S.A.F.E Helmet: SMS Alarm for Emergency Helmet

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S.A.F.E Helmet: SMS Alarm for Emergency Helmet












ECE400
7

Senior Design Project


Section L05, SAFE

Helmet Team

Project Advisor, Dr. William Hunt


Matt Versteeg,
Team Leader

Ryan Bahr

Giovanni Bonilla

John Herrmann

David Whitfield










Submitted


February 6
th
, 2013

i


Table of Contents



Executive Summary

................................
................................
................................
..........

ii


1.

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
..............

1
-
2


1.1

Objective

................................
................................
................................
.............
1

1.2

Motivation

................................
................................
................................
.......

1
-
2

1.3

Background

................................
................................
................................
.........
2


2.

Project

Description and Goals

................................
................................
................

2
-
3


3.

Technical Specification

................................
................................
............................

3
-
5


4.

Design Approach and Details

................................
................................
................

6
-
10


4.1

Illustration and Overview

................................
................................
.................

6
-
7

4.2

Accel
eration and Heart Rate Sensing

................................
................................
...
8

4.3

Bluetooth Communication

................................
................................
....................
8

4.4

A
ndroid Application Development

................................
................................
.......
9

4.5

Codes and Standards

................................
................................
.............................
9

4.6

Constraints,
Tr
adeoffs, Alternatives

................................
.............................

10
-
11

4.6.1

Constraints

................................
................................
................................
10

4.6.2

Tradeoffs

................................
................................
................................
....
10

4.6.3

Alternatives

................................
................................
................................
11


5.

Schedule, Tasks, and Milestones
................................
................................
...............
1
1


6.

Project Demonstration
................................
................................
.........................

11
-
1
2


7.

Marketing and Cost Analysis

................................
................................
..............

12
-
1
5


7.1

Marketing Analysis

................................
................................
.......................

12
-
13

7.2

Cost Analysis

................................
................................
................................

13
-
15


8.

Current Status

................................
................................
................................
............
16


9.

References

................................
................................
................................
.............

17
-
18


Appendix A

................................
................................
................................
.......................
19


Appendix B

................................
................................
................................
.......................
20


Appendix
C

................................
................................
................................
.................

21
-
23


ii


E
xecutive Summary

Automatic crash detection
for motor vehicles has become popularized in recent years by
major automobile manufacturers.
Automatic

crash detection services have increased the
emergency response time and coordination efforts of officers and health professionals to the
scene of an accident. Presently, however, no automatic
collision

detection or emergency
coordination devices exist for

motorcycle enthusiasts. According to
National Highway
Traff
ic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

statistics, 80% of motorcycle crash
es

injure or kill
the motorcy
cle rider
.
The
SMS Alarm for Emergency (
SAFE
) Helmet T
eam will design a
SAFE Helmet that will provi
de automatic crash detection features to the motorcycle market.
The SAFE Helmet will generate a
n

SMS text emergency distress signal when a motorcycle
rider has experienced an accident. The SMS text message will include GPS coordinates, user
heartbeat data,

and general insurance and identification information.

The system will

consist of two modules: a motorcycle h
elmet with embedded electronics
and an Android device running a cus
tom SAFE Helmet application. An

accelerometer, pulse
sensor, and microcontrolle
r will be embedded in the motorcycle helmet. The
accelerometer

will measure the acceleration of the motorcyclist and
the

pulse sensor
will

determine

the
rider’s heartbeat. The accelerometer and pulse sensor will be connected to a microcontroller
that will monitor
acceleration
and pulse data.
The microcontroller will communicate with the
Android
smart
phone through a wireless Bluetooth communications li
nk. When a crash is
detected, the microcontroller will notify the Android application that

an accident has
occurred. The A
ndroid application will then send an SMS emergency distress
signal to
predetermined individuals
.


The SAFE Helmet
solution

can be
effective

in many different applications.
The h
elmet
could be used by the military personnel to monitor the health of soldiers in

action.
Furthermore, the device

c
ould be employed by parents
wish
ing

to monitor the safety of small
children during
bicycle ri
des. The SAFE Helmet T
eam expects the design to be fully
functional and is requesting
$407.74
to build a prototype.


1


1.

Introduction

The
SMS Alarm for Emergency (
SAFE
)

Helmet Team will design an expandable in
-
helmet motorcycle crash
-
detection system that will report GPS coordinates and user pulse
data when a crash is detected. The team is requesting
$407.74
to develop a prototype of the
system.

1.1

Objective

The SAFE
Helmet T
eam will design and prototype an

in
-
helmet motorcycle crash
-
detection system that sends GPS coordinates and user heartbeat data when a crash is
detected. A Bluetooth
-
enabled Arduino microcontroller will interface with an accelerometer
and a heartbe
at monitor. The microcontroller, accelerometer, and heartbeat
sensor

will be
contained in

the motorcycle helmet. When the accelerometer experience
s an acceleration of
at
-
least 50
g’s, the
Arduino

will provide an
impact
s
ignal and user pulse data to an appli
cation
running on an

Android
smart
phone

[1]
. The
app will then capture the phone
’s GPS
coordinates through
an

on
-
board GPS chipset.
Finally, the
application

will indicate a crash
has
been detected by
sending a text message to a predetermined third party co
ntaining
user
GPS coordinates, pulse measurements
, and accelerometer data.

1.2

Motivation

Automatic crash response and roadside assistance products are currently provided for
two
-
axel automobiles. However, an automatic crash response syste
m is
unavailable for

m
otorcycle users.
Additionally,
Man
-
Down systems, a solution that enables a mobile entity
to generate an emergency distress signal containing GPS coordinate
s, are
presently

on the
market;
however, the market is primarily limited to military, chemical, and

construction
-
safety applications. The SAFE Helmet Team aspires to develop a prototype that, when
worn
by a motorcycle rider, will provide greater safety through enhanced coordination of
emergency response efforts.

The team recognizes that the high retail

costs of motorcycle helmets and widespread us
e
of
smart
phone devices provide

an excellent opportunity for engineers to develop an
2


affordable automatic crash response system for motorcycle users. In addition, the team’s
design can be applied to traditional

bicycles
and military
-
helmet applications.

1.3

Background

According to the National Highway Traff
ic Safety Administration (NHTSA), a
motorcyclist is
39 times more likely

to be killed in a collision, and 8 times more likely to be
injured,

than a person in a
car

[2
]
.

As
with
any traumatic event,
the
emergency
response time
of health
services plays
a crucial role in the survival of injured persons. In a study comparing
emergency
response time and survival rates, victims of traumatic injury had a significantly

higher
chance of survival when the emergency response time of health services was less than
four minutes.
After
four

minutes,
however,
survival rates were
dramatically lowered [3
]
.

The
SAFE Helmet
Team will design a helmet that is engineered to
improve r
ider safety by
providing an SMS emergency distress alarm that will aid the coordination and response of
emergency health services.

2.

Project Description and Goals

The fundamental goal of the SAFE Helmet Team is to create a system that detects an
accident and alerts a third party of the event. The system consists of crash and pulse detection
system as well as an Android application that receives data and generates a
text message. The
crash and pulse detection system consists of the following:



Motorcycle h
elmet



Bluetooth
-
enabled Arduino UNO



Accelerometer



Pulse Sensor



7.4 V 850 mAh Li
-
ion Battery



7805 Voltage Regulator

Additionally, the Android application consists of a graphical user
-
interface that allows
the user to input emergency
-
contact information. The Android application receives pulse and
acceleration data from the Arduino through a Bluetooth link. When a crash i
s detected, the
3


Android application will send a
n

SMS text message to the emergency contact. The SMS text
message will include the following:



GPS coordinates from the Android d
evice



Heart Beat in BPM from the pulse s
ensor



Acceleration data from the a
cceler
ometer

In addition, the SAFE Helmet Team wishes to design a helmet that is light weight,
unobtrusive, and easy
-
to
-
use. Finally
, the t
eam
desires

to demonstrate the expandability of
the system by including additional functionalities not yet determined.

3.

Tec
hnical Specifications

Table
s

1
-
7

display

the m
inimum

technical specifications
needed to implement
the device
.




















Table 1.

Accelerometer

Feature

Specification

Measurements

X, Y, Z

Measurement Range

> ±175G

Output

Analog

Bandwidth

500
-
1000 Hz

Power Supply

3
-
3.6V


Table 2.

Pulse Sensor

Feature

Specification

Output

Analog

Measurement Sensor

Photo diode


LED Wavelength

565 nm

Power Supply

3
-
3.6V


4







Table 3.

Microcontroller

Feature

Specification

Connectivity

UART

ADC Resolution

8
-
Bits

Sampling Rate

1000
-
2000 Hz

Analog Ports

2

UART TTL Ports

1

Power Supply

3
-
3.6V


Table 4.

Bluetooth Module

Feature

Specification

Connectivity

UART, Bluetooth 2.1+
EDR

Supported
Protocols

GAP,
RFCOMM,

L2CAP,

SDP,
SPP

Antenna

Omnidirectional

Frequency

2.4 GHz

Range

> 3M

Baud Rate

115200 bps

Power
Supply

3
-
3.6V


Table 5.

Cell Phone

Feature

Specification

Connectivity

Bluetooth 2.1+ EDR

Supported
Protocols

GAP,
RFCOMM,

L2CAP,

SDP,
SPP

Services

Text Messaging (SMS),
GPS

Operating
System

Android,
4.2


5







Table 7
.

Battery

Feature

Specification

Voltage

3
-
7
.4
V

DC

Rating

500
-
2000 mAh

Width

< 4
0 m
m

Length

< 60 m
m

Thickness

< 10 m
m

Weight

< 100 g
















Table 6
.

Helmet

Feature

Specification

Type

Motorcycle, Military, Bicycle

Hat Size

> 59 cm

Weight

< 1.81 kg


6


4.

Design Approach and Details

4.1

Illustration and Overview

The SAFE Helmet consists of the following devices: a Bluetooth transceiver,
microcontroller, accelerometer, pulse sensor, and an Android phone.

Figure 1 illustrates the
S
AFE

Helmet design.


Figure 1.

SAFE

Helmet design illustration


The microcontroller, Bluetooth transceiver, pulse sensor, and accelerometer are all placed
inside the core of th
e helmet. Furthermore, the
h
elmet will be implement
ed using the process
-
flow illustrated in Figure 2.

7



Figure 2.

SAFE

Helmet process flow
-
chart



The Bluetooth transceiver allows the microcontroller to communicate with the Android
phone. The accelerometer senses the
g
-
force

applied to the helmet and sends an analog
output to the Arduino microcontroller. The analog accelerometer signal is then converted by
the microcontroller’s analog
-
to
-
digital converter. Additionally, the pulse sensor detects the
heartbeat of the user and i
s placed on the temporal lobe. The analog output of the pulse
sensor is sent to the Arduino microcontroller and then converted by the on
-
board analog
-
to
-
digital converter. In summary, the system will be completed in three phases:



Acceleration and Heart R
ate Sensing



Bluetooth Communication



Android Application development





8


4.2

Acceleration and Heart Rate Sensing

Analog Devices, Inc.’s accelerometer can detect three axes of acceleration and
represent the positional information as an analog signal

[4]
. The
device can identify up to 200
g’s of force and represent the output as an 8
-
bit value

[4]
. The
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Subcommittee

defines a
significant
crash as an impulse of
greater than 5
0

g’s of force

[5
]
.
Additionally, a force of 30 g’s denoted
as a statistically survivable motorcycle accident.


A
trigger force of 30 g’s was strategically chosen to avoid
false
-
alarms
that may be generated
by a user dropping the helmet.
Accordingly, the Arduino microcontroller will attribute a
base
-
ten value of 15
0 or above as a
collision
.
This is done by mapping the values sent from
the accelerometer. Mapping is done by multiplying the values seen by a constant to adjust the

values to a defined standard.


As previously stated, the heart rate monitor will be pla
ced on the user’s temporal
lobe and will measure pulse data.
Each heartbeat is detected
by

a sophisticated
light

sensor
inside
the heart rate monitor

[6]
.

The output of the pulse sensor will be fed into the
microcontroller’s analog
-
to
-
digital converter and thusly converted into a digital signal. The
Arduino microcontroller
will then

calculate the user’s heart rate in beats/minute. The
accelerometer and pulse

sensor are contained in a
Dual In
-
Line Package

[4][6]
. The
DIP
package will allow for the in
-
helmet devices to be prototyped on a breadboard. The final
design will be integr
ated on a printed
-
circuit board.

4.3

Bluetooth Communication

A standard
-
protocol Bluetooth communications channel will be implemented using
an Arduino Bluetooth Module.
The wireless channel will be created by
pairing

the
smartphone with the Bluetooth chipset.

When the accelerometer detects a force of 30 g’s or
great
er, the microcontroller will send an accident
-
indic
ating signal
to the Android device
.
Additionally, when a motorcycle accident has been indicated, the
Arduino

will send heart
rate data over the Bluetooth channel.
The wireless connection will behave like a

standard
output port. The microcontroller will be
programmed

to

send an output to a specified port
connected to the Bluetooth module. The Bluetooth module will then transmit data using the
s
tandard
-
protocol 2.4 GHz Bluetooth
communications

link

[7].

9


4.4

Andro
id Application Development

The Android application will be programmed to determine the user’s GPS
coordinates and send an emergency message to a predetermined third party.
The
aforementioned functionality will be implemented using Android
’s built
-
in

function calls

[7]
.

In addition, the a
pplication will have two modes of operation. The first mode of operation
will be to create and maintain a Bluetooth connection with the Arduino microcontroller.
The
creation and maintenance of a wireless connection w
ill be
execut
ed
by
using
a
function call
to the
phone
’s on
-
board Bluetooth chipset

[7]
.
The Bluetooth connection will be used to send
pulse and accelerometer data in the event of a crash. When the accelerometer value exceeds a
certain threshold, the app wi
ll be notified via Bluetooth and will verify a crash has occurred
using speed and heart rate data. Finally, the second mode of operation will provide a
graphical user interface

(GUI)

to the operator. The user interface will be used to specify input
paramet
ers suc
h as emergency contact numbers. The GUI will be created using Google’s
Android API

[7]
.

4.5

Codes and Standards

The SAFE Helmet team will use the following codes and standards:

1.

Google Android OS 4.2 standard

2.

Standard
-
protocol 2.4 GHz Bluetooth
commun
ications
link

3.

Virtualized RS232 serial data port

4.

0V
-
5V Analog Signal for Accelerometer and Pulse Sensor

5.

Universal Serial Bus operating at 480 MB/s using plug
-
and
-
play technology

6.

DOT Standard Helmet

Additionally, Appendix C details the co
des and standards
implemented in

each device.



10


4.6

Constraints, Tradeoffs, Alternatives

4.6.1

Constraints

The Bluetooth communication link inherently provides limitations to the SAFE Helmet
system. A communications link is necessary for SMS emergency distress signals. As such,
any
disruption to the Bluetooth communications link will result in a loss of core
functionality. The Bluetooth connection could be terminated by an electromagnetic
interference that reduces the system’s signal
-
to
-
noise ratio. Additionally, the Bluetooth
conne
ction can be compromised by the use of lossy helmet materials.

The use of a microcontroller will also provide additional design constraints. The
microcontroller must operate throughout the entirety of the accident in order to provide core
functionality. I
n addition to the microcontroller, crash
-
detection thresholds present further
design constraints. The
trigger
-
force
will have to be properly tuned in order to insure false
-
alarms or the absence of an alarm
do

not occur. Finally, the heartbeat sensor must be
positioned firmly against the temple in order to insure a pulse reading is made.

4.6.2

Tradeoffs


The SAFE Helmet team could possibly hard
-
wire the Android device to the Arduino
microcontroller to reduce the perf
ormance risks associated with wireless networks. A hard
-
wired connection would prevent a communications link from being disabled in
electro
magnetically
-
harsh environments; however, the implementation may be obtrusive.
Furthermore, the SAFE Helmet team coul
d place multiple heartbeat monitors within the
helmet to increase the probability of a secure connection between the sensor and the user.
Multiple pulse sensors could possibly increase the manufacturing costs and reduce the overall
performance of the micro
controller.
Finally, the SAFE Helmet could feature a built
-
in
proximity sensor that can help differentiate betw
een a dropped helmet and a
motorcycle
accident.
The proximity sensor could increase the overall performance of the helmet;
conversely, the sensor

may increase costs and lower battery life.



11


4.6.3

Alternatives

The SAFE Helmet could employ
an 802.11 Wi
-
Fi connection to the mobile phone
.

The
Wi
-
Fi connection would feature a better signal
-
to
-
noise ratio; however, the Wi
-
Fi connection
would severely constrain battery performance

[8]
. In addition, a small
-
profile single
-
board
computer could provide a strong alternative to the Arduino microco
ntroller.
The single
-
board
computer would reduce the need to optimize programming
techniques;

nevertheless
, the
computer would require significantly

more helmet space and battery power
.
Finally, an
iPhone or Windows 8 smartphone
offer a smart substitute to

the Android device.
Conversely,
the closed nature of the previously mentioned operating systems might prevent the SAFE
Helmet from being easy
-
to
-
use.


5.

Schedule/Tasks/Milestones

The SAFE Helmet team will be designing and implementing the SAFE Helmet
throughout the next three month
s. Appendix A contains the GANTT

chart detailing the
expected date of completion for major assignments. Additionally, Appendix B contains a list
of all major tasks, the risk associated with major tasks, and the person(s) resp
onsible for said
tasks.


6.

Project Demonstration

The physical system will consist entirely of a modified motorcycle helmet and an
Android device. The demonstration will consist of the following:

1.

The user will first use the
application

installed on the Andr
oid phone to specify a
recipient for the Man
-
Down alert.

a.

Precautions should be taken to ensure that emergency services are not falsely
notified during the test.

12


2.

The user will then place the helmet on his or her head and ensure the microprocessor
in the he
lmet establishes a Bluetooth connection with the Android device.

3.

An
accelerometer

placed exterior to the helmet for demonstration purposes
will be
jolted to simulate a crash.

4.

The recipient specified will then ensure that a notification is received and that

all data
provided is accurate.


7.

Marketing and Cost Analysis

7.1

Marketing Analysis

The SAFE Helmet team is targeting motorcyclists who aim to increase the safety and
emergency response time associated with motorcycle accidents. The helmet will be
advertised to both individuals and insurance companies as a solution that can potentially
re
duce injury and insurance costs. A market for in
-
helmet motorcycle crash detection and
notification systems does not currently exist. However, Man
-
Down systems and Automatic
Crash Response units closely resemble the SAFE Helmet proposed in this document.

A
s previously stated, a

small market of land
-
based Man
-
Down systems currently exists;
however, the market is primarily limited to military, chemical, and construction
-
safety
applications. Motorola Solutions, Inc. has developed a line of military two
-
way ra
dios that
can provide a GPS distress signal when a mobile entity is engaged in emergency situations.
The costs associated with Motorola Solution’s Man
-
Down features have not been made
publicly available; however, Motorola’s two
-
way radios cost between $1,0
00
-

$10,000 per
unit

[9]
. Raveon Technology, Inc.’s ATLAS PL is a personal locator device with a GPS
transponder that provides immediate location tracking of mobile entities while e
ngaged in
critica
l activities [10
]. However, the ATLAS PL is not commerci
alized and thusly not sold
for personal use.

A third Man
-
Down system, CISCOR’s Emergency Man
-
Down Alarm System, is a
security infrastructure that provides notification to an employer when an employee has
succumbed to a thre
at or an environmental hazard [11
]. A typical CISCOR system costs
13


between $2,000
-
$10,000 to implement, yet cannot be implemented on a mobile entity due to
its line
-
of
-
site communications protocol. Finally, a fourth system, OnStar, is an Automatic
Crash Response system developed by OnStar

Corporation. The OnStar Automatic Crash
Response service can send emergency services to the scene of an accident. OnStar services
currently costs $18.95/month in the United States

[12
]
.

7.2

Cost Analysis

The total development cost for a prototype of the SAF
E Helmet

system is
approximately $407.74
. Table 8

depicts the material costs for the prototype. The most
expensive product needed to develop the SAFE
Helmet is the Motorola Android phone;

however, the phone will be provided to the team free of charge. Additionally, a custom
printed
-
circuit board will be fabricated containing all electronics that will be embedded in the
SAFE Helmet.

Table 8
.

Prototype Costs

Product Description

Quantity

Unit

Price ($)

Total Price ($)

Pulse Sensor AMPED for Arduino

1

$25.00

$25.00

ADXL377 Analog MEMS Accelerometer

1

$40.00

$40.00

Arduino Uno

1

$29.99

$29.99

Arduino Pro Mini

1

$7.95

0 (received for free)

Bluetooth Mate Gold

1

$64.95

$64.95

Modular Motorcycle Helmet

2

$64.95

$64.95

U.S Military Helmet

1

$100.00

$100.00

Polymer Li
-
ion 7.4V 850 mAh battery

2

$8.95

$8.95

7805 5V Voltage Regulator

1

$1.99

0 (received for free)

Motorola Android Phone

2

$400.00

0 (received for free)

Total





$407.74


The SAFE Helmet team has also calculated the expected development costs. The
expected development
costs are represented in Table 9
. Furthermore, it should be noted that
each group member will be working at an assumed labor cost of $30 per hour. The assumed
labor cost was estimated using the ~$60,000/year average starting salary for Georgia Tech
electrical engineers.


14


Table 9
.

Devel
opment Costs

Project Component

Labor
Hour

Labor
Cost

Part
Cost

Total Component
Cost

In
-
Helmet Electronics









Building

120

$3,600.00

$337.82

$3,937.82

Testing

30

$900.00



$900.00

Android Application
Development









Writing Code

100

$3,000.00



$3,000.00

Code Debugging

20

$600.00

$400.00

$1,000.00

Testing

10

$300.00



$300.00

Wireless Communication









Integration

30

$900.00



$900.00

Testing

20

$600.00



$600.00

Expandable Components









Building

60

$1,800.00

$100.00

$1,900.00

Testing

20

$600.00



$600.00

Integration

20

$600.00



$600.00

Other









Demo Preparation

60

$1,800.00



$1,800.00

Group Meetings

300

$9,000.00



$9,000.00

TOTAL LABOR

790

$23,700.00



$23,700.00

TOTAL PART COST




$837.82



Total
Cost (Labor and Part)







$24,537.82


The building and testing of the
in
-
helmet

electronics were determined to be the most
costly component of the SAFE Helmet design. In order to further calculate development
costs, the fringe benefit and overhead charges were calculated. The fringe benefit was
calculated as 30% of total labor. Moreo
ver, the overhead was calculated to be 120% of
material and labor costs. The total developme
nt costs are depicte
d in Table 10

below. The
total development cost for the SAFE Helmet system is estimated to be $69,625.20.




15


T
able 10
.

Total Development Costs

Parts

$837.82

Labor

$23,700.00

Fringe Benefits

$7,110.00

Overhead

$37,977.38

Total

$69,625.20



The profit over a one

year period is given in Table 11

and was constructed using the
following assumptions. The production run will consist of 1000 units sold over a 1
-
year
period at a price
-
point of $600.00 per unit. The accelerometer, pulse m
onitor,
microcontroller, and 7.4
V Li
-
Ion battery can be purchased
at the dis
count rates.
Moreover, a
group of technicians

will be employed in Atlanta, GA

to manufacture the product. The
technicians will be paid at a rate of $18.00/hour to solder the components together, embed
the product in the helmet, and perform testing.
Sales expense
s

in the form of advertising will
make up 6 percent of the final sellin
g price
, which will be at $36.00. At $
600 per unit, the
expected revenue is $600,000, yielding a profit of $331.42 per unit. The production costs,
profit, and selling price of th
e system is displayed in Table 11

below.

Table 11
.

Profit Analysis

Parts Cost

$90.12

Assembly Labor

$6.00

Testing Labor

$6.00

Total Labor

$12.00

Fringe benefits, % of labor

$3.60

Subtotal

$105.72

Overhead

$126.86

Subtotal, input Costs

$232.58

Sales Expense

$36.00

Amortized Development
Costs



N/A

Selling
Price

$600.00

Subtotal

$268.58

Profit

$331.42



16


8.

Current Status

The
SAFE

Helmet T
eam has determined all high
-
level aspects of the helmet design. The
Android application is currently being designed to allow the user interface to select
an
emergency
contact from the users current Android address book. Moreover, the

architecture
of the embedded microcontroller software is
presently

being planned
. The physical layout
within the helmet
is also being finalized. Finally, Bluetooth communications links are

being
tested to provide the
SAFE

Helmet team with additional exposure to the Bluetooth
communications protocol.














17


9.

References

[1]

M. Voshell, "High Acceleration and the Human Body," Ohio State, Cleveland, 2004.

[2]

"Motorcycles."

NHTSA.gov
. National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, n.d.
Web. 15 Jan. 2013. <http://www.nhtsa.gov/Safety/Motorcycles>.

[3]


Poons, P. T., and J. S. Haukoos. "Paramedic Response Time: Does It Affect Patient
Survival?"

Denver Medical Research
.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Denver
Health Medical Center, CO, July 2005. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.
<http://www.denveremresearch.org/phocadownload/outcomes/articles/paramedic_respon
se_time_does_i t_affect_patient_survival.pdf>.

[4
]

Analog Devices, “ADXL377
: 3
-
AXIS HIGH g ANALOG MEMS
ACCELEROMETER”, ADXL377 datasheet. Sept. 2012. [Revised February 2013].

[5]


King, Albert, King Yang, and David Viano. "IS HEAD INJURY CAUSED BY LINEAR
OR ANGULAR ACCELERATION?"

IRCOBI Conference


Lisbon (Portugal)
. Mild
Traum
atic Brain Injury Subcommittee, National Football League, Sept. 2003. Web. 1
Feb. 2013.

[6
]

Murphy J. and Gitman Y. Pulse

Sensor. “Open Source Circuit Schematic and PCB
layout”. Available:
http://pulsesensor.myshopify.com/pages/open
-
hardware
. [Revised
February 2013].

[7]

Android Developer. “Building Blocks”. Available:
http://developer.android.com/design/building
-
blocks/index.html
. [Revised February
2013].


[8]


T. Sridhar, "Wi
-
Fi, Bluetooth and WiMAX," The Internet Protocol Journal, vol. 11, no. 4,
p. 1, 2009.

[9]


"Public Safety in the 21st Century," Motorola EZine

Insights Article, 2010. [Online serial].
Available: http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/US
-
EN/NGPS/pdf/Public_Safety_in_the_21st_Century_eZine_Insightsv2.pdf[Accessed: Jan. 22,
2013].

18


[10]

Raveon

Tech, “ATLAS PL Personal Locator UHF Personal Tracker,” ATLAS PL
datasheet, 2011.

[11]

"Emergency Man
-
Down Alarm System."

CISCOR
. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Jan. 2013.

[12]


"Emergency Explore." Onstar.com. OnStar Corporation, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.
<http
s://www.onstar.com/web/portal/emergencyexplore>.

[13
]

Atmel, “AVR120: Characterization and Calibration of the ADC on an AVR”. RN
-
41
datasheet. March 2006. [Revised February 2013].

[14
]

Roving Networks. “ RN
-
41/RN
-
41
-
N Class 1 Bluetooth Module”.
RN
-
41
-
Datasheet.
March 2010. [Revised February 2013].

[
15]


"Polymer Lithium Ion Battery
-

850mAh."

SparkFun.com
. SparkFun, n.d. Web. 1 Feb.
2013. <https://www.sparkfun.com/products/341>.












19


Appendix A
:










20


Appendix B
:

Task Name

Task Lead

Risk Level







Planning, Presentation and Documentation

All

Low

Technical Review Paper

All

Low

Project Proposal

All

Low

Parts Ordering

RB, DW

Low

PDR Presentation

All

Low

Final Project Presentation

All

Low

Final Project Demonstration

All

Medium

Final Project Report

All

Low

In
-
Helmet Electronics

RB, DW

Medium

Building

RB, DW

Medium

Testing

RB, DW

High

Android Application Development

MV

Low

Writing Code

MV

Low

Code Debugging

MV, GB

Low

Testing

MV, GB

Low

Wireless Communication

JH, RB

Medium

Integration

JH,RB

Medium

Testing

JH, RB

Medium

Expendable Components

All

Medium

Building

All

Medium

Testing

All

Medium

Integration

All

Medium

Other

All

Low

Demo Preparation

All

Low

Group Meetings

All

Low







21


Appendix C:













Table 13
.
Pulse Sensor AMPED

[6]

Feature

Specification

Output

Analog

Power Supply

3
-
5V

Current Draw

~4 mA @ 5V

Dimensions

16 mm diameter, 3mm thick






Table 12
.
ADXL377 3
-
Axis
Accelerometer

[4]

Feature

Specification

Measurement Range

±200G

Output

Analog

Bandwidth

.5
-
1000 Hz

Power Supply

1.8
-
3.6V

Current Draw

300 µA (Typical)


22


Table 14
.
ATmega168 Microcontroller

[13]

Feature

Specification

Output

UART, USB

Frequency

8 MHz

ADC Resolution

10
-
bits

Suggested Optimal Sampling Rate

3000
-
15300 Hz

Analog Pins

6

UART TTL Ports

1

Power Supply

3V

Current Draw

.1µA
-
150 mA



Table 15
.

Bluetooth Module

[14]

Feature

Specification

Connectivity

UART, Bluetooth 2.1+
EDR

Supported
Protocols

GAP,
RFCOMM,

L2CAP,

SDP,
SPP

Antenna

Omnidirectional

Frequency

2.4 GHz

Range

> 3M

Power
Supply

3
-
3.6V



23




Table 16
.

Polymer Li
-
ion 7.4
V 850 mAh
battery

[15]

Feature

Specification

Voltage

7.4
V

Rating

850 mAh

Width

29.5 mm

Length

48.27 mm

Thickness

5.7 mm

Weight

18.5 g