Bt BRINJAL

igocheddarΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 23 μέρες)

245 εμφανίσεις

P
AST

SCENARIO


Bengal famine in 1943

around 4 million people
died in hunger of eastern India.


Green revolution made India self

sufficient of
food grains by 1978 through the adoption of
dwarf high yielding hybrid wheat & rice variety.


It was possible due to the use of genetically
improved seeds (wheat
-

rht gene
; rice
-

sd1 gene
)

P
RESENT

SCENARIO


Farmland is decreasing..


Population is increasing in a very high rate.


Production is not increasing

stagnant.


Several problems came out in recent days.




1) increased temperature


2) salinity


3) drought


4) biotic stresses

Our crop is unable to cope up with these new
stresses because they did not face such before.

That’s why traditional breeding is unsuccessful.

A
NOTHER

WORLDWIDE

FAMINE

IS

WAITING

FOR

US
.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


So we need a second green revolution.



The Process by which we can increase the yield of a
particular crop.










For using genes from non rice sources we have to go for
genetic engineering..


Even traditional breeding use the technology(genetic
engineering) unknowingly.







S
O

IN

PRESENT

SCENARIO

FOR

A

SECOND

GREEN

REVOLUTION

WE

HAVE

TO

GO

FOR

BIOTECHNOLOGY

&
GENETIC

ENGINEERING

BRINJAL CULTIVATION IN INDIA

Solanum

melongena

(brinjal or eggplant) is a
popular vegetable.

Brinjal has been cultivated in India for the last
4000 years.

The area under cultivation is estimated to be
around 5
lakh

hectares.

The total production stands at around 82
lakh

metric
tonnes
.

The main growing areas are in the states of West Bengal, AP,
Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu & UP
.

The average yields of Brinjal in India is reported
to be around 16
-
17 Tons per hectare.

M
AJOR

P
ROBLEMS

FSB D
AMAGE

Shoot damage



Fruit Damage

50
-

90% of damage is caused by fruit and shoot
borer

Fruit borer

Damage as

identified

by the

consumer

W
HY

WE

NEED

B
T

BRINJAL

??


No natural resistance in germplasm


Limited success with traditional
management strategies


Huge use of pesticides results in


development of resistance in insects


Harmful effects on environment, health of
farmer and consumers


Bt brinjal has potential to provide
economic and health benefits




Speculation about
Bt

or
Bt
-
Brinjal


is like……

The unscientific comments about Bt
-
Brinjal often reminds us of the six blind men
and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan
and the trunk as hose

W
E

SHOULD

KNOW

THE

ACTUAL

&
TRUE

FACT

WHICH

IS

SCIENTIFIC
…………….

W
HAT

IS

B
ACILLUS

THURINGIENSIS

(B
T
)


TMM

Bt cotton

EM view of a purified inclusion body

EM view of

Bt

with spores and crystals

Endospore

Crystal



Soil bacterium; ubiquitous






Different strains produce their


own insecticide proteins.



The protein is called as cry
protein for its crystal form.





Each
cry

protein selectively


affects insects belonging to a


particular order
(eg.,Lepidoptera,


Coleoptera, Diptera, etc) at


their very early larval stage

H
ISTORY

OF

SAFE

USE

AS

A

SPRAY



Since 1938, used extensively as a spray all over the
world to control a variety of lepidopteron pests and
also mosquito larvae.



TMM

Bt cotton

IN INDIA

IN THAILAND

IN CALIFORNIA

IN INDIA

IN AUSTRALIA

G
LOBAL

MARKET

FOR

BIOPESTICIDES
, 2005
-
06
-

$
260
M

TMM

Bt cotton

Bt

$159m

Virus

$18
m

Fungus

$37m

Nematode

$15m

62%

Other bacteria

$32m

Source: CPL Business Consultants, July 2006

Bt

spray dominated with 62%. Used in all countries, including the European Union
(16.5%), and by all farmers including organic farmers

H
OW

BT

BRINJAL

DEVELOPED
?




Bt brinjal is a genetically improved brinjal
developed by inserting a
cry1Ac

gene into
brinjal genome



The Cry1Ac

protein gives the brinjal plant in
-
built resistance against lepidopteran insects
like Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer



Use of Bt as insecticide not new


farmers
using it for over 50 years as a spray

PLR1

Non
-
Bt



Bt

S
HOOT

D
AMAGE


Non Bt


Bt

F
RUIT

DAMAGE

Non bt brinjal


Bt brinjal


Bt
-
Cotton Approved

26 March 2002: A Landmark in India

India’s first transgenic crop

Bt Cotton

Bt
-
cotton area & cotton production in India

620 Bt
-
cotton hybrids & 1 Bt variety have been released so far

New Hybrids

Bt Cotton area lakh ha

India: Raw Cotton Imports and Exports
1991
-
2009

Insecticide usage in India

IRM

Bt Cotton

Bollworm insecticides Rs 600 crores in 2002
Bollworm Insecticides Rs 260 crores in 2008

NET RESULT OF BT COTTON
APPROVAL


INDIA WAS AN
IMPORTER
OF
COTTON BEFORE BT COTTON
DEVELOPED……………..

NOW INDIA IS AN
EXPORTER
.


INDIA IS NOW THE SECOND
LARGEST COTTON PRODUCER IN
THE WORLD


THE NET INCOME DERIVED BY
BT

FARMERS

WAS
RS.26,406

(US$600.13)/HA WHILE IT WAS
RS.9,059

(US$205.88)/HA FOR THE
NON
-
BT FARMERS
.


NET GAIN IN BT COTTON
CULTIVATION IS
Rs. 4000 CRORES
IN
INDIA

ABOUT SAFETY OF BT BRINJAL


The controversy began


Questioned the safety of
Bt



Ingestion

(occurs while feeding plant tissues)


Solubilization

(Alkalinity)


Activation


(pH >9.5)


Binding

(Specific receptor)


Insertion

(Damage gut wall)


Pore formation


Cell lyses



D e a t h


Selective action of
Bt
in insects

H
OW

CRY

PROTEINS

ACT

IN

THE

INSECT

GUT





Fig. 3 Taken from de Maagd

RA (2001) Trends in Genetics 17(4), 193
-
199


D
ETAILS

MODE

OF

ACTION

OF

BT

PROTEIN

B
T

HAS

NO

TOXIC

IMPACT

IN

HIGHER

ANIMALS

(HUMAN)
BECAUSE

OF
…..



Acidic stomach



Very low pH (∽1.5 in humans)



Absence of required receptors


Bt

is safe to non
-
target organisms
-
HUMAN

N
ATIONAL

REGULATORY

SYSTEMS

IN

I
NDIA


Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF)


Department of Biotechnology (DBT)


There are six competent authorities to handle various issues
viz.,



Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC)


Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM)


Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC)



Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC)



State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC)



District Level Committee (DLC
)


Two nodal agencies, Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF) and


Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of science and technology are


responsible for implementation of the regulations in India.


The MoEF notified the rules and procedures for the handling of genetically


modified organisms (GMO) under the environment protection act


1986(EPA).

W
HAT

ARE

THE

SAFETY

CONCERNS
?



Toxicity




Allergenicity




Out
-
crossing / Gene flow




Effects on non
-
target organisms





Environmental impact




Pest resistance

All safety issues were addressed

before regulatory approval was given


S
AFETY

TO

NON
-
TARGET

ORGANISMS

Feed safety studies were conducted using high
dose of
Bt
-
cotton seed
-
meal / protein on:



Fish



Birds



Mammals
-

goats, buffaloes, cows, rabbits



Honey bees



Earthworms



Biological control agents


(Lacewing, Ladybird beetles etc)

Results revealed no ill effects &
Bt
is safe !

DOES IT AFFECT BIODIVERSITY??


Any new gene incorporation in a genome increases its
genetic diversity.


In nature, every evolution of a new species is due to
some gene incorporation through cross pollination..



The idea that Bt brinjal will destroy biodiversity is
nonsensical. In fact, since brinjal has no natural
resistance (to pests), the introduction of Bt brinjal will
help increase genetic diversity.

IS IT A THREAT TO OTHER VARIETIES
THROUGH CROSS POLLINATION??


Gene transfer is not an easy phenomenon. It has
to be fixed in population through selection
pressure. Also, there is no horizontal transfer of
the gene


it will not transfer to animals; there
is only vertical transfer


from one generation to
the next within the same species.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BT
-
BRINJAL.?

Benefits to consumers and society:


1) Consumers will have a choice to buy non
-
infested,
undamaged and good quality brinjal fruits.


2) High levels of pesticide residues are present in a large
number of vegetables that we eat daily. Bt brinjal will
offer consumers fruits with almost no or significantly
reduced level of pesticide residues, well within the
prescribed MRL.

3) It is expected that Bt brinjal may improve marketable
yield manifold resulting in availability of more brinjal in
the market at affordable price. Krishna and Qaim (2007)
predicted a 15% decrease in market price of brinjal at
maximum technology adoption.

4) The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR)
showed that Bt brinjal would help stabilize the market
price (IIHR, 2008).


B
ENEFITS

TO

FARMERS


Farmers are expected to benefit at
multiple levels. Some of these
include:

1) Considerable reduction in cost of production
by saving on cost of insecticides and lower
labor cost as a result of reduced spraying.


2) Manifold increase in yield per unit area by
saving fruits from damage caused by FSB.


3) Significant improvement in marketable
fruits thereby increasing income per unit
area.


4) Reduction in direct exposure to insecticides
leading to lesser health problems.


B
ENEFITS

TO

ECOLOGY

AND

ENVIRONMENT


1) Reduction in pesticide residues in soil and water in
brinjal fields.

2) Lesser pollution of air and local environment due to
decreased use of insecticides.

3) Protection of naturally occurring predators and
parasitoids and other beneficial organisms due to
reduced use of insecticides.

4) Reduction in soil and ground
-
water contamination.

5) Safeguarding soil microflora and invertebrates from
damage caused by unintended and excessive use of
insecticides.




Protesting is their ROTI,, KAPRA aur MAKAN..




That’s why every morning they arise question on
a new issue…………….

NOW SOME PEOPLE
HAS

CHOOSEN
A NEW PROFESSION
-
-----------

PROTESTING















S
TRANGE
!!


The opponents seem to suggest
that
Bt
-
Brinjal

kills everything
else except FSB


the target
pests!!.....

like
the blind people
..

S
MT

.
P
RATIBHA

D
EBISINGH

P
ATIL
,
THE

PRESIDENT

OF

INDIA


“Efforts towards
sustainable
agriculture can be
greatly augmented
with the help of
space technology
and biotechnology
advances”

D
R
.
M
ANMOHAN

S
INGH
,
THE

P
RIME

M
INISTER

OF

I
NDIA



“We need to use the potential of
biotechnology to meet the requirements of
hungry people”.

M
R
. P. C
HIDAMBARAM
,
THE

UNION

HOME

MINISTER



“Bt cotton has made India a cotton
exporting country. We thought of ourselves
as exporters of wheat and rice, but today we
import wheat. No country as large as India
can survive on imports for its food
needs,”….”….”The success achieved in cotton
must be used to make the country self
sufficient in rice, wheat, pulse and oil seed
production”.

The scientists & students should come together and
speak in one voice.


Defend the technology



defeat opponents


Silence is not gold. Silencing
is!

T
HANK

YOU



HAVE

A

NICE

DAY