Genetic Engineering.ppt - rgreenbergscience

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering

the manipulation of living
organisms for human use

Chapter 13

Breeding strategies


Selective breeding: only certain individuals
with certain traits to reproduce


Inbreeding: crosses individuals with
similar traits


Hybridization crosses individuals with
different traits; tend to by hardier and
healthier

Manipulating DNA


Genetic engineering: making change in the DNA
code of an organism


Restriction enzymes: cut the DNA at specific
sites by recognizing certain DNA sequences


produces more manageable pieces of DNA to
separate and analyze


Gel electrophoresis: separates DNA fragments
through a gel using electricity

Gel Electrophoresis

Using DNA


Recombinant DNA: the manipulation of
specific genes in the cells of living
organisms causing them to produce new
or unusual substances


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): uses
DNA polymerase to create thousands of
copies of a gene


DNA fingerprinting


method of DNA analysis which identifies
individuals by examining DNA fragments


uses portions of DNA which do not code for
proteins


these sequences are unique to each individual, just
like fingerprints


Steps


sample of DNA is cut using restriction enzymes


fragments are separated using electrophoresis to
create a pattern of bands

DNA Transformation


An organism takes up DNA from another
organism


Steps

1.
Map the chromosomes of an organism

2.
Locate the specific gene of interest on the
chromosome

3.
Cut the DNA with restriction enzymes

4.
Isolate and produce many copies of that gene (PCR)

5.
Insert gene into a plasmid then into the new
organism’s DNA and regulate the expression

DNA Transformation

Application of Gen. Eng.


Transgenic Organisms


Contain DNA from another species


Example: insulin
-
producing bacteria, glow in
the dark fish


52% of soybeans, 25% of corn are
genetically modified

Application of Gen. Eng.


Cloning


Clone: member of a
population of
genetically identical
cells that are produced
from a single cell


In 1997, Ian Wilmut
presented “Dolly”, the
first cloned sheep



Steps of Cloning

Human Genome Project


An ongoing effort to analyze the human
DNA sequence


Started in 1990, completed in 2000


Different scientists studied random
fragments of DNA then combined their
data


Humans have approximately 35,000 genes