b09_aaal_final - Preston High School

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORI
ES MARKETING



1

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


1.

What type of property is a clothing manufacturer protecting when it registers its trademark?

A.

Tangible

C.

Statutory

B.

Intellectual

D.

Administrative




2.

A customer wants to purchase a sweater that was advertised in the newspaper, but the sweater

is not in
stock. This is an example of a problem in the area of distribution known as

A.

stock handling.

C.

inventory control.

B.

warehousing.

D.

leasing.




3.

Some large apparel retailers have successfully integrated information sharing between chan
nel members
by incorporating __________ between suppliers, warehouse, and store checkout.

A.

outsourcing and EDI


C.

bar codes and EDI

B.

PLUs and invoices

D.

bar codes and PLUs




4.

Which of the following is an example of a large chain of menswear stor
es using coercion in the
distribution channel:

A.

Returning shipments without proper authorization

B.

Requiring a specific type of packaging material

C.

Buying products from unauthorized intermediaries

D.

Threatening to stop using a supplier unless give
n major concessions




5.

Why is it important for apparel stores to coordinate distribution with other marketing activities?

A.

To arrange transportation

C.

To plan warehouse space

B.

To provide customer service

D.

To manage inventory levels




6.

What

might result if an accessories manufacturer begins to sell directly to large businesses rather than
through traditional wholesalers?

A.

Exclusive distribution


C.

Vertical channel conflict

B.

Horizontal channel conflict

D.

Reverse distribution




7.

Wha
t is an effective technique for clothing store employees to use to extract relevant information from
written materials?

A.

Ask frequent questions

C.

Develop a rough outline

B.

Take notes while reading

D.

Skim through chapter titles




8.

Which of the f
ollowing is a guideline that apparel store employees should follow to be effective listeners:

A.

Ignore body language

C.

Interrupt often

B.

Ask questions

D.


Read directions




9.

What might an employee receive from a menswear store for routinely helpi
ng customers with their
problems and satisfying their needs?

A.

A suspension

C.

A gratuity

B.

An honorarium

D.

A promotion



10.

When the management of a dress
-
store chain establishes policies that help employees to deal with
customers in the same way,

under the same circumstances, the main purpose of these policies is the

A.

smooth operation of the business.


C.

satisfaction of customers' wants.

B.

reduction of expenses.

D.

fair treatment of customers.



11.

An accessories manufacturer that wants to

use the distribution function to support customer service
might establish a policy that requires

A.

storing all orders in a specific type of container.

B.

transporting all orders on a certain common carrier.

C.

shipping all orders within 48 hours of rec
eiving an order.

D.

packaging all orders in plastic shrink wrap.


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




2

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


12.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of the blind
-
check method of checking incoming stock:

A.

Shortages and overages cannot be detected immediately.

B.

The merchandise is checked
on a random basis.

C.

It does not provide a count of the merchandise.

D.

The goods must be compared with the invoice.



13.

To speed up the process of routing stock from the receiving area to the sales department, many apparel
retailers require clothing it
ems to be delivered in a __________ condition.

A.

floor
-
ready


C.

bulk
-
packaged

B.

cash
-
and
-
carry

D.

warehouse
-
ready



14.

What type of unit control system keeps shoe retailers updated daily about purchases, returns, sales,
markdowns, and other transact
ions?

A.

Visual inspection


C.

Physical

B.

Counting stock

D.

Perpetual



15.

Fashion retailers that maintain a just
-
in
-
time inventory system usually have __________ inventory.

A.

the wrong kind of


C.

too much

B.

too little

D.

the right amount of



16
.

The heart of economics is

A.

trade
-
offs.

C.

resources.

B.

decision making.

D.

wants.



17.

Men's dress shirts and ties are examples of __________ goods.

A.

complementary

C.

substitute

B.

industrial

D.

convenience



18.

Which of the following would be

used to express the productivity rate of a clothing manufacturer:

A.

200%

C.

700 units

B.

$250,000

D.

5/10 net 30



19.

Making the best use of resources in the production of apparel goods and services is known as

A.

job rotation.


C.

specialization.

B.

marketing.

D.

economics.



20.

One reason that a clothing manufacturer's output can decrease when it hires additional employees is
because the clothing manufacturer has

A.

limited resources.

C.

operational expenses.

B.

specific business objectives.


D.

poor pricing strategies.



21.

What often occurs when a nation's unemployment rate falls?

A.

Tariffs decrease.

C.

The inflation rate increases.

B.

The demand for money decreases.

D.

Stock trades stabilize.



22.

Which of the following would
not

c
ommunicate an attitude of interest and enthusiasm toward customers:

A.

Asking irrelevant questions


C.

Choosing positive words

B.

Speaking expressively

D.

Listening attentively



23.

When Joe finishes stocking shelves at Fisher's Shoe Store, he waits to
be told what to do next. Joe's
manager would like for Joe to keep himself busy. Which of the following traits would Joe's manager like
for Joe to develop:

A.

Assertiveness


C.

Leadership

B.

Creativity

D.

Initiative


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




3

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


24.

An employee of an accessories bus
iness accidentally quoted the wrong price to an important customer.
How should the employee deal with this problem?

A.

Admit the mistake and quote the correct price

B.

Tell the customer the typist made an error

C.

Ask a coworker to accept responsibility

D
.

Say the manager provided inaccurate information



25.

Having a positive attitude helps people to cope with everyday life because positive people

A.

expect life to be full of problems.


C.

are less likely to be tolerant.

B.

believe that problems can be ov
ercome.

D.

believe they have set reasonable goals.



26.

Why should a handbag manufacturer inform
its

employees that their e
-
mail will be monitored?

A.

To reduce its liability


C.

To respect their privacy

B.

To communicate policies

D.

To control operatin
g costs



27.

When two parties work together to negotiate a result that is mutually beneficial, it is called a _____
-
_____ outcome.

A.

win
-
win

C.

lose
-
lose

B.

win
-
lose

D.

lose
-
win



28.

Lisa was interested in becoming an assistant manager of a jewel
ry store but was told that she was not
assertive enough for the job. What could Lisa begin to do in order to become more assertive?

A.

Do her work without asking for help from others

B.

Say "no" to all requests made of her

C.

Refrain from expressing her
thoughts or ideas

D.

Prevent others from taking advantage of her



29.

What type of credit account gives an apparel
-
store customer a credit limit at the time the account is
opened and allows the customer to make payments over a period of time or to pay o
ff the total amount
due each month?

A.

Regular


C.

Revolving

B.

Installment

D.

Budget



30.

What is an accessory shop's net worth if it has total assets of $4,250, total liabilities of $1,050, cash on
hand of $350, and inventory worth $275?

A.

$3,050

C
.

$3,475

B.

$3,200

D.

$3,550



31.

Bridal salons often compare the income statement information for several consecutive years to calculate

A.

national trends.


C.

total debt.

B.

net income.

D.

sales growth.



32.

An apparel manufacturer prepares an invo
ice for a customer who has purchased the following: four items
at $31.35 each and three items at $26.95 each. If shipping costs are $19.80, what is the total amount of
the invoice?

A.

$231.25


C.

$226.05

B.

$219.85

D.

$269.35



33.

A menswear store dep
ositing customers' checks totaling $4,695.50 wants to withhold $50 of this amount
for its petty cash fund. How much will be added to the store's bank account?

A.

$4,695.50


C.

$4,645.50

B.

$4,650.50

D.

$4,725.50



34.

What is one way that sportswear st
ores use marketing information?

A.

To monitor customers

C.

To purchase brands

B.

To change promotions

D.

To handle objections


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




4

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


35.

To obtain relevant information in a way that accommodates a variety of schedules, dress stores use
online

A.

Intranet syst
ems.

C.

e
-
mail filters.

B.

survey services.

D.

web screeners.



36.

How could a shoe
-
store chain use marketing
-
research information it has gathered about the average
age, income, educational levels, and spending patterns of area consumers?

A.

To cre
ate a mailing list for the business


C.

To identify problems within the business

B.

To develop a profile of the typical customer

D.

To establish an appropriate operating budget



37.

The first step in deciding which information to monitor for marketing
decision making is to

A.

identify the information needs of the clothing store.

B.

obtain facts, figures, and other data.

C.

update the files as needed.

D.

distribute information reports to marketing managers.



38.

What process might an apparel manufactur
er use to enter marketing data into a computer for analysis?

A.

Editing

C.

Screening

B.

Keyboarding

D.

Tabulating



39.

According to the marketing concept, which option shows company commitment?

A.

Setting goals with marketing in mind


C.

Leaving marketi
ng to marketers

B.

Teaching marketing to students

D.

Assigning a small budget to marketing



40.

Which element of the marketing mix communicates information to the customer?

A.

Profit

C.

Product

B.

Place

D.

Promotion



41.

Apparel businesses that ide
ntify customers on the basis of their personalities, interests, and activities are
using __________ segmentation.

A.

geographic


C.

psychographic

B.

behavioral

D.

demographic



42.

Comprehensive marketing plans should always include objectives that are

A
.

inflexible.

C.

short
-
term.

B.

vague.

D.

action
-
oriented.



43.

Why do bridal salons usually prepare short
-
term sales forecasts?

A.

Salons can obtain the results from longitudinal studies conducted during the year.

B.

Forecasting methods are only app
ropriate for one year.

C.

Salons know that market conditions will remain the same for a year.

D.

The shorter the forecast, the more accurate the prediction.



44.

A clothing store wants to purchase computer software that would maintain and analyze custom
er
information in order to better serve customer needs and increase sales. What type of software should the
store buy?

A.

Spreadsheet

C.

Word processing

B.

Database

D.

Computer
-
aided design



45.

An advantage to a swimsuit manufacturer that uses collabor
ative computer software is that its employees
can share information quickly, which increases their

A.

productivity.

C.

profits.

B.

independence.

D.

motivation.


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




5

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


46.

Why is it important for menswear stores to maintain records about the quantities and t
ypes of apparel
items that customers are purchasing?

A.

To plan credit programs

C.

To forecast future sales

B.

To develop new displays

D.

To organize special events



47.

Why is it important for a clothing manufacturer's employees to follow instruction
s when using equipment
and machinery?

A.

To increase output

C.

To minimize loss

B.

To speed up production

D.

To decrease overtime



48.

The employees of Jansen's Jewelry Store routinely take office supplies for personal use. This is an
example of

A.

bu
rglary.


C.

pilferage.

B.

shoplifting.

D.

robbery.



49.

Fashion retailers that do not want the responsibility of deciding what styles, sizes, and colors to order for
the upcoming season can rely on the vendor's expertise by placing a(n) __________ order
.

A.

advance

C.

back

B.

special

D.

blanket



50.

Which of the following is considered an advantage to the apparel and accessories shop of having
employees carry out regular housekeeping duties:

A.

Clean aisles can be used for storage.

B.

Employees will l
earn a valuable skill.

C.

Customers will be less likely to return.

D.

Merchandise will be easy for customers to find.



51.

During the Christmas holidays, Kathryn increased the amount of money in each cashier's change fund
from $75.00 to $150.00. Kathryn

gave Wilson the following change fund: 2 rolls of pennies, 2 rolls of
nickels, 1 roll of dimes, 1 roll of quarters, 25 $1
-
bills, 6 $5
-
bills, 5 $10
-
bills, and 2 $20
-
bills. Wilson's
drawer is over by

A.

$15.00.


C.

$10.00.

B.

$13.00.

D.

$25.00.



52.

A sh
oe store's cash register had a beginning change fund of $50.00. At the end of the day, the detail
audit tape shows a total of $395.00. There is the following cash in the drawer: nine $20 bills; eight $10
bills; fifteen $5 bills; ninety $1 bills; and $15 in

coins. How much over or short is the drawer?

A.

$5.00 short

C.

$10.00 over

B.

$5.00 over

D.

$10.00 short



53.

Celeste is an honor student whose goal is to become a fashion designer because her parents believe
that would be a good career for her. Why i
s this
not

a good goal for Celeste?

A.

Celeste has not set a specific, realistic goal.

C.

This is not an attainable goal for Celeste.

B.

This is not a challenging goal for Celeste.

D.

Celeste has not chosen this goal for herself.



54.

An intellectual tr
ait that is characteristic of creative people is

A.

high energy level.


C.

mental flexibility.

B.

impatience with others.

D.

traditional thinking.



55.

Young people often locate their first jobs in the community by responding to apparel shops that have

A.

posted help
-
wanted signs.

C.

advertised in trade journals.

B.

hired employment agencies.

D.

conducted professional searches.



56.

What question is often asked in the work experience section of an employment application?

A.

Course of study completed


C.

Reason for leaving previous job

B.

Eligibility to work in this country

D.

When available to begin work


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




6

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


57.

Professional organizations/trade associations are formed to unite individuals in the apparel industry who
share a common

A.

specialty or caree
r interest.

C.

career interest or religious conviction.

B.

national heritage or specialty.

D.

religious conviction or national heritage.



58.

Which of the following is an item that is a component of the apparel segment in the fashion industry:

A.

Shoes


C.

Watches

B.

Handbags

D.

Jeans



59.

A T
-
shirt manufacturer decides to use better fabrics and notions to make its products. This results in an
increase in the price of the products because of the

A.

customers' decisions.

C.

company image.

B.

costs
of production.

D.

change in production methods.



60.

Bar code symbols that are scanned into computers and used to identify and total information such as the
selling prices for accessory products are also called

A.

United Rating Systems.


C.

Universal Prod
uct Codes.

B.

Uniform Resource Locators.

D.

Unified Pricing Criteria.



61.

A scarf that an accessory store purchases for $11.00 has operating expenses of $3.00. If the desired
profit is $6.50, what would be the selling price of the scarf?

A.

$14.00

C.

$17.50

B.

$14.50

D.

$20.50



62.

What process do apparel businesses follow in order to direct and control all phases in the life of a good
or service?

A.

Growth marketing

C.

Concept testing

B.

Idea positioning

D.

Product managing



63.

Which of the f
ollowing is a decision a company might make during the decline stage of the product life
cycle:

A.

What production schedule to follow


C.

How to fend off the competition

B.

How to increase awareness of the product

D.

Whether to change the product



64.

Whe
n a cosmetics and perfume company uses its product wrapping to promote the preservation of an
endangered animal species, it is engaging in an ethical practice called

A.

cause packaging.

C.

political lobbying.

B.

environmental labeling.

D.

provocative bra
nding.



65.

What do many apparel businesses do to solve problems, increase sales, and attract customers?

A.

Hire additional employees

C.

Develop community relations plans

B.

Generate new product ideas

D.

Modernize physical facilities



66.

When develo
ping apparel items, designers often consider how the clothing will meet a target market's
needs in relation to their

A.

shopping habits.


C.

individuality.

B.

color preferences.

D.

lifestyle.



67.

Some apparel manufacturers have a narrow product mix be
cause it allows them to

A.

meet the needs of a variety of consumers.


C.

offer a wide range of prices.

B.

specialize and produce efficiently.

D.

reduce the costs of goods sold.



68.

Which of the following is an advantage to customers of bundling apparel a
nd accessories:

A.

Sales increases

C.

Brand awareness

B.

High quality

D.

Discount pricing


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




7

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


69.

Which of the following is a fashion market center known for inexpensive production and copies of other
designs as well as some new designs featuring exotic
fabrics:

A.

Rome

C.

Great Britain

B.

Hong Kong

D.

Paris



70.

When positioning an accessory item, a clothing store should consider the target market's

A.

benefits.

C.

policies.

B.

strategies.

D.

wants.



71.

Why should a brand name be distinctive?

A.

So that it can be used in multinational marketing

B.

So that it gives the product a generic image

C.

So that it sets the product apart from other products

D.

So that it can easily be changed over time



72.

A T
-
shirt shop had beginning of the month
(BOM) stock of $4,000 and end of the month (EOM) stock of
$3,000. If sales for the month totaled $7,000, what is the stock turnover rate for the month?

A.

2

C.

3

B.

1

D.

4



73.

A shoe store has planned sales next month of $173,450 as well as planned red
uctions of $2,600.
Calculate the store's planned purchases if planned beginning
-
of
-
the
-
month stock is $68,250 and desired
end
-
of
-
month stock is $84,900.

A.

$162,000

C.

$184,600

B.

$192,700

D.

$159,400



74.

When buyers for clothing stores are determining

what merchandise to buy, they collect information from
various sources within the business, including

A.

shoplifting records.


C.

sales forecasts.

B.

vendor records.

D.

sales records.



75.

Promotion can be described according to the way it is presented
, which means it may be

A.

persuasive or matter of fact.


C.

relevant or irrelevant.

B.

true or untrue.

D.

personal or nonpersonal.



76.

Institutional promotion is sometimes attacked by critics because it

A.

creates consumer awareness of products.


C.

c
reates a low profile for the business.

B.

educates consumers about products.

D.

takes money away from product promotions.



77.

An advantage in using technology such as television, radio, and the Internet is that a menswear store
chain can promote its prod
ucts to many people

A.

without much effort.

C.

at the same time.

B.

with minimal cost.

D.

under difficult circumstances.



78.

The advertising medium which allows a printed message and illustration of apparel and accessories to be
targeted to a select

audience is

A.

newspaper.

C.

television.

B.

direct mail.

D.

outdoor.



79.

Which of the following forms of direct mail is most likely to save money for a T
-
shirt shop:

A.

Color catalogs

C.

Sales packets

B.

Self
-
mailers

D.

Computer disks



80.

The el
ement of a print advertisement that can create desire by showing the apparel item is the

A.

illustration.

C.

copy.

B.

headline.

D.

identification.


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




8

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


81.

A small apparel shop wants to reduce seasonal inventory very quickly. One cost
-
effective way to advis
e
consumers of discounted prices is to

A.

give away special items, such as baseball caps.

B.

develop an extensive direct
-
mail plan.

C.

offer a drawing for a Caribbean cruise.

D.

display a large sign outside the facility.



82.

A designer for a sports ap
parel store arranges summer merchandise around a beach scene. What
function is the designer performing?

A.

Display advertising


C.

Mass marketing

B.

Personal selling

D.

Visual merchandising



83.

A store's jewelry department designed a display of rings u
sing several round columns of various heights
arranged asymmetrically, with several different rings on each column. This form of arrangement is an
example of

A.

informal balance.


C.

formal balance.

B.

the pyramid.

D.

repetition.



84.

A display featurin
g the new Liz Claiborne spring line was completed Monday. By Wednesday, the stock
for the blouse on display had been sold. What should be done?

A.

Accessorize the blouse so it is not a featured item

B.

Replace the sold
-
out blouse with another blouse from t
he line

C.

Change the entire display

D.

Leave the display intact until the blouse sells from the display



85.

In order to begin the promotional planning process, one of the first things that a handbag business must
do is to

A.

evaluate the effectiveness o
f its plan.


C.

choose the promotional mix.

B.

increase the sale of new products.

D.

define its promotional objectives.



86.

Which of the following is an example of a product's being sold to an organization for use in producing
other goods:

A.

A retail
er sells office furniture to an advertising firm.

B.

A retailer sells a sewing machine to a professional seamstress.

C.

A teenager mows his neighbor's lawn for $20.

D.

A distributor sells hundreds of comics to a comic
-
book store.



87.

An apparel retai
ler that lowers its prices in order to compete with other similar businesses is being
influenced by __________ factors.

A.

social


C.

external

B.

customer

D.

internal



88.

Clothing store supply salespeople who tell customers that their display fixtures

are great and the best
ones available might be guilty of the unethical practice of

A.

misrepresentation.

C.

exclusive selling.

B.

price discrimination.

D.

breach of warranty.



89.

Technological advancements have made it possible for salespeople for a
pparel manufacturers to learn
and practice selling techniques at their own pace by using

A.

videoconferencing applications.

C.

database software programs.

B.

interactive training software.

D.

customized training specialists.



90.

Information regarding t
he size or materials of a sweater can be obtained from the product's

A.

detection wedge.

C.

UPC ticket.

B.

label.

D.

logo.


2009 DECA
Ontario

Provincials Competition








AAM

Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING




9

Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


91.

A salesperson who explains to a customer how a certain accessory product offers comfort as well as
safety is describing _____
_____ benefits.

A.

obvious


C.

hidden

B.

unique

D.

exclusive



92.

An apparel
-
store salesperson is showing a customer a one
-
of
-
a
-
kind designer suit. What closing
technique would be most effective in selling this item?

A.

Narrative close


C.

Standing
-
ro
om
-
only close

B.

Contingent close

D.

Summary close



93.

Lingerie manufacturers often make garments out of cotton because this fabric is

A.

heavy and expensive.


C.

soft and comfortable.

B.

comfortable and luxurious.

D.

strong and very warm.



94.

Bec
ause Liz Claiborne and Calvin Klein have been so successful with their designs, their brands are
considered __________ brands.

A.

private

C.

store

B.

national

D.

confined



95.

What do clothing store salespeople often consider when helping customers sele
ct apparel items that are
flattering and attractive?

A.

Hair style

C.

Foot size

B.

Skin tone

D.

Arm length



96.

In children's apparel, toddlers' sizes are based on

A.

waist.


C.

weight.

B.

height.

D.

age.



97.

Which of the following is an importan
t consideration when helping a customer determine the correct shoe
size:

A.

Style

C.

Fabric

B.

Durability

D.

Comfort



98.

When a customer asks for a long blouse to wear over slacks, the salesperson should suggest a

A.

tunic.

C.

sheath.

B.

shell.

D.

mi
ddy.



99.

Bill Smith purchased the following items: 2 pairs of trousers @ $29.98 each; 2 dress shirts @ $16.99
each; and 3 neckties @ $13.99 each. What is Bill's total amount due if the sales tax rate is 6%?

A.

$135.91

C.

$60.96

B.

$144.06

D.

$144.07



100.

One reason why menswear store employees often arrange for the trousers of a man's suit to be altered is
because the trousers usually are

A.

tapered.

C.

uneven.

B.

unhemmed.

D.

expensive.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


10


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


1.

B

Intellectual. Many clothing manufacturers own both ta
ngible and intangible property. Intellectual is a type
of intangible property because it is not capable of being detected through the senses. Examples of
intellectual property include trademarks and trade names such as Nike and M&M's. Manufacturers
usually

register their trademarks in order to legally protect them from being used or copied by other
businesses. Tangible property is capable of being touched, smelled, tasted, seen, or heard, such as
office equipment. Statutory and administrative are not types
of property.

SOURCE:

BL:001

SOURCE:

Jennings, M.M. (2000).
Business: Its legal, ethical and global environment

(5th ed.)

[pp. 488
-
496]. Cincinnati: West Legal Studies in Business, South
-
Western College
Publishing.




2
.

C

Inventory control. Controlling in
ventory involves keeping track of how much stock is on hand, how much
has been sold, and how much is on order. A benefit of inventory control is the prevention of stockouts, a
situation in which there is no stock of an inventory item on hand. Leasing is co
ntracting to use property
that belongs to someone else for a specific period of time for a specific amount of rent. Warehousing
involves placing goods in safe locations until they are needed or are ready to be sold. Stock handling
includes the loading, unl
oading, and handling of goods.

SOURCE:

CM:001

SOURCE:

Clark, B., Sobel, J., & Basteri C.G. (2006).
Marketing dynamics

(p. 355). Tinley Park, IL:
Goodheart
-
Willcox.




3
.

C

Bar codes and EDI. Bar codes are a way of marking products that allows for electroni
c data interchange
(EDI). This is an example of integrated information sharing that has advanced most areas of physical
distribution. Merchandise information stored on the magnetic bar code is used for pricing, inventory
control, reordering, market researc
h, etc. PLUs or price look
-
ups are codes assigned to merchandise that
typically changes price frequently. The number is entered into the checkout system and the assigned
price is rung. Outsourcing requires an outside business to complete a specified task.

SOURCE:

CM:004

SOURCE:

Pride, W.M. & Ferrell, O.C. (2000).
Marketing: Concepts and strategies (2000e)


[pp. 355
-
356]. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.




4
.

D

Threatening to stop using a supplier unless given major concessions. Coercion usually involves the use
o
f force and is generally considered to be unethical. If a large chain of menswear stores threatens a
supplier, that is an example of coercion. The chain may demand that the supplier sell at extremely low
prices or pick up other types of expenses in order t
o be a supplier to the chain. The message is that the
supplier will no longer be used if the chain does not receive the requested concessions. Requiring a
specific type of packaging material and returning shipments without proper authorization are not
exam
ples of coercion. Buying products from unauthorized intermediaries is an example of the gray
market.

SOURCE:

CM:006

SOURCE:

Bearden, W.O., Ingram. T.N., & LaForge, R.W. (2001).
Marketing: Principles and
perspectives

(3rd ed.) [pp. 310
-
312]. New York: Irwi
n.




5
.

B

To provide customer service. Distribution and marketing activities are closely related because clothing
items must be available when and where customers want them. If apparel stores do not have the clothing
items in stock, customers cannot buy.
Apparel stores are only able to serve customers when they have
the advertised items on hand and at the right price. Arranging transportation, planning warehouse space,
and managing inventory levels are types of distribution activities that should be coordi
nated with
marketing activities to provide customer service.

SOURCE:

CM:007

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2006).
Marketing essentials


(pp. 16
-
17, 464
-
465). New York: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


11


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979



6
.

C

Vertical channel conflict. Vertical
conflict may occur among members who are on different levels of the
same channel of distribution. For example, an accessories manufacturer traditionally sells products to
wholesalers who sell the products to a retailer. If the manufacturer starts to sell d
irectly to the retailer, the
wholesalers are eliminated from the channel of distribution, which might create conflict because the
wholesalers are losing customers and revenue. Reverse distribution involves recycling an existing
product. Horizontal conflict

may occur among members who are on the same level in a channel of
distribution. Exclusive distribution involves selling to only one distributor.

SOURCE:

CM:008

SOURCE:

Zikmund, W.G., & d'Amico, M. (1999).
Marketing
(6th ed.) [pp. 371
-
375]. Cincinnati: Sou
th
-
Western College.




7
.

B

Take notes while reading. Clothing store employees often are expected to read a wide variety of
materials to obtain information that they can use on the job, or to help the store. Some of this material
may be complex, technical,

and difficult to understand. To extract relevant information effectively, it is
often useful to take notes while reading. Jotting down key points or summarizing helps employees to
focus on the information and remember it. It may not be possible to ask fre
quent questions when reading.
Outlines are developed before writing begins. Skimming through chapter titles is not an effective way to
extract information.

SOURCE:

CO:055

SOURCE:

Kimbrell, G., & Vineyard, B.S. (1998).
Succeeding in the world of work: Teach
er's
wraparound edition

(6th ed.) [pp. 309
-
310]. New York: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.




8
.

B

Ask questions. Effective listeners concentrate on what is being said and ask questions when they don't
understand or want clarification. Apparel store managers often as
sume that employees know more than
they do and give incomplete or vague instructions. Employees should pay close attention to what is being
said and ask questions to make sure they understand. Employees should not interrupt often, only when it
is necessary

to clarify a point they don't understand. Employees should observe a speaker's body
language because nonverbal clues also send a message. Reading directions will not help employees be
effective listeners.

SOURCE:

CO:017

SOURCE:

Bailey, L.J. (2003).
Workin
g: Career success for the 21st century
(3rd ed.) [pp. 206
-
208].
Mason, OH: South
-
Western.




9
.

D

A promotion. A benefit to employees of being customer oriented is that their careers are advanced.
Employees who regularly provide good customer service might

receive promotions or raises. Promotions
are one way for menswear stores to acknowledge and reward employees' customer
-
service skills.
Honorarium is a payment given to a professional person for services for which fees are not required. A
gratuity is a tip
. A suspension is a temporary removal from a position or a job.

SOURCE:

CR:004

SOURCE:

HR LAP 32

Customer
-
Service Mindset



10
.

D

Fair treatment of customers. Clear policies give employees guidelines to follow and help to reduce
misunderstandings that crea
te bad feelings. Fair treatment of customers is not an expense
-
reduction
measure. Satisfying customers' wants is not possible since wants are constantly changing. The dress
-
store chain may run more smoothly if customers are treated fairly, but that is not
the main purpose of the
policy.

SOURCE:

CR:007

SOURCE:

Rue, L. W., & Byars, L. L. (2006).
Business management: Real
-
world applications and
connections

(pp. 241
-
242). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


12


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


11
.

C

Shipping all orders within 48 hours of re
ceiving an order. Accessories manufacturers often use the
distribution function to support and improve customer service. In order to do this, manufacturers might
establish certain policies that are intended to provide quality customer service. One of these

policies
might require shipping all orders within 48 hours of receiving an order. Customers who purchase
products from this manufacturer know that they will receive their orders within an established time frame.
This policy supports customer service becau
se customers do not need to call to find out when their
orders will arrive, or wait a long time for delivery. Manufacturers use different methods of transportation
depending on the order and the destination. The type of storage container used depends on th
e type of
product. Manufacturers do not package all orders in plastic shrink wrap.

SOURCE:

DS:029

SOURCE:

Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2002).
Contemporary marketing

(pp. 407
-
408). Mason, OH:
South
-
Western.



12
.

A

Shortages and overages cannot be detected i
mmediately. When using the blind
-
check method to check
goods, the employee lists the goods received on a blank form, or dummy invoice, which is then
compared to the real invoice. Since the original invoice is not used, the amount of merchandise counted
can
not be verified. Some businesses consider this the most accurate checking method, since checkers
are not influenced by numbers on the invoice, but they must count each item.

SOURCE:

DS:085

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2006).
Market
ing essentials

(pp. 503
-
506). New
York: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



13
.

A

Floor
-
ready. Routing stock to the sales department is a receiving function. To speed up the process,
many apparel retailers require clothing items to be delivered in a floor
-
ready condit
ion. This means that
the clothing items are hung up, packaged, and oftentimes premarked, so the retailers can move it directly
to the sales floor. This eliminates the need to process the merchandise in the receiving area, and allows
apparel retailers to im
mediately make the goods available for sale. Merchandise that is bulk
-
packaged
must be unpacked and processed before it can be routed to the sales floor. Cash
-
and
-
carry is a sales
method rather than a method of routing stock. Warehouse
-
ready condition mean
s that the merchandise
is shipped to a warehouse where it is processed before being moved to a retailer.

SOURCE:

DS:015

SOURCE:

Berman, B., & Evans, J.R. (2004).
Retail management: A strategic approach

(9
th

ed.)

[p. 382]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall.



14
.

D

Perpetual. These are all examples of unit inventory control information; however, a perpetual inventory
system tracks the number of items in inventory on a continual basis, such as point
-
of
-
sale systems that
feed information from merchandise
tags or labels into a computer. A physical inventory system is either
visually inspecting or actually counting the merchandise on a periodic basis (e.g., once per year) to
determine quantities on hand.

SOURCE:

DS:022

SOURCE:

Clark, B., Sobel, J., & Basteri
, C.G. (2006).
Marketing dynamics

(p. 356). Tinley Park, IL:
Goodheart
-
Willcox Co.



15
.

D

The right amount of. A just
-
in
-
time inventory system keeps constant track of the merchandise moving into
and out of inventory. Rather than keeping excess inventory i
n a storage area, fashion retailers can have
new merchandise delivered to the store just prior to selling it to customers. Too little inventory often
results when fashion retailers do not have an inventory system in place to keep track of hot
-
selling
merch
andise. Likewise, too much inventory results when there is no inventory system to monitor poor
-
selling merchandise. The wrong kind of inventory is often the result of poor purchasing decisions; the
fashion retailer has bought merchandise that customers do
not want to buy.

SOURCE:

DS:091

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(p. 509).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


13


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


16
.

B

Decision making. The heart of economics is decision making

choosing among alter
natives. Decision
making is necessary because we have limited resources with which to satisfy unlimited wants. Trade
-
offs
are an aspect of decision making because people must often accept less of one item in order to get more
of another.

SOURCE:

EC:001

SOU
RCE:

O'Sullivan, A., & Sheffrin, S.M. (2003).
Economics: Principles in action

(p. 1). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall.



17
.

A

Complementary. These are products that are used together. Industrial goods are purchased by
producers for resale, to make o
ther products, and/or to use in business operations. Substitute goods are
items which can be used in place of other products. Convenience goods are consumer goods purchased
quickly and without much thought or effort.

SOURCE:

EC:005

SOURCE:

EC LAP 11

It's t
he Law (Supply and Demand)



18
.

A

200%. The productivity of a business (e.g., clothing manufacturer) is the amount of goods and services
produced by a business from a set amount of resources. It is usually expressed as a percentage or as a
ratio such as 2

to 1. It is not stated in dollars or number of units. 5/10 net 30 is an example of dating
terms of payment which express the cash discount policy on purchases (5% if paid within 10 days) and
the number of days in which the total bill must be paid.

SOURCE:

EC:013

SOURCE:

EC LAP 18

Make the Most of It (Productivity)



19
.

C

Specialization. By specializing in the production of goods and services, apparel businesses are able to
produce more, and consumers are able to enjoy a larger variety of items. Economics
is the study of how
to satisfy unlimited, competing wants with limited resources. Job rotation is a technique which can be
used by apparel businesses to combat the disadvantages of labor specialization. Marketing is the
process of planning and executing th
e conception, pricing, promoting, and distribution of ideas, goods,
and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

SOURCE:

EC:014

SOURCE:

EC LAP 7

Specialization of Labor



20
.

A

Limited resources. The law of dimini
shing returns is an economic principle stating that after a certain
point, hiring additional employees will result in a decrease in the overall level of production. Most often,
available resources are finite, which means that there are fixed amounts of res
ources (e.g., equipment)
available to produce goods and services. Overall productivity reaches its peak when there are a certain
number of employees using all of the available resources to do the work. When there are too many
laborers and not enough fixed
resources, output decreases. Most clothing manufacturers have specific
objectives and must pay operational expenses, which can be monitored, changed, or controlled.
Additionally, a clothing manufacturer that is using ineffective pricing strategies can chan
ge its pricing
structure. Therefore, business objectives, operational expenses, and pricing strategies are not direct
factors that result in a decrease of a clothing manufacturer's output when it hires additional employees.

SOURCE:

EC:023

SOURCE:

Gottheil,

F.M. (2002).
Principles of economics

(3rd ed.) [pp.174
-
175, 352]. Mason, OH:
South
-
Western.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


14


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


21
.

C

The inflation rate increases. Inflation is a rapid rise in prices. Although many factors affect the rate of
inflation, it often occurs when unemployment ra
tes drop. When more people are working (low
unemployment), consumer spending tends to increase, which increases the demand for money. Tariffs
vary by country and are not directly affected by unemployment rates. The amount of stock that is traded
varies fro
m day to day.

SOURCE:

EC:082

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(pp. 62, 64
-
66).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



22
.

A

Asking irrelevant questions. Any questions should be relevant to the custo
mer's wants and needs in
order to indicate your interest in meeting those needs. Choosing positive words, speaking in an
expressive manner, and listening are all ways to exhibit interest and enthusiasm.

SOURCE:

EI:020

SOURCE:

HR LAP 20

Interest and Enthusi
asm



23
.

D

Initiative. Initiative is the willingness to act without having to be told to do so, or the willingness to
accept/seek additional or unpleasant duties. Developing initiative would prompt Joe to look for other work
to do rather than waiting for
instructions. Creativity is the ability to generate unique ideas, approaches,
solutions, etc. Leadership is the ability to guide other people's activities. Assertiveness is the ability to
express yourself; to communicate your point of view; and to stand up

for your rights, principles, and
beliefs.

SOURCE:

EI:024

SOURCE:

EI LAP 2

Hustle! (Taking Initiative at Work)



24
.

A

Admit the mistake and quote the correct price. When ethical people make mistakes, they don't try to
cover them up or put the blame on som
eone else. Instead, they admit their mistakes and try to correct
them if possible. Everyone makes a mistake at some point in time, and the ethical response is to admit it.
Telling the customer the typist made an error or saying the manager provided inaccur
ate information are
examples of blaming the mistake on others. Employees should not ask coworkers to accept responsibility
for their mistakes.

SOURCE:

EI:004

SOURCE:

EI LAP 4

Work Right (Ethical Work Habits)



25
.

B

Believe that problems can be overcome. P
eople who take a positive attitude handle life's problems better
than others because they believe problems are temporary aggravations that can be endured or
overcome. Setting reasonable goals is not part of handling problems. Positive people are more likel
y to
be tolerant than others, and they expect life to be good rather than full of problems.

SOURCE:

EI:019

SOURCE:

EI LAP 3

Opt for Optimism



26
.

C

To respect their privacy. Some businesses consider e
-
mail to be corporate property and routinely monitor
th
e messages that employees send and receive. If a handbag manufacturer monitors e
-
mail, it should
inform its employees in order to respect their privacy. Employees have the right to know if someone in
the business will read their e
-
mail so that they can dec
ide the type of information they will include. They
might not want to send or receive personal messages if they know a manager might read their mail. A
handbag manufacturer that informs employees that their e
-
mail will be monitored is communicating a
polic
y. Handbag manufacturers do not inform employees that their e
-
mail will be monitored in order to
reduce their liability or to control operating costs.

SOURCE:

EI:029

SOURCE:

Lehman, C. M., & DuFrene, D. D. (1999).
Business communication

(12th ed.) [pp. 244
-
245].
Cincinnati: South
-
Western College Publishing.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


15


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


27
.

A

Win
-
win. When people collaborate, they work together. A collaborative negotiating style is most likely to
create an outcome that benefits both parties. It builds lasting relationships by embracin
g an "everybody
wins" attitude. Use of the accommodating negotiating style often results in a lose
-
win outcome. The
combative and competitive negotiating styles are based on a win
-
lose attitude. Lose
-
lose outcomes most
often occur when using the avoidance
negotiating strategy.

SOURCE:

EI:062

SOURCE:

QS LAP 3

Get to Yes!



28
.

D

Prevent others from taking advantage of her. Assertive people don't take advantage of others or allow
others to take advantage of them. They don't refrain from expressing their thoug
hts and ideas. They do
not say "no" to all requests and do not feel guilty about saying "no" when necessary. They also ask for
help when it is needed.

SOURCE:

EI:008

SOURCE:

Kimbrell, G., & Vineyard, B.S. (2006).
Succeeding in the world of work

(pp. 200
-
20
1). New
York: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



29
.

C

Revolving. With revolving credit accounts, apparel
-
store customers receive a credit limit at the time the
account is opened. The apparel
-
store customer can pay the entire amount due at the end of the month or
make

payments over a period of time. Any outstanding balance is subject to interest charges. Installment
credit accounts require a down payment, and the apparel
-
store customer must sign an agreement to pay
monthly installments. Regular credit accounts allow cr
edit users to purchase goods or services during a
set period. Budget credit accounts are a form of short
-
term credit

usually 60 to 90 days.

SOURCE:

FI:002

SOURCE:

FI LAP 2

Credit and Its Importance



30
.

B

$3,200. Net worth is the total value of the access
ory shop. Net worth is calculated by subtracting total
liabilities from total assets ($4,250
-

$1,050 = $3,200). Cash on hand and value of inventory is included in
total assets.

SOURCE:

FI:085

SOURCE:

FI LAP 5

Show Me the Money (Nature of Accounting)



31
.

D

Sales growth.

Bridal salons usually want to know what the sales growth has been over time. By
calculating sales numbers from several different income statements, the bridal salon will be able to
calculate sales growth. The sales
-
growth ratio is used to
determine any rise as well as loss in sales over
time. Monitoring sales growth is critical for the bridal salon's success. Net income is money remaining
after operating expenses are subtracted from gross profit. Total debt is all the money a bridal salon o
wes.
Bridal salons calculate net income and total debt on a yearly basis. A bridal salon's income statement
would not provide information about national trends.

SOURCE:

FI:094

SOURCE:

FI LAP 4

Watch Your Bottom Line (Income Statements)



32
.

C

$226.05. In
order to prepare the invoice, the apparel manufacturer first needs to calculate the extensions.
In this case, the customer purchased four items at $31.35 each, which totaled $125.40, and three items
at $26.95 each, which totaled $80.85 ($31.35 x 4 = $125.4
0; $26.95 x 3 = $80.85). Then, the
manufacturer adds the totals of each extension plus the shipping charges of $19.80 to determine the total
invoice amount ($125.40 + $80.85 + $19.80 = $226.05).

SOURCE:

FI:087

SOURCE:

Stull, W.A. (1999).
Marketing and esse
ntial math skills: Teacher's edition

(pp. 71
-
73).
Cincinnati: South
-
Western Educational.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


16


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


33
.

C

$4,645.50. Bank deposit slips have a blank marked "cash received" that allows customers to withhold
part of their deposit. Since the menswear store withheld $5
0, that amount should be subtracted from the
total checks to determine how much was added to the store's account ($4,695.50
-

$50 = $4,645.50).

SOURCE:

FI:298

SOURCE:

American Bankers Association (2005).
Today's teller: Developing basic skills

(pp. 48
-
50).

Washington: Author.



34
.

B

To change promotions. Marketing information is all the marketing
-
related data available from inside and
outside the sportswear store. This data includes information about customers, the social and economic
environment, and deve
loping trends. Stores use the marketing information to change and improve
promotions that will appeal to customers and bring them into the store. For example, if marketing data
indicated that customers were becoming more cost
-
conscious, a store might devel
op a promotional
campaign based on low prices and value for the dollar. Stores do not use marketing information to
purchase brands, monitor customers, or handle objections.

SOURCE:

IM:012

SOURCE:

Zikmund, W.G., & d'Amico, M. (1999).
Marketing
(6th ed.) [p.

129]. Cincinnati: South
-
Western College.



35
.

B

Survey services. Dress stores often obtain primary data by posting their questionnaires online with a
survey service. There are many types of online survey services available. Some services can be
accessed
free of charge, while others charge a subscription fee. Fees vary depending on the depth of the
research the dress store wants to obtain. Because Internet service is available 24/7, the respondents can
access the survey by entering a link or code when it i
s convenient for them to answer the questions.
Intranet refers to the networking of personal computers within a company for sharing business
information. An e
-
mail filter is a software program that reduces the amount of spam that enters an e
-
mail
inbox. We
b screener is a fictitious term.

SOURCE:

IM:183

SOURCE:

Shao, A. (2002).
Marketing research: An aid to decision making
(2nd ed.) [p. 91]. Mason,
OH: South
-
Western.



36
.

B

To develop a profile of the typical customer. Demographic information is often gathe
red through
marketing research. The shoe
-
store chain can use such information to develop a profile of the typical
customer in order to try to meet customers' needs. The shoe
-
store chain cannot create a mailing list from
this information since names and add
resses are not included in the data. The information also would not
help the shoe
-
store chain to identify internal problems or set up an operating budget.

SOURCE:

IM:010

SOURCE:

Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2004).
Contemporary marketing

(11th ed.) [pp. 287
-

288]. Mason,
OH: Thomson/South
-
Western.



37
.

A

Identify the information needs of the clothing store. The first step in deciding which information to monitor
for marketing decision making is to determine the information needs of the clothing store. This w
ill identify
which type of information needs to be monitored. The alternatives are the subsequent steps involved in
operating a marketing
-
information system that take place after the information needs have been
identified.

SOURCE:

IM:184

SOURCE:

Eggland, S
.A., Dlabay, L.R., Burrow, J.L., & Ristau, R.A. (2000).

Intro to business

(4th ed.)
[p. 212]. Cincinnati: South
-
Western Educational.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


17


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


38
.

B

Keyboarding. The most popular technique for entering marketing data into a computer for analysis is
keyboarding. Th
e keyboarding technique involves the use of a keyboard that is connected to a computer.
An individual types in the information via the keyboard and then saves it to the computer for future use
and analysis. Before the data are entered into a computer, they

are edited for mistakes. Screening is a
method of validating the accuracy of the data. After the data are entered into a computer, researchers are
able to tabulate and analyze the information.

SOURCE:

IM:062

SOURCE:

Hair, J.F., Jr., Bush, R.P., & Ortinau,

D.J. (2000).
Marketing research: A practical approach
for the new millennium

(pp. 491
-
499). Boston: Irwin/McGraw
-
Hill.



39
.

A

Setting goals with marketing in mind. According to the marketing concept, setting goals with marketing in
mind evidences company

commitment

the theme of getting everyone in the firm involved in marketing,
from the top down. Leaving marketing to marketers and assigning a small budget to marketing are two
ways to keep people from being involved or to limit marketing. In addition, tea
ching marketing to students
is honorable, but it does not demonstrate the marketing concept's theme of company commitment.

SOURCE:

MK:001

SOURCE:

BA LAP 11

Have It Your Way



40
.

D

Promotion. The marketing mix is the combination of the four elements of mar
keting

product, place,
promotion, and price. As an element of the marketing mix, promotion refers to the various types of
communications that marketers use to inform, persuade, or remind customers of their products. Place is
the marketing element that focu
ses on considerations in getting a selected product in the right place at
the right time. Product is the marketing element referring to what goods, services, or ideas a business will
offer its customers. Profit is not an element of the marketing mix.

SOURC
E:

MP:001

SOURCE:

IM LAP 7

Pick the Mix (Marketing Strategies)



41
.

C

Psychographic. Psychographic segmentation is based on consumers' lifestyles and personalities, which
includes their interests, values, activities, and individual qualities. Behavioral s
egmentation is based on
consumers' response to a product. Geographic segmentation is based on where the market is located.
Demographic segmentation is based on characteristics people have in common that affect their
purchasing power.

SOURCE:

MP:003

SOURCE:

IM LAP 9

Have We Met?



42
.

D

Action
-
oriented. Objectives are goals or desired results. A specific course of action must be taken to
meet the goals or achieve the desired result. Vague is a term that means unclear. A characteristic of a
good marketing pla
n is that it contains specific (comprehensive) information. Because marketing plans
can be developed to address short
-

and long
-
term objectives, not every marketing plan may consist of
short
-
term objectives. Because environmental factors (e.g., economy) ca
n change, marketing objectives
might need to be revised. Therefore, objectives should be flexible rather than inflexible.

SOURCE:

MP:007

SOURCE:

Zikmund, W., & d'Amico, M. (2001).
Marketing: Creating and keeping customers in an

e
-
commerce world

(7th ed.)
[pp. 45, 633]. Mason, OH: South
-
Western.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


18


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


43
.

D

The shorter the forecast, the more accurate the prediction. Forecasts that project sales beyond one year
are less accurate than short
-
term forecasts due to unpredictable changes that can occur over a longer
period of time. Market conditions can vary at any time; therefore, bridal salons cannot be assured that
conditions will remain the same for a year. Longitudinal studies are research efforts that measure certain
factors repeatedly over a long period of time
. Forecasting methods can be appropriate for periods longer
than one year, depending on the objectives of the forecast, the business's resources, the purpose(s) of
the forecast, and the conditions of the market.

SOURCE:

MP:013

SOURCE:

Burrow, J.L. (2006).
Marketing: Instructor's wraparound edition

(2nd ed.) [pp. 538
-
539].
Mason, OH: Thomson/South
-
Western.



44
.

B

Database. A database program allows the organized collection of information with pieces of information
related to one another. This information ca
n be used to maintain, analyze, and combine customer
information. Spreadsheets, word
-
processing software, and computer
-
aided design do not perform the
functions required by the clothing store.

SOURCE:

NF:009

SOURCE:

Eggland, S.A., Dlabay, L.R., Burrow, J.L
., & Ristau, R.A. (2000).
Intro to business

(4th ed.)
[pp. 214
-
215]. Cincinnati: South
-
Western Educational.



45
.

A

Productivity. Productivity is the amount of work employees perform in a given period. Collaborative
computer software allows many employees
to access the same business information. Some applications,
such as e
-
mail, allow employees to instantly transmit messages and business documents to coworkers
who are traveling or working in other facilities, which can facilitate a quick response. Quick re
sponses
can increase an employee's productivity because the employee can take immediate action and then
proceed to work on other tasks. Collaborative computer software does not necessarily increase an
employee's independence or motivation because other fac
tors can affect a person's independence (e.g.,
type of job) and motivation. The swimsuit manufacturer, rather than its employees, receives the profits
that might result from increases in the employees' productivity.

SOURCE:

NF:011

SOURCE:

Sheldon, T. (n
.d.).
Groupware
. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from
http://www.linktionary.com/g/groupware.html



46
.

C

To forecast future sales. Menswear stores maintain a variety of records about the quantities and types of
apparel items that customers are purchasing. The
se records are usually known as sales records. By
analyzing past sales records, stores can determine what customers are buying, when they are buying,
and how much they are buying. This helps a store forecast future sales so it can be prepared to offer the
apparel items that customers want. Menswear stores do not maintain records about what customers are
purchasing to develop new displays, plan credit programs, or organize special events.

SOURCE:

NF:002

SOURCE:

Burrow, J.L. (2006).
Marketing

(2nd ed.) [pp.12
0
-
121]. Mason, OH: South
-
Western.



47
.

C

To minimize loss. Some equipment and machinery may be complicated to operate. Consequently, a
clothing manufacturer's employees should follow the instructions when using the equipment and
machinery to avoid damagin
g or breaking it, or injuring themselves. If a clothing manufacturer's
employees are injured, they may not be able to work, which results in a loss for the business. Also,
repairing or replacing damaged equipment may be expensive, which results in another
loss for the
clothing manufacturer. The intent is not to speed up production or increase output by following
instructions when using equipment and machinery, but to maintain production and output at an
appropriate and safe level. Following instructions wil
l not necessarily decrease overtime.

SOURCE:

OP:006

SOURCE:

Ninemeier, J.D. (2000).
Management of food and beverage operations

(3rd ed.)

[pp. 274
-
275]. Weimar, TX: Culinary and Hospitality Industry Publications Services.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


19


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


48
.

C

Pilferage. Pilferage is th
e theft of small sums of money or inexpensive items from a business, such as a
jewelry store. Shoplifting is the theft of goods by customers. Burglary is any illegal entry into a building to
commit a theft. Robbery is theft that involves the use of force,
violence, or fear.

SOURCE:

OP:013

SOURCE:

Levy, M., & Weitz, B. A. (2007).
Retailing management

(6
th

ed.) [pp. 484
-
485]. Boston:
McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin.



49
.

D

Blanket. Vendors are often very knowledgeable about fashion trends and demands. So, fashion retailer
s
defer to them to select the appropriate mix of merchandise. When this is the case, it is referred to as a
blanket order. An advance order is placed before the regular buying season, and the fashion retailer
specifies what that order should consist of. A
special order is a request by the fashion retailer for very
specific merchandise that is not in stock. A back order refers to goods that are out of stock and will be
shipped at a later date.

SOURCE:

OP:016

SOURCE:

Van Weele, A.J. (2002).
Purchasing and sup
ply chain management: Analysis, planning and
practice

(3
rd

ed.) [p. 83]. London: Thomson Learning.



50
.

D

Merchandise will be easy for customers to find. If an apparel and accessories store is neat and clean and
the merchandise is well organized, it is ea
sier for customers to shop the store. In addition, customers
perceive the store and its merchandise in a more positive manner and are likely to become regular
customers. Housekeeping skills are considered routine rather than valuable skills. Aisles should
be kept
clear and uncluttered, not used for storage.

SOURCE:

OP:032

SOURCE:

Stutts, A. T., & Wortman, J. F. (2006).
Hotel and lodging management: An introduction


(2
nd

ed.) [pp. 88, 99
-
101]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.



51
.

A

$15.00. To verify the amo
unt of money in a change fund, total all change and currency. Subtract the
amount that was supposed to be in the change fund ($150.00) from the amount actually in the change
fund ($165.00) to obtain the overage ($15.00). Two rolls of pennies = $ 1.00; 2 ro
lls of nickels = $4.00; 1
roll of dimes = $5.00; 1 roll of quarters = $10.00; 25 $1 bills = $25.00; 6 $5 bills = $30.00; 5 $10 bills =
$50.00; 2 $20 bills = $40.00; for a total of $165.00.

SOURCE:

OP:194

SOURCE:

American Bankers Association (2005).
Today's

teller: Developing basic skills

(pp. 97
-
98).
Washington: Author.



52
.

A

$5.00 short. The cash in the drawer totals $440.00 (9 x $20 = $180; 8 x $10 = $80; 15 x $5 = $75; 90 x
$1 = $90; $180 + $80 + $75 + $90 + $15 = $440). The audit tape shows that $395.
00 was registered, and
the drawer started with $50.00. There should be $395 + $50 or $445 in the drawer. The drawer is,
therefore, $5 short ($445
-

$440 = $5).

SOURCE:

OP:195

SOURCE:

Stull, W.A. (1999).
Marketing and essential math skills: Teacher's editio
n

(pp. 152
-
154).
Cincinnati: South
-
Western Educational.



53
.

D

Celeste has not chosen this goal for herself. Your goals should be based on an honest study of what you
want. Because you must believe in your goals in order to reach them, your goals must be
yours, not what
someone else thinks you should do. Celeste's goal is specific, realistic, attainable, and challenging.

SOURCE:

PD:018

SOURCE:

PD LAP 16

Go For the Goal (Goal Setting)


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


20


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


54
.

C

Mental flexibility. Creative people are more likely to be open to

new ideas and new points of view. They
think in nontraditional ways rather than staying with the status quo. One of their physical traits is a high
energy level. Impatience with others is a personality trait.

SOURCE:

PD:012

SOURCE:

PD LAP 2

Creativity



5
5
.

A

Posted help
-
wanted signs. Many local apparel shops post help
-
wanted signs in their windows to attract
the attention of prospective employees. Young people searching for their first jobs often respond to the
help
-
wanted signs. The young people usually
are familiar with these shops because they are part of the
community. Shops that hire employment agencies, conduct professional searches, and advertise in trade
journals usually are looking for employees who have experience or specialized training rather t
han young
people searching for their first jobs.

SOURCE:

PD:026

SOURCE:

Bailey, L.J. (2003).
Working: Career success for the 21st century

(3rd ed.) [p. 35]. Mason,
OH: South
-
Western.



56
.

C

Reason for leaving previous job. Most employment applications ask

why you left previous jobs. The
answer should be positive and not in any way critical of a former employer. Common reasons for leaving
previous jobs include accepting a better position, returning to school, or because the job was a seasonal
position that
ended. The question about eligibility to work in this country usually appears in the personal
information section. Questions about course of study completed are contained in the education section.
The question about availability to begin work is usually in

a general section about the type of job desired.

SOURCE:

PD:027

SOURCE:

Bailey, L.J. (2003).
Working: Career success for the 21st century

(3rd ed.) [p. 47]. Mason,
OH: South
-
Western.



57
.

A

Specialty or career interest. Marketing organizations/associatio
ns may be formed by individuals whose
common geographic location causes them to have interests in the same specialty (e.g., fashion design)
or whose career interests are similar. Societies that unite people of the same nationality or religion are
not consi
dered to be professional organizations or trade associations.

SOURCE:

PD:036

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(pp. 789
-
790).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



58
.

D

Jeans. Fashion is a particular

style of something that is popular at a certain time. Apparel is clothing.
Some apparel items include jeans, shirts, suits, dresses, sweaters, and jackets. Because apparel
designers are constantly changing and updating clothing styles, apparel is a segmen
t of the fashion
industry. Although handbags, watches, and shoes are fashion goods, these are accessory items.

SOURCE:

PD:102

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M. (2006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [p. 24]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox Co.



59
.

B

Costs of production. The incr
ease in the price of the product is caused by the more expensive materials
used to make the product. Company image is the way in which the T
-
shirt manufacturer is viewed by
consumers. Customers' decisions may have influenced the T
-
shirt manufacturer's chan
ge of materials,
but they are not directly responsible for the price increase. The change was in materials, not in methods
of production.

SOURCE:

PI:001

SOURCE:

PI LAP 2

The Price is Right (Pricing)


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


21


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


60
.

C

Universal Product Codes. Universal Product Codes
(UPCs) are bar type symbols that provide information
such as pricing, model, size, type, and color of specific items. Employees scan bar codes into their
electronic cash registers. The registers translate the code into the selling price of the item. Unifor
m
Resource Locators (URLs) are computer
-
based codes that locate web pages on the Internet. Unified
Pricing Criteria and United Rating Systems are not terms used to describe technological functions as
they relate to pricing issues.

SOURCE:

PI:016

SOURCE:

Fa
rese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2002).
Marketing essentials
(3rd ed.) [p. 442].
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



61
.

D

$20.50. The factors that affect the selling price of a scarf include the operating expenses, desired profit,
and th
e cost. Accessory stores usually add these figures to obtain the selling price. In this example, add
the figures listed ($11.00 + $3.00 + $6.50 = $20.50).

SOURCE:

PI:002

SOURCE:

Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J., & Stanton, W.J. (2007).
Marketing

(14
th

ed.) [pp. 3
25
-
330]. Boston:
McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin.



62
.

D

Product managing. Product management involves obtaining, developing, maintaining, and improving a
product mix in response to market opportunities and includes all activities from the time of an apparel
product's
conception to the time of its elimination. Marketing is an organizational function and a set of
processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer
relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its s
takeholders. Positioning is a product
-
mix
strategy in which an apparel business creates a certain image or impression of a product in the minds of
consumers. Concept testing is exploring the concept, or idea, for a product in order to obtain feedback.

SOUR
CE:

PM:001

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(pp. 549
-
551).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



63
.

D

Whether to change the product. Whether to change the product is one of the choices that needs to

be
made during the decline stage. During this stage in the product life cycle, the producer also has to decide
whether to sell or license the product, recommit to the product line, discount the product, or regionalize
the product. Increasing awareness occ
urs during the introductory stage. Fending off the competition
occurs during the maturity stage. The company does not need to decide the production schedule.

SOURCE:

PM:024

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2002).
Marketing essentials

(
3rd ed.)

[pp. 558
-
559]. Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



64
.

A

Cause packaging. Cause packaging is using a product to promote a political or social issue. For
example, The Body Shop places wording on its product packaging that the company does n
ot test its
products on animals. This indicates that the company does not believe in testing products on animals,
which is a very controversial and ethical issue. Environmental labeling and provocative branding are not
terms commonly associated with packag
ing. Political lobbying is the act of trying to influence the attitudes
and actions of legislative groups.

SOURCE:

PM:040

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2002).
Marketing essentials
(3rd ed.) [p. 578].
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGr
aw
-
Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


22


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


65
.

B

Generate new product ideas. Generating new product ideas is an ongoing process for many apparel
businesses because it is important to remain current. Apparel businesses need to develop new products
that will meet the needs of customers and

increase sales. Successful apparel businesses continuously
look for new ideas to remain competitive in the marketplace. They do not hire additional employees,
develop community relations plans, or modernize physical facilities to solve problems, increase
sales,
and attract new customers.

SOURCE:

PM:128

SOURCE:

Zikmund, W., & d'Amico, M. (2001).
Marketing: Creating and keeping customers in an

e
-
commerce world

(7th ed.) [pp. 286
-
287]. Mason, OH: South
-
Western.



66
.

D

Lifestyle. Some people lead very active

and informal lifestyles, while others have more formal lifestyles.
For example, a bank executive who works 80 hours a week might need to have several suits to wear to
work. Working so many hours, there is little time for hobbies or athletic activities. A
construction worker
might work fewer hours and spend a lot of time biking and camping. This individual probably wears more
casual clothing (e.g., jeans, cotton shirts, athletic wear) most of the time. Therefore, how the clothing
functions in relation to a
particular lifestyle is often considered in relation to a target market. For example,
athletic wear must be designed to accommodate the sports activity. Although color is an important
consideration in developing fashion items, designers cannot base garment

color on each person's color
preferences in a given market. In addition, target markets can have similar shopping habits or tastes, but
designers cannot know each person's shopping habits or how each person expresses their individuality.

SOURCE:

PM:047

SO
URCE:

Wolfe, M. (2006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [pp. 228
-
229]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox Co.



67
.

B

Specialize and produce efficiently. An apparel manufacturer that has a narrow product mix offers a
limited number of product lines. This enables the co
mpany to specialize, to produce efficiently, to relate
the products to the target market, and to concentrate on marketing the product lines. Manufacturers with
a broad product mix can meet the needs of a variety of consumers, offer a wide range of prices,
and
often reduce the cost of goods purchased for resale.

SOURCE:

PM:003

SOURCE:

PM LAP 3

Mix and Match (Product Mix)



68
.

D

Discount pricing. Product bundling is the practice of putting together a number of goods to create a one
-
price package. Because bun
dled products are priced so that they are less expensive than purchasing the
products individually, it is an advantage to the customer. Any type of product can be bundled

high
quality or low quality. Higher brand awareness and sales increases are advantage
s to the apparel and
accessories businesses that offer bundled products.

SOURCE:

PM:041

SOURCE:

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (1999).
Principles of marketing
(8th ed.) [pp. 333
-
334]. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.



69
.

B

Hong Kong. Although there ar
e some new designers creating originals in exotic fabrics, Hong Kong is
known primarily as a market center for inexpensive production and copies of designs from other
countries. Because of cheap labor, production houses in Hong Kong can make inexpensive ve
rsions of
outfits by well
-
known designers. Consequently, many buyers visit the Hong Kong fashion center to place
orders for copies. Rome and Paris are known for original designs that are expensive. Great Britain is a
country rather than a market center. In

Great Britain, London is a market center.

SOURCE:

PM:052

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M.G. (2006).
Fashion!

(5th ed.) [pp. 55,192
-
93]. Chicago: Goodheart
-
Willcox.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


23


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


70
.

D

Wants. Positioning is a product
-
mix strategy in which a clothing store creates a certain image or

impression of an accessory item in the minds of consumers. The store wants a target market to have a
positive impression of the product in order to stimulate sales. The desired impression depends on what
the target market wants or expects. If the target m
arket wants high
-
quality accessory items and it is
willing to pay a high price for quality, then the store should use a product
-
mix strategy that positions the
product on the basis of superior quality at a high price. Rather than target markets, stores hav
e strategies
and polices, while products have benefits.

SOURCE:

PM:042

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2006).
Marketing essentials

(p. 645). New
York: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



71
.

C

So that it sets the product apart from other products.

The brand name should not be too common or too
similar to those used by competitors. It should be appropriate and even clever, if possible. A brand
name's adaptability makes it useable in multinational marketing and prevents it from needing to be
changed
over time. A distinctive brand name gives the product a specific image, not a generic image.

SOURCE:

PM:021

SOURCE:

PM LAP 6

It's a Brand, Brand, Brand World (Product Branding)



72
.

A

2. The formula for stockturn in dollars is dollar sales for the period
divided by the value of average stock.
First, calculate average stock for the month: $3,000 + $4,000 = $7,000; $7,000 ÷ 2 = $3,500. Then,
divide the total sales ($7,000) by the average stock ($3,500): $7,000 ÷ $3,500 = 2 stockturns for the
month.

SOURCE:

P
M:062

SOURCE:

Berman, B., & Evans, J.R. (2004).
Retail management: A strategic approach

(9
th

ed.)

[pp. 407
-
408]. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.



73
.

B

$192,700. The formula for determining planned purchases for a month is planned monthly sales pl
us
planned reductions, plus desired end
-
of
-
month stock, minus planned beginning
-
of
-
the
-
month stock. In
this example, first add planned monthly sales, planned reductions, and desired end
-
of
-
month stock
($173,450 + $2,600 + $84,900 = $260,950). From that fig
ure, subtract planned beginning
-
of
-
the
-
month
stock to determine planned monthly purchases ($260,950
-

$68,250 = $192,700).

SOURCE:

PM:064

SOURCE:

Berman, B., & Evans, J.R. (2004).
Retail management: A strategic approach

(9
th

ed.)

[pp. 401
-
403]. Upper Sadd
le River, NJ: Prentice Hall.



74
.

D

Sales records. Records of past sales reveal customers' preferences and are usually studied by buyers.
Vendor records are useful in selecting vendors from whom to purchase. Sales forecasts are predictions
of future sale
s levels over a specific period of time. Shoplifting records might give indications of desirable
items but would not be used in making purchasing decisions.

SOURCE:

PM:260

SOURCE:

Farese, L.S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C.A. (2002).
Marketing essentials

(3
rd ed.) [p. 420].
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



75
.

D

Personal or nonpersonal. Personal promotional methods involve interactions between people, e.g., a
sales representative makes a presentation to a business owner. Nonpersonal promotional met
hods make
use of coupons, displays, signs, etc., and do not involve individuals. Promotion should always be truthful.
It should also be relevant or meaningful and persuasive.

SOURCE:

PR:001

SOURCE:

PR LAP 2

Know Your Options (Types of Promotion)


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


24


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


76
.

D

Ta
kes money away from product promotions. Money that is spent on institutional promotions reduces the
amount available to spend on product promotions. Some critics feel this is not a good use of company
funds. Institutional promotion increases the company's
visibility rather than creating or maintaining a low
profile. Product promotions educate consumers about products and create consumer awareness of
products.

SOURCE:

PR:002

SOURCE:

PR LAP 4

Know Your Options (Types of Promotion)



77
.

C

At the same time. Ma
ny forms of technology allow menswear store chains to communicate promotional
messages to many people simultaneously. Television and radio commercials are broadcast through
electronic airwaves, which have the capacity to reach thousands of people at the sa
me time. In addition,
satellite technology allows many people to access the same Internet web site at the same time. Certain
forms of technology, such as television commercials, are expensive methods of communicating
promotional messages and often take a l
ot of effort to produce. An individual's difficult circumstances do
not necessarily provide the chain with an advantage when using technology to promote products.

SOURCE:

PR:100

SOURCE:

Zikmund, W., & d'Amico, M. (2001).
Marketing: Creating and keeping cus
tomers in an

e
-
commerce world

(7th ed.) [p. 507]. Mason, OH: South
-
Western.



78
.

B

Direct mail. Direct mail can be used to announce special sales, special offers, or the arrival and showing
of new fashions. Target markets are more difficult to isolate wi
th newspapers and outdoor advertising.
These types of media may reach larger audiences than intended. Television is a broadcast, not a print,
medium.

SOURCE:

PR:007

SOURCE:

PR LAP 3

Ad
-
quipping Your Business (Types of Promotional Media)



79
.

B

Self
-
mailer
s. Direct mail is a promotional medium that comes to consumers' homes and businesses. Self
-
mailers are forms of direct mail that do not require an envelope. Self
-
mailers are usually sealed or
stapled and have a designated space for the mailing label, retur
n address label, and postage. T
-
shirt
shops can save money by using self
-
mailers because they do not need to purchase envelopes. Color
catalogs are expensive to produce. Sales packets and computer disks require envelopes or wrappers
and often weigh a lot,
which tends to increase postage amounts. Therefore, sales packets and computer
disks are not options that are most likely to save money for T
-
shirt shops.

SOURCE:

PR:089

SOURCE:

Arens, W.F. (2004).
Contemporary advertising

(9th ed.) [p. 574]. Boston: Irwin
/McGraw Hill.



80
.

A

Illustration. This may be a photograph, drawing, painting, or graphic. The headline is text used to attract
attention to the advertisement. The copy is the principal sales message of the advertisement. The
identification element provi
des the name of the product's brand or the product's advertiser who may be
the producer and/or the seller of the product.

SOURCE:

PR:014

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(p. 427).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glenc
oe/McGraw
-
Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


25


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


81
.

D

Display a large sign outside the facility. A small
-
business owner may not have the financial resources to
place ads in newspapers or contract space over broadcast media because it can be expensive. A large
sign, promoting the sale,
that is outside the building advises potential customers of the sale and may
draw them into the shop. It is possible for the sign to be reused at a later date for other sales, which
creates added savings. Drawings for a Caribbean cruise, extensive direct
-
m
ail plans, and specialty item
giveaways are not quick, cost
-
effective ways to announce a sale.

SOURCE:

PR:109

SOURCE:

Semenik, R.J. (2002).
Promotion and integrated marketing communications

(pp. 392
-
393).
Mason, OH: South
-
Western.



82
.

D

Visual merchandis
ing. Visual merchandising is the display of store merchandise in such a way that it
attracts the attention of customers and encourages them to buy. Arranging merchandise around a theme
that creates interest among customers is a form of visual merchandising
. Personal selling is the form of
promotion that uses planned, personalized communication in order to influence purchase decisions to
ensure satisfaction. Mass marketing is designing products and directing marketing activities in order to
appeal to the who
le market. Display advertising is a kind of newspaper and magazine advertising which
includes several elements, such as illustrations, headlines, and white space.

SOURCE:

PR:023

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essen
tials

(pp. 382
-
383).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



83
.

A

Informal balance. With informal, or asymmetrical, balance the two sides of a display appear to be of
equal weight, but they are not replicas of each other. The individual units on each s
ide may differ, but
they achieve a balance of weight and size. Repetition, pyramid arrangements, and formal balance do not
give the asymmetrical effect.

SOURCE:

PR:026

SOURCE:

Diamond, J., & Diamond, E. (1999).
Contemporary visual merchandising

(pp. 109
-
11
0).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.



84
.

B

Replace the sold
-
out blouse with another blouse from the line. Customers expect displayed items to be
available. Therefore, a displayed item should be replaced when the supply has been depleted. It is easi
er
and more cost efficient to replace the blouse than to change the entire display. Waiting for the blouse in
the display to sell could take time and frustrate customers as well. Accessorizing the blouse would make
it a feature of the display.

SOURCE:

PR:0
52

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(p. 393).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



85
.

D

Define its promotional objectives. In order to create an effective promotional plan, the handbag business
must

analyze its current situation and then decide the direction it wishes to take. Setting clear objectives
provides guidelines for the promotional plan. Objectives also provide standards for the handbag business
to use in evaluating the effectiveness of prom
otional efforts. Choosing an appropriate promotional mix
helps to achieve objectives once they are established. Increasing sales of new products is an objective of
the overall promotional planning process.

SOURCE:

PR:073

SOURCE:

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G.

(2008).
Principles of marketing

(12
th

ed.) [p. 485]. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice
-
Hall.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


26


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


86
.

B

A retailer sells a sewing machine to a professional seamstress. A retailer's selling a sewing machine to a
professional seamstress is an example of a produ
ct's being sold to an organization for use in producing
other goods. The seamstress will use the sewing machines to produce goods that she will sell. A
retailer's selling office furniture to an advertising firm is an example of a product's being sold for u
se in
general business operations. A teenager's mowing his neighbor's lawn for $20 is an example of a
product's being sold directly to the user for ultimate consumption. A distributor's selling comic books to a
comic store is an example of a product's bein
g sold to an organization for resale.

SOURCE:

SE:017

SOURCE:

SE LAP 117

Sell Away (The Nature and Scope of Selling)



87
.

C

External. External factors are those forces operating in the business environment over which the apparel
retailer has little or no c
ontrol. Competitors are external factors because an apparel retailer has no control
over what a competitor will do. If the competition offers low prices, an apparel retailer might lower its
prices also in order to remain competitive. Customer and social co
ncerns are other types of external
factors that affect an apparel retailer's selling policies. Internal factors are those forces present within the
company that affect selling policies.

SOURCE:

SE:932

SOURCE:

Levy, M., & Weitz, B. A. (2007).
Retailing mana
gement

(6
th

ed.) [pp. 251
-
252]. Boston:
McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin.



88
.

A

Misrepresentation. Misrepresentation involves overstating a product's capabilities or characteristics. In
some cases, misrepresentation is unethical because the clothing store supply salesp
eople's statements
indicate the display fixture is better than others or the best when it really is not. Salespeople often
describe their products in such terms, and customers know those are the opinions of the salespeople
rather than factual statements. H
owever, making such statements might be considered unethical if
customers believe what the salespeople say and buy the product on that basis. Carried to the extreme,
misrepresentation may be illegal. Breach of warranty and price discrimination are illegal
rather than
unethical. Exclusive dealership rather than exclusive selling is illegal if it restricts competition.

SOURCE:

SE:106

SOURCE:

Futrell, C.M. (2001).
Sales management: Teamwork, leadership, and technology

(6th ed.)
[pp. 37
-
39]. Mason, OH: South
-
We
stern.



89
.

B

Interactive training software. Interactive software allows computer users to learn information and practice
a skill or activity. Since the user is in control of the function, the software can be used on an individual
basis at anytime. Videoc
onferencing refers to the ability to exchange information via satellite from various
locations. Although videoconferencing is interactive, it is generally a scheduled event; therefore, a
computer user cannot proceed at her/his own pace. Database software p
rograms are computer
-
based
programs that store various information and data. They are not necessarily interactive. Customized
training specialists are individuals or companies that develop and provide training materials for others.
Training specialists are

not necessarily computer
-
based or interactive in nature.

SOURCE:

SE:107

SOURCE:

Stanton, W.J., & Spiro, R. (1999).
Management of a sales force

(10th ed.) [p. 239]. Boston:
Irwin/McGraw
-
Hill.



90
.

B

Label. Labels make up one of the largest groups of produ
ct information sources. Labels on sweaters
usually include size, type of material, and care and maintenance. A detection wedge is a security device
attached to products to prevent them from being stolen. A universal product code (UPC) ticket contains
pric
e and inventory information. A logo is a design used to identify a business or a product.

SOURCE:

SE:062

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(pp. 664
-
665).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


27


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


91
.

C

Hid
den. Hidden benefits are advantages that cannot be seen or understood without the assistance of a
salesperson. Comfort and safety are examples of benefits that may not be apparent to a customer unless
a salesperson explains them. Being thoroughly competent

in pointing out the benefits of products will
enable salespeople to increase sales. Unique or exclusive benefits are benefits that a competitor's good
or service does not possess. Obvious benefits are advantages of a product that are apparent, plain to
se
e, and easily recognizable.

SOURCE:

SE:109

SOURCE:

SE LAP 113

Find Features, Boost Benefits (Feature
-
Benefit Selling)



92
.

C

Standing
-
room
-
only close. Salespeople who want to encourage prospects to buy a unique item (e.g.,
designer suit) focus on the one
-
of
-
a
-
kind features of that product. This technique urges a prospect to buy
the item before someone else does. A contingent close requires a salesperson to prove a point to the
prospect regarding the item before a sale is made. A narrative closing involves
telling a story about how a
product solved another customer's problem, rather than stressing the urgency to buy a unique item. A
summary close is when a salesperson reviews the features and benefits of a product and then asks a
customer to buy.

SOURCE:

SE:
895

SOURCE:

Anderson, R.E., & Dubinsky, A.J. (2004).
Personal selling: Achieving customer satisfaction
and loyalty

(pp. 214
-
215). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.



93
.

C

Soft and comfortable. A characteristic of lingerie that is made of cotton is that the garmen
ts are soft and
comfortable. Lingerie manufacturers often use cotton to make women's foundations, underwear,
sleepwear, etc., because of the fabric characteristics. Being soft and comfortable are benefits of cotton
lingerie. Cotton is strong although it is

considered a cool fabric rather than very warm. Cotton is
comfortable but not luxurious. It is a lightweight fabric and inexpensive.

SOURCE:

SE:126

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M. (2006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [pp. 121
-
123]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox Co.



94
.

B

National. A national brand identifies the producer of the specific product and is usually found in many
stores across the country. These fashion designers have become well known to the public through
advertising and the prominent placement of their labels
on clothing. Confined brands are exclusive to a
store within a community. Private brands and store brands are specific to one retailer and are usually
used in price competition.

SOURCE:

SE:051

SOURCE:

Farese, L. S., Kimbrell, G., & Woloszyk, C. A. (2009).
Marketing essentials

(p. 657).
Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw
-
Hill.



95
.

B

Skin tone. There are four main skin tones that are categorized according to the seasons of the year. A
customer's skin tone affects the way certain colors look on that person
. For example, some people look
better in warm colors while others look better in cool colors. Salespeople should consider a customer's
skin tone when helping that person select apparel items that are flattering and attractive. If the color of
the clothing

does not complement the customer's skin tone, the customer may look pale or washed out.
Hair color, rather than hair style, is another consideration. The customer's foot size and arm length are
not factors to consider.

SOURCE:

SE:004

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M. (2
006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [pp. 182
-
183]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox
Company, Inc.


Test 995



APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES MARKETING

KEY


28


Students ‘
D
emonstrating
E
xcellence
C
elebrating
A
chievement’ since 1979


96
.

D

Age. Toddlers' sizes are based on the age of a child, e.g., 2T for a two
-
year
-
old child. Although the sizes
are based on age, children do not necessarily fit i
nto that size. Weight, height, and waist are guides for
determining proper clothing size.

SOURCE:

SE:135

SOURCE:

Gaskill, M., & Shimanek, G. (2000).
Fashion marketing

(p. 46). Austin, TX: The University of
Texas.



97
.

D

Comfort. When helping customers det
ermine the correct shoe size, it is important to consider comfort
because the style and construction of the shoe has an effect on how comfortable it is. For example, a
customer who usually wears a certain shoe size might find that a particular style is unc
omfortable in that
size because of the design and construction. In that situation, a customer may need a larger size in order
for the shoe to fit comfortably. Style of shoe, durability, and fabric are not factors in determining the
correct size. The best w
ay to determine the correct size is to measure the customer's foot and have the
customer try on the shoes.

SOURCE:

SE:138

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M. (2006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [p. 243]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox Co.



98
.

A

Tunic. The tunic, or overblouse,

is a long blouse extending at least to the hip line and often is worn on the
outside of slacks or skirts. A shell is a sleeveless, plain blouse. A sheath is a dress style. A middy is a
type of collar.

SOURCE:

SE:140

SOURCE:

Wolfe, M. (2006).
Fashion!

(5
th

ed.) [p. 46]. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart
-
Willcox Co..



99
.

B

$144.06. The first step is to calculate the extensions (2 x $29.98 = $59.96, 2 x $16.99 = $33.98, and 3 x
$13.99 = $41.97). Next, add the extensions ($59.96 + $33.98 + $41.97 = $135.91). Conver
t the
percentage to a decimal by dividing by 100 (6% ÷ 100 = .06). Multiply the tax rate by the subtotal (.06 x
$135.91 = $8.15). Add the amount of tax to the subtotal to determine the amount due ($8.15 + $135.91 =
$144.06).

SOURCE:

SE:116

SOURCE:

Stull, W
.A. (1999).
Marketing and essential math skills: Teacher's edition

(pp. 135
-
136).
Cincinnati: South
-
Western Educational.



100.

B

Unhemmed. The trousers of a man's suit usually are unhemmed so they can be fitted according to the
man's height. Therefore, me
nswear store employees often arrange for alterations to finish the trousers.
The trousers are not uneven or tapered. A man's suit might be expensive, but that is not why the trousers
are unhemmed.

SOURCE:

SE:825

SOURCE:

Better Living. (n.d.).
Buying a man'
s suit.

Retrieved October 16, 2008, from
http://www.wvec.com/betterliving/archive/mens_suits.html