded again.

The future of data intensive mobile terminals gives yet more issues to be solved. The following list describes so
me
technical challenges related to personal data management:



Built
-
in memory: the memory capacity varies between terminals. The new terminal does not necessarily have
more memory. Even if a software tool enables the transfer of data between terminals, it i
s not always the case
that the product replacement succeeds due to memory limitations.



Memory extension: Several smart terminals can use memory extensions, such as Multi Media Card (MMC).
The supported sizes, technologies and capacities vary between devic
es. An old memory device may not
physically fit into the new terminal.



Data transfer: in order to transfer the data between terminals using wired or wireless connection both devices
need to be on. Most terminals cannot be powered on without SIM. In many ca
ses the user has only one SIM.



In many cases the user does not know what data can or should be transferred in product replacement, and the
product developers should take this into account.

Product Replacement experience

should address:



Maintain data. The
product replacement must not disrupt the use of existing data content.



Maintain settings and applications. The product replacement must not disrupt existing work practice.


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Maintain accessory compability. The product replacement must not disrupt the use of
existing accessories
without obvious reason.



Allow several replacement methods to cope with incompatible software and hardware.



Prevent error possibilities and loss of data



Immediate feedback that product replacement was successful



In case of difficulty g
uidance

5.3.1.8.

OOBE testing and metrics

OOBE problems can be seen as system design errors. Design errors can be avoided and errors corrected only if they are
found early enough, or not generated at all. OOBE design and testing should try to identify, pre
vent and eliminate the
problems
that could emerge in the first interaction between the user and product
.

Can we measure out
-
of
-
box experience? Traditional product testing practices, for example functional software testing,
are not suitable for capturing O
OBE problems. Hence the testing methods and metrics should be sought from usability
or interoperability testing practices.

The primary OOBE measure is the user’s success in the task. Here we can apply perceptual measures, such as does the
user succeed in t
aking the product into use. We can also apply more detailed metrics that are familiar from usability
testing, for example:



User performance metrics (time, errors, subjective satisfaction)



System performance metrics (loss of data, error prevention, memorabi
lity, guessability, learnability).



Support performance (Feedback time, problem solving capability)


References
-

those that stay must be numbered and lin
ked to the text in this section (check
-

clean up):

Churchman C.W., Ackoff R.L. and Arnoff E.L. (1957). I
ntroduction to Operations Research. Wiley, New York.

Cooper A. (1999). The inmates are running the asylum: Why high
-
tech products drive us crazy and how to restore
the sanity. SAMS. Indianapolis, Indiana.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceive
d Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology.
MIS Quarterly. September. Pp. 318
-
340.

Forrester (2003). Mobile Telcos Struggle With New
-
Service Issues. Forrester Research, Inc. Brief. August 8, 2003.

Fouts J.W. (2000). On site: an “out
-
of
-
bo
x” experience. Comm. ACM 1, 43. No.11. Pp. 28
-
29.

Gould J.D., Boies S.J. and Lewis C. (1991). Making usable, useful, productivity
-
enhancing computer applications.
Comm. ACM 34, No 1. Pp. 74


85.

ISO 20282 (2002). Ease of Operation of everyday products. Pa
rt 1: Context of use and user characteristics. Version
1.9. Draft. International standard.

Kantola K., Lahti M. and Väätänen A. (2003).
First steps towards viewing digital television. A digital television set
-
top
-
box trial. VTT Tiedotteita


Research notes

2188. ISBN 951
-
38
-
6124
-
4 Otamedia Oy, Espoo.

Ketola P. (2002).
Integrating Usability with Concurrent Engineering in Mobile Phone Development. University of
Tampere. A
-
2002
-
2. Dissertation, PhD.

Lehto J. (2002). Matkapuhelimen välitön käytettävyys: Käytett
ävyysongelmat käyttöönottotilanteessa (Instant
usability of a mobile phone: Usability problems in taking the product into use). Master’s thesis.
University of Tampere.

Lehtola S. and Mokka S. (2002).
First steps of mobile digital television: state of the a
rt and first user Impressions.
VTT Publications. TTE5
-
2002
-
18.
http://www.vtt.fi/tte/mobtv/pub/First_steps_mobile_digi_television.pdf
. Ref. 30.10.2002.


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PC Quality Roundtable (2001). Peripherals Initial Experience Checklist. http://www.eouroundtable.com/
Fi
les/PeripheralsInitialExperience.pdf
. Version 1.0. May 23, 2001.

PC Quality Roundtable (2002). The Ease of Use/PC Quality Roundtable.
http://www.eouroundtable.com
.

PC Quality Roundtable (2002b). Unmanaged Wireless Networking. http://www.eouroundtable.com/
F
iles/
WirelessWP.pdf
. Rev. 1.0. August 2002.

Rieman J. (1996). A field study of exploratory learning strategies. Comm. ACM 3, 3. Pp. 189
-
218.

Sacher H. and Loudon G. (2002). Uncovering the new wireless interaction paradigm. Interactions Vol. 9 Issue 1.
Pp.

17
-
23. ACM, New York.

Sawyer S. (2001). A market
-
based perspective on information systems development. Comm. ACM 44, 11. Pp. 97
-
102.

Sinkkonen I. (2001). Designing for humans: The first use of a product. In Pantzar E., Savolainen R. and Tynjälä P.
(Eds.):

In search for a human
-
centred information society. Tampere University Press, Tampere.
Pp. 215
-
233.

Sinkkonen I., Kuoppala H., Parkkinen J. and Vastamäki R. (2002). Käytettävyyden psykologia (Psychology of
usability).
IT Press. Helsinki Finland.

Venkatesh,

V. and Davis, F. D. (2000) A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four
Longitudinal Field Studies. Management Science 46 (2). Pp. 186
-
205.

5.3.2


Generic mobile guidelines/requirements

In [1] a number of high
-
level guidelines were dev
eloped by ETSI to cover generic mobile setup activites. Additionally,
operator specific guidelines such as Vodafone live! were considered. Unfortunately these documents are not publicly
available.

The OMA also cites setup activities in its discussion docum
ents, see [33]. The GSM
-
A also cites setup activites, see

[34
].

5.
4


S
ummary of orevious work on setup

Based on the summary of existing work, the following high level observations directed the generation of
guidelines.



There is a clear life
-
cycle for mobil
e setup activities

which covers installation, normal usage and
upgrade/phase
-
out. Setup needs are different for each of these phases.



The home environment is being populated with increasingly complex and “programmable” devices which are
in addition to trad
itional computing hardware. This is introducing new setup problems caused by device
incompatibility, poor setup user interfaces and poor user guides.



The home environment promotes behaviours which are not compatible with complex setup activities, e.g.
rela
xation, automation, social interaction.



Some users want to perform setup themselves

to allow full personalisation



On the surface, setup activities vary greatly from device to device and service to service. However, on closer
inspection they can be consider
ed as predominantly related to inter
-
device configuration, initial parameter
setting, trouble shooting and upgrade.



Call and support centers
are

contacted because of se
tup failures: service not activ
ated, variables not set
correctly, underlying services no
t available or not properly configured.



Inconsistency between services, handsets, contracts, user guides

and licenses blocks usage



Inconsi
stent language and terminology
across devic
es and services and user guides blocks usage.



Overcome initial user frustra
tion if service access fails on first try.


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Many problems are
caused

by technology being used outside of its target environment and users.


5.5

Moving forward: Dimensions for considering mobile setup
activities

Given the problems that has been cited we begi
n to formulate a framework to categorise mobile set up activities. The
framework has three dimensions which are highlighted below.


Figure xx: Key Dimensions for Set
-
Up Activity

5.5.
1

Life cycle

The user interaction related to setting up a device or servi
ce may occur at a number of points in device usage which
correspond to our Life
-
Cycle ideas. The device life
-
cycle can be defined in the following steps.

1)

initial setup / reparameterisation of a device/bearer/service
:

a)

when a device/service is first purch
ased, e.g. set up
MMS
;

b)

a preloaded setting which is reparameterised, e.g. change IM nick
-
name
;

2)

a problem occurs during normal use of a device/service OR user paramerisation is required
:

a)

identified by the user, e.g. user wants to select a lower cost v
ersion of service. user wants to change home
page
;

b)

identified by the system, e.g. tell user to activate GPS un
it before being able to use LBS;

3)

phase
-
out
:

a)

the termination/transfer to a new device of data or a service, e.g. user changes phone, user can
cels service
subscription
.

5.5.2

Context of usage



User: as mentioned in
clause

4.3, in order to address needs of special user groups, relevant user personas can
be identified.



Mobility, e.g. walking, standing
.



Static but in transit, e.g. train
.



Static sitt
ing, e.g. airport/home/hotel
.


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With PC/Latop
.

5.5.3

User activity

It is likely that the same low
-
level setup "building
-
blocks" will be required in multiple use
-
cases. In addition, generic
guidelines can be extrapolated, e.g. the "user authentification" setu
p will require security guidelines for presentation and
encoding. Many of these low level activities should be completed by "preconfiguration" but there may be cases where
user intervention is required.

Activities are grouped as follows.

High level Activit
ies



Communication
-

person to person
.



Communication
-

person to community
.



Co
mmunication
-

person to service.



Co
mmunication
-

service to person.



Filling "Grey
-
time"/Fun (non
-
communication)
.



Free Content gat
hering.



M
-
Commerce (including content)
.



Personalis
ing (can be done without network)
.

Low Level Activities



Setup related to Network/Bearer
, e.g .
GSM
,
UMTS
,
GPRS
, CDMA, MobileTV, Bluetooth, GPS
.



Setup related to Server
, e.g.
MMS
,
SMS
, IM, Blog, Email,
WAP
, HTTP
.



Setup related to Service
.



Setup related to Us
er Profile
.



Setup related to user Data
.

6

Use cases for setup activities

(All)

6.1

Why we employ use cases

Use
-
cases provide a common non
-
technical language for investigating user activities and their relation to system
behaviours.

By focusing on a
"
functi
onal view
"

of the user
-
system interaction they allow special focus on situations
where
"
ideal
"

or
"
happy days
"

interaction breaks down.

By focusing on such non
-
ideal cases, guidelines can be
extrapolated from the use cases to avoid interaction problems and

improve the design of set
-
up interactions.

In this way,
use
-
cases clearly present the motivation behind the guidelines presented in this report.

It is clear from
clause

5 that setup activities can form part of many different mobile activities and are rare
ly an end in
themselves.(in the rare cases where set
-
up is the main task, e.g. configuring a new service, automated set up is preferred
making the use case very simple).

Therefore, for the purposes of this report,

in order to ensure that key mobile end
-
use
r
goals are considered, use cases are defined which have high
-
level goals rather than addressing low
-
level set up
activities.

For example,
"
Set
-
up of
MMS
"

is a low
-
level setup activity which would be necessary in many peer
-
to
-
peer and peer
-
to
-
service commu
nication goals, e.g.
"
MARTIN WISHES TO SEND A PHOTOGRAPH HIS HAS TAKEN WITH HIS
MOBILE PHONE TO HIS FRIEND PETER
"
.


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For examples of high
-
level vs low
-
level
use cases, please refer to the a
nnex X.X
.

6.2

A template for cataloguing use cases

A number of use
-
ca
se templates have been proposed (Refs: Daiper, Green, etc.).

The selected template was defined by
Cockburn [Pls provide full reference 1997!].

A number of benefits of this template were identified:

1)

Simplicty
: the use case can be tabulated or written in pro
se form
.

2)

Error Handling
: The
"
EXTENSIONS
"

sections gives a straightfo
rward way to define error cases.

3)

Industry Acceptance
: The method has been used with success by industrial
UI

teams.

Cockburns template (for a full description and example use case, see th
e
a
nnex X.X) defines the following key parts of
each use case.

Use Case
:

high
-
level goal which is often not connected with a setup activity, e.g. "Bob wants to send an
MMS
", not
"Bob wants to setup
MMS
"
.

Goal in Context/preconditions
:

here we can define wh
en the setup issue occurs (initial, normal use, end of life), user
location/motion, as well as the state of the user/device/system and user persona (special needs, etc
.
)
.

Description
:

the ideal flow in sufficient detail to identify
"
jump
-
off
"

points for ex
ceptions/subflows
.

Exceptions/sub flows
:

here we can define different kinds of problems th
at can occur related to set
-
up.

6.3

Ensuring use case coverage

Given that high
-
level use cases will be considered, the next step is to ensure the choice of use cases
gives the coverage
necessary to capture the most important set
-
up problems that are experienced by users

.
To ensure coverage, we employ
the framework we identified in
clause

5.

a)

The Life
-
cycle of device usage
.

b)

Types of User Activities.

c)

The Context of Usage
.

Use cases should widely populate this space.

For example, the use
-
case:
"
MARTIN HAS TAKEN A P
ICTURE AND
WANTS TO SEND IT TO
HIS FRIEND
"

can be positioned on the
"
user activity
"

axis as
"
communication person to
person
"
.

In addition, the use
-
case could be
a
"
first use
"

or
"
normal use
"
.

The Context section of the use
-
case can be used to place the use
-
case on the other axis.

For example, the context
description we might say:

"
Martin has recently purchased a new telephone and SIM card [first use].

Travelling s
itting
on a train [context of use]
"
.

Finally, the characteristics of Martin including any special cognitive or physical needs can
be described in the use
-
case context.

"
Martin
who is visually impaired

has recently purchased a new telephone and
SIM card [fi
rst use].

Travelling sitting on a train [context of use]
"
.

For an example of use cases generated from the Activity dimension, see the
a
nnex X.X.

6.4

From use cases to guidelines: a process

The generation of use cases and resulting guidelines will be an ite
rative task based on expert knowledge, data sources
and industry
-
expert feedback.

A high
-
level process is define in
f
igure xx.


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Brainstorm

relevant uses cases within a framework (see
clause
6.1.3)

(motivated by expert experience, real data from call
-
centre
s, etc
.
)

|

Draft

descriptions focusing on error cases.

|

Define

initial user requirements/guidelines

|

Consult

with service providers and user representatives

|

Revise

use case list and requirements/guidelines.



Figure x : From Initial Use
-
Cases to Requi
rements/Guidelines

For more information on how we generated guidelines from use
-
cases, see the Annex X.X.

6.5

Target use cases

Based on brainstorming, the following use
-
cases where identified.

These can be found in
a
nnex X.X.

7

Generic setup guidelines

In

the below, the

main principles are introduced:

7.1

Leave the control with the user

a.

Always allow for interrupts from the user (Cancel Button) “Always allow a way out, but make it easier
to stay in.”

b.

Provide "back", "next", "cancel", and "finish" as well as "he
lp" controls.

c.

Indicate the progress of the configuration procedure to the user
.

d.

Make actions reversible, allow for human error

e.

Navigation should be under user control throughout the configuration procedure.

f.

If the configuration procedure fails or is aborte
d the state of the terminal should revert to that previous
to the start of the configuration procedure. The user should be informed on how to proceed in order to
complete the configuration.

7.2

Automate as far as possible

a.

As far as possible, avoid forcing the
user to input entries for settings. Provide appropriate default
entries for settings.

b.

Pre
-
configuration is the preferred solution for configuration of terminal and service access.

c.

If pre
-
configuration cannot be achieved, some means of guided configuration

should be provided,
taking into consideration the needs of all users (including elderly or disabled users)

d.

Provide means for guided and/or manual configuration in the terminal, if pre
-
configuration cannot be
achieved.

e.

Subsequent updates of settings, e.g.
OTA, should provide the default entries for terminal or service
resets.

7.3

Keep c
onfiguration
at a
minimum number of steps

7.4

K
eep necessary addresses for help/information

7.5

Provide all necessary information to the user


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a.

Provide a clear description of what equipme
nt and information the user needs to have ready to hand
during the configuration procedure, and if necessary, how to obtain it.

b.

Convey what settings need to be configured and what effect configuring a setting will have by
providing natural entry points int
o the configuration procedure.

c.

Indicate the progress of the configuration procedure to the user

d.

Provide clear indication and differentiation of what the setting is and what the actual entry of the
setting is.

e.

Provide clear instructions on what type of info
rmation is required at each step of the configuration
procedure. Provide illustrative examples.

f.

Provide examples of the correct format for the required setting entries and support for handling the
formats.

g.

Provide information to the user on which settings
are pre
-
configured.

h.

Provide a clear overview of the steps of the configuration sequence.

i.

Provide a logical and consistent order to the configuration procedure. Provide information on how to
change settings later.

j.

Provide clear feedback when the configurati
on procedure ends.

k.

Only provide steps that involve instructions, choices or feedback relevant to the configuration
procedure. All other steps are redundant.

7.6

Provide all configuration information in the user's native

or other preferred

language.

7.7

Provide all

configuration information in the user’s vocabulary

a.

Do not display machine code error messages.

b.

A positive example neded here

c.

Where necessary, provide explanations of concepts that need to be understood by the user during
configuration.

d.

Provide consistent
terminology across all sources of configuration information.

i.

Avoid giving unnecessary information to the user.

ii.

As far as possible, hide technical concepts that the user does not need to understand during
configuration

iii.

Allow for human error.

e.

Provide erro
r handling to prevent a change of setting entries which would in turn prevent access to
basic services.

f.

If the user is permitted to change the setting entries, resetting the terminal to factory settings should
present the user with a choice of whether t
o keep or reset the current settings for terminal and service
access.

7.8

Use e
xisiting standards and gui
delines

a.

The most recent versions of
management protocols and mechanisms
, as specified in OMA working
documents and reference specifications (see bibliograp
hy), with corresponding UI elements, are the
recommended, generic technical solution for configuration for terminal and service access.

8

Terminal
-
specific setup guidelines

8.1

Provide consistent and coherent categories of settings.


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8.1

Example

Reasoning,

why, what issues and problems.

Recommendations:

R 8.1.a

The most recent versions of
management protocols and mechanisms
, as specified in OMA
working documents and reference specifications (see bibliography), with corresponding UI
elements, are the recomme
nded, generic technical solutions for configuration for terminal and
service access.

9

e
-
service specific setup guidelines

9.1

The user should be informed at an appropriate level and through appropriate channels of the costs connected to
the service to be
configured.

9.2

Clearly describe the means by which the setting entries will be delivered to the terminal, e.g. via SMS.

9.3

For remote configuration via a web site, provide a "send" control with instructions to confirm that the terminal
is switched on.


9
.1

Example

Reasoning, why, what issues and problems.

R 9.1.a

No further configuration on the part of the user should be needed for terminal and service access
when roaming.

10

S
etup procedures and
design for
all

If we don
'
t have good input, we may delete t
h
is clause.

1
1

Development and evaluation of setup procedures

Tbd


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Annex
A (
nor
mative
):

Collective table of all recommendations

(BvN)

In table

A.1, all recommendations presented in previous clauses of the present document are colle
cted and listed.

No new r
equirements are introduced. The recommendations carry an indication about their application area and the
clause they can be

found in the present document.

The recommendations in table A.1 should be regarded as a minimum, common, basic set of recommendation
s. They
will improve the user experience of
setup procedures
, if considered and supported in designs, specifications and
implementations.

Intended users of the recommendations listed in table A.1

are the user experience and interaction design professionals
,
developers of mobile terminal
s
, services and applications, mobile network and system providers, terminal approvers and
standard writers and developers.

Guideline vs. Recommendation

Table A.1: Collection of all recommendations

Recommendation
number

Recomm
endation area and

recommendation

Chapter; Title

Sub
-
chapter 1

Recommendation #

Recommendation

Sub
-
chapter 2

Recommendation #

Recommendation

Recommendation #

Recommendation



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Annex B (informative
):

Use cases

(All)

Each annex shall start on a new page
.

Use the Heading 8 style for the title and the Normal style for the text.

B.1

Use c
ases for setup a
ctivities

What use cases do not describe

As already mentioned, use
-
cases rely on a
"
functional
"

view of users and systems.

If one considers a user interface

to be
constituted by the following:

1)

Information architecture
: the underlying information constructs controlled by the user and system.

The
schematic of information in the visual, auditory or haptic media.

2)

Interaction design
: the dynamic aspect of the user

system dialogue.

In particular the interaction elements
handled by the user and system ( menus, points, dialogues, etc.), the task sequence and allocation of tasks to
user, device or network.

3)

Presentation design
: the
"
rendering
"

of the user interface in t
he visual, auditory and haptic media.

Use cases provide guidance predominantly in area 1 and 2

but have little to say about area 3.


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B
.
1.1

High level vs. low level use c
ases

Each low
-
level use cases shown in Table 1 below is likely to form part of the resol
ution of many high
-
level tasks.

It is
therefore more productive to address a number of high
-
level use cases which may ultimately result in similar set
-
up
activities.

Example High
-
Level Use
-
Cases

Low
-
level Use Cases and Categories


MARTIN HAS TAKEN A PICTU
RE AND WANTS TO
SEND IT TO HIS FRIEND.


SOPHIE WANTS TO "CHAT" WITH HER BEST FRIEND


SIMON WANTS TO RETRIEVE AN
MMS

A FRIEND HAS
SENT TO HIM


JANE WANTS TO POST TO HER DAILY BLOG. HER
POSTING INCLUDES TEXT IMAGES AND AUDIO.

SHE
IS MOBILE


CINZIA WANTS TO
UPDATE THE ADDRESS ON HER E
-
BOOK SERVICE




Setup related to Network/Bearer ,

e.g .
GSM
,
UMTS
,
GPRS
, CDMA, MobileTV, Bluetooth, GPS


-

data
-
rate

-

name

-

accuracy

-

cost thresholds

-

band


Setup related to Server , e.g.
MMS
,
SMS
, IM, Blog,
Email,
WAP
, HTTP


-

user name

-

password

-

nickname

-

server name/address

-

address

-

community name


Set up related to Service


-

user authentification

-

cost requirement

-

quality of service requirement


Setup related to User Profile


-

skin

-

credit card number/payment
method

-

physical address

-

likes/dislikes

-

image

-

email

-

location

-

home page

-

permissions/certificates/contracts


Setup related to user Data



-

contacts


-

multimedia




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B
.1.2

A template for defining use cases

USE CASE 1


Goal in Context


Scope
& Level


Preconditions


Success End
Condition


Failed End
Condition


Primary,


Secondary A
c
tors


Trigger


DESCRIPTION

Step

Action

(Main success
scenario)

1



2



3


EXTENSIONS in
user actions

Step

Branching Action.
These are also
potential proble
m
and error cases

(Potential problem
and error cases)

1



2



3





VARIATIONS in the
phone states and
behaviour


Branching Action.
These are also
potential problem
and error cases


1



2



3



Figure xx: Cockburn
'
s (1997) use
-
case template

B
.
1.3

Potential problems that users may e
ncounter in
setup
a
ctivities

For example, problems might be:

User Problems
:



Out of range of network/bearer/service
.



Feature not activated, e.g. bluetooth
.



Permissions not available
.



SIM card lost
.



Password lost
.



Doesnt un
derstand terminology
.



Lost in menu
.



Entered wrong value
.



Do not know value
.



User doesnt know what is wrong
.


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System Problems
:



Hardware problem with device/network/service
.



Server and device out of sync so correct value is rejected
.



Value(s) missing
.



User no
t recognised
.



User does not have permissions
.



Device cannot display content
.



Not enough memory
.



Reparameterisation required
.



User has not paid
.

To demonstrate Cockburn
'
s template, an example
is shown below.


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5


B
.1.4

Examp
le use cases u
sing Cockburn
'
s t
emplate

Use Case
Recover phonebook and picture content that was stored on a lost mobile phone and place on new mobile
phone that has recently been purchased.

Goal in Context

User had owned the phone for 1 year before the phone was lost.

The user has a contract w
ith their service provider
(likely to be UK).The phone allows syncronisation of content with a PC.

Preconditions

1. user had

stored 100 numbers on the phone and/or SIM card

2. user had stored 40 pictures taken with the phones camera.

some pictures were at
tached to phonebook entries

3. the new mobile phone chosen is a different brand from the original phone

Success End Condition
.: User has new phone with all old contact number and photo data

Failed End Condition
: User has new phone without old data.

Primary

Actor
: End user

Trigger
: phone lost

DESCRIPTION

0. User realises that phone is lost

1. User goes to service provider POS

2. User selects new phone of different brand

3. User explains that old phone was lost but that content was synchronised on PC. User ha
s memory stick with content
on it.

4. Assistant checks compatability between old phone and new phone data format

5

Data uploaded onto new phone

Extensions

1a1. User has a second phone of a different brand and remembers how to make a back
-
up thanks to anima
ted
avatar in old phone

1a2. User access operator
WAP

site and navigates to "back up"

1a3 User enters account name and password

1a4 user enters phone type and is notified that a subset of information can be downloaded

1a5 User downloads content


3a.1 Conte
nt was backed up on network.


3a.2 Asssistant access operator network and obtains user data


3b.1 Content was not backed
-
up

3b.2 User leaves store with new phone but no data (FAIL)


4a.1 Format of data is not compatible with new phone/tool

4a.2 Assistant c
onverts data into standard format but loses picture/phone number connection.

4a.3. Assistant is able to explain exactly what has been restored and what has not

4a.4 User choses another phone that is compatible??

Variations

1a2a1 User does not know
WAP

addr
ess of back
-
up service

1a2a2 user access operator website on
-
line with PC

1a2b1 User cannot find back up menu item

1a2b2 goes on line with PC and accesses website with PC

1a2c1 User doesnt know how to make a backup

1a2c2 user goes to service centre

1a3a1 u
ser does not have an account

1a3a2 user goes to service centre

1a4a1 phone type is not available

1a4a2 user goes to service centre

RELATED INFORMATION (optional)

Priority: high for user

Performance Target: 10 minutes at POS

Frequency: rare

(IF RARE
-

PERH
APS WE SHOULDNT CONSIDER IT??)

Superordinate Use Case: Setting up BACK UP

Channel to primary actor: web, face to face

Secondary Actors: POS assistant,back up system, file conversion tools

Channel to Secondary Actors: web, face to face



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B
.1.5

Moving from u
se cases to g
uidelines

Extrapolation from user
-
cases to guidelines is not a schematic process but requires expert insight.


EXAMPLE 1:

T
use
-
case defined earlier could generate the following guidelines (reference to use case step is
shown in brackets).

EXAM
PLE 2:

T
he use case defined in
a
nnex X.X could generate the following guidelines.

User Requirements (with reference to use case)



All phones should have SIM backup facility to network or POS (3a1)
.



Service providers should have POS facility for back
-
up (1)
.



Service providers should train personnel (4a2, 4a3)
.



Manufactures should use common data structures to allow data transfer (4a2)
.



Users should be prompted for periodic back
-
ups to network or POS.

If approved backup process should be
automatic (1a1)
.



Backu
p setup should be part of phone purchase or subscription (1a1)
.



Mobile and Web content sh
ould support each other (1a2a1)
.

B
.1.6

Use case b
rainstorm

a)

Communication
-

person to person



SMS
/multimedia messages



single message vs. IM/chat



Local networking, e.g
. Bluetooth/WiFi

MARTIN HAS TAKEN A PICTURE AND WANTS TO SEND IT TO HIS
FRIEND.

SOPHIE WANTS TO "CHAT" WITH HER BEST FRIEND

SIMON WANTS TO RETRIEVE AN
MMS

A FRIEND HAS SENT TO HIM

b)

Communication
-

person to group



SMS
/multimedia messages

PETER WANTS TO SH
ARE THE DETAILS OF A NEW BAR WITH HIS FRIENDS WHO MIGHT BE
INTERESTED

MARCO WANTS TO FIND OUT WHERE HIS FRIENDS ARE

c)

Communication
-

person to service (BLOG)



SMS
/multimedia messages

JANE WANTS TO POST TO HER DAILY BLOG. HER POSTING INCLUDES TEXT IMAGES A
ND AUDIO.

SHE
IS MOBILE

CINZIA WANTS TO UPDATE THE ADDRESS ON HER E
-
BOOK SERVICE

d)

Communication
-

service to person

DAVID WANTS TO RECEIVE NEWS HEADLINES EVERY DAY FOR HIS SPECIALIST FIELD


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e)

Filling "Grey
-
time"/Fun (non communication)



playing games



brow
sing

FABIO IS RIDING ON THE SUBWAY ON THE WAY HOME.

HE WANTS TO PLAY A GAME THAT A FRIEND
HAS SENT TO HIM.

STEPHANIE WANTS TO BROWSE THE INTERNET FOR THE FIRST TIME

f)

Free Content gathering, e.g. games, apps, news, ring tones, music, services



browse



selec
t



download content

WHILST TRAVELLING, SIMONA WANTS TO FIND THE LATEST NEWS HEADLINES IN HER HOME
COUNTRY

PETER IS LOOKING FOR INFORMATION ON AN MP3 PLAYER HE WOULD LIKE TO BUY

THIBAULT WANTS TO FIND AND DOWNLOAD A SAMPLE FROM A NEW ALBUM



moving data betwee
n phones

JESPER WANTS TO TRANSFER DATA FROM HIS OLD PHONE TO HIS NEW PHONE

ARNOD WANTS TO BACKUP HIS DATA ON HIS SERVICE PROVIDORS NETWORK

g)

M
-
Commerce (including content)

ARCHIBALD WANTS TO BUY A BOOK HE HAS HEARD ABOUT

JURGEN WOULD LIKE TO CHANGE HIS CR
EDIT CARD DETAILS ON AN E
-
SHOPPING SITE



browse



select



identify myself



pay

h)

Personalising (can be done without network)



device



services

LOTHER WANTS TO SET THE RING TONE OF HIS PHONE

MIKE WANTS TO SHARE A CONTACT VIA BLUETOOTH

DANIELA WANTS TO CHANGE HER
NETWORK VOICEMAIL GREETING

B
.1
.6.1

Setup of voice
-
mail box

<use case description, see proposal from Cockburne>

B
.1.6.2

Settings of
MMS

services

<use case description, see proposal from Cockburne>


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B.1.6.2.1

Use case #1: Marja receives birthday greeting movi
e from Jaakko

Scenario
-

Task analysis
-

Use case
-

UI

Recommendations

Change History

INTRODUCTION

Scenario

This
section

describes the story that was used to analyse the case.

"
Marja has 25th birthday today. Marja is a student at the university of Jyväsky
lä. In the early morning she receives a
message, which is from her boyfriend Jaakko. Jaakko is on a holiday trip at New Zealand. In the message Jaakko sends
two pictures taken from the beach with

a
udio content for each picture, and a short movie where he s
ends the birthday
greetings to her.
"

Task analysis

This section analyses the scenario and tries to capture the basic interaction that is needed to perform the task.

Steps:



Marja hears the phone beeping for new message.



….

Use case

USE CASE 1


Goal in Con
text


Scope & Level


Preconditions


Success End Condition


Failed End Condition


Primary,

Secondary A
c
tors


Trigger


DESCRIPTION

Step

Action

(Main success scenario)

1



2



3


EXTENSIONS in user actions

Step

Branching Action. These are also pot
ential problem and error
cases

(Potential problem and error cases)

1



2



3





VARIATIONS in the phone states
and behaviour


Branching Action. These are also potential problem and error
cases


1



2



3



UI

Recommendations

General


REFERENCES

D
ocument References

[REF 1]

CockburnA. (2001).
Writing effective use cases.

Addison
-
Wesley New York.


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39


[REF 2]

Use case guide and template (Cockburn).
http://members.aol.com/acockburn/papers
/uctempla.htm

History

Document history

0.0.1
-

0.0.6

February
-

May
2005

Very early drafts


0.0.7

June 2005

Presented to TC HF#37

0.0.8

June 2005

Pre
-
processed by the ETSI Secretariat
editHelp!

E
-
mail:
mailto:edit
help@etsi.org

0.0.9
-
0.0.11

June 2005

STF

session

work version
s