Section 1 DNA Technology Chapter 13 Polymerase Chain Reaction ...

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Gene Technology

Chapter

13

Table of Contents

Section 1
DNA Technology

Section 2
The Human Genome Project

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Objectives


Explain

the significance of noncoding DNA to DNA
identification.



Describe

four major steps commonly used in DNA
identification.



Explain
the use of restriction enzymes, cloning
vectors, and probes in making recombinant DNA.



Summarize

several applications of DNA
identification.


Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

DNA Identification


The repeating sequences in noncoding DNA vary
between individuals and thus can be used to identify
an individual.






Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Steps in DNA Identification


Copying DNA: Polymerase Chain Reaction


To identify a DNA sample, scientists isolate the
DNA and copy it using the

polymerase chain
reaction (PCR).







Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13



Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Steps in DNA Identification,
continued


Cutting DNA: Restriction Enzyme


The DNA is then cut into fragments using
restriction enzymes.


Restriction enzymes

recognize and cut specific
nucleotide sequences.








Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13



Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

Action of Restriction Enzymes

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Steps in DNA Identification,
continued


Sorting DNA by Size: Gel Electrophoresis


The fragments are separated by size using
gel
electrophoresis.


The resulting pattern of bands is called a
DNA
fingerprint.





Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Gel Electrophoresis

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13



Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

DNA Fingerprint

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Recombinant DNA


Cloning Vectors


Researchers use restriction enzymes to insert
DNA fragments into
vectors.



The resulting DNA from two different organisms is
called
recombinant DNA.





Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13



Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

Cloning Vectors and Plasmids

Section 1
DNA Technology

Chapter

13

Applications For DNA Technology


DNA technology provides the tools to manipulate
DNA molecules for practical purposes, such as
forensic investigation to determine the identity of a
criminal.

Section 1
DNA Technology

Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

Objectives


Discuss

two major goals of the Human Genome Project.



Summarize

important insights gained from the Human Genome
Project.



Explain

why animal model species are useful to study genes.



State

how information from the Human Genome Project will be
applied to future projects.



Relate

bioinformatics, proteomics, and microarrays to the
Human Genome Project.

Chapter

13

Mapping The Human Genome


The goals of the
Human Genome Project

were to
determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire
human genome and map the location of every gene
on each chromosome.


This information will advance the diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of human genetic
disorders.




Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

Mapping The Human Genome,
continued


Important Insights


The Human Genome Project yielded important
information about human genes and proteins.


For example, there are far fewer protein
-
encoding
human genes than once believed but far more
proteins because of the complex way they are
encoded.




Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

Mapping The Human Genome,
continued


Model Species


The Human Genome Project included sequencing
the genes of many model species to provide
insights into gene function.




Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

Mapping The Human Genome,
continued


Applications


Information from the Human Genome Project has
been applied to medical, commercial, and
scientific purposes.




Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

The Future of Genomics


Bioinformatics


Bioinformatics

uses computers to catalog and
analyze genomes.






Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

The Future of Genomics,
continued


Proteomics


Proteomics
studies the identities, structures,
interactions, and abundances of an organism’s
proteins.






Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Chapter

13

The Future of Genomics,
continued


Microarrays


DNA microarrays
,

two
-
dimensional arrangements
of cloned genes, allow researchers to compare
specific genes such as those that cause cancer.




Section 2
The Human
Genome Project

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Objectives


Discuss

the uses of genetic engineering in medicine.



Summarize

how gene therapy is being used to try to cure
genetic disorders.



Discuss

cloning and its technology.



Describe

two ways genetic engineering has been used to
improve crop plants.



Discuss

environmental and ethical issues associated with
genetic engineering.

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Medical Applications


Genetic engineering is being used to provide
therapies for certain genetic diseases.




Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Medical Applications,
continued


Gene Therapy


Gene therapy

refers to treating genetic disorders
by correcting a defect in a gene or by providing a
normal form of a gene.


Researchers hope that gene therapy can be used
to cure genetic disorders in the future.




Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Medical Applications,
continued


Cloning


In
cloning by nuclear transfer,

a nucleus from a
body cell of one individual is introduced into an
egg cell (without its nucleus) from another
individual.


An organism identical to the nucleus donor results.




Chapter

13



Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept

Cloning

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Genetically Engineered Vaccines

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Agricultural Applications


Genetic engineering is used to produce disease
-
resistant, pest
-
resistant, and herbicide
-
resistant crops
in an effort to improve the yields and nutrition of the
human food supply.




Chapter

13

Genetic
Engineering
and Cotton

Plants

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Section 3
Genetic Engineering

Chapter

13

Ethical Issues


Some people fear that the release of genetically
modified organisms would pose an environmental
risk.


Many safety, environmental, and ethical issues
involved in genetic engineering have not been
resolved.