High-power electronics - Future Technology Magazines

ibexforeheadΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

309 εμφανίσεις

FTM - THE TECHNOLOGY AUTHORI TY
Design Note:page 9
Choosing the right AC-input power supply
topology by Fairchild Semiconductor
I SSUE 0903
Application spotlight:
High-power electronics
The latest innovations for optimumperformance,
power density andtime-to-market
Component Focus:pages 2-8
Freescale’s low-power DSCs
cut the cost of digital control
Technical View:pages 22-23
High-capacity batteries for handhelddevices
Application Spotlight:pages 10-21
The power is inthe package,for IR’s super-high
current,lowon-resistance MOSFETs
C
ypress Semiconductor commends Future’s
commitment to PSoC®
Cypress Semiconductor has presented its European
PSoC Demand Creation Distributor of the Year award
to Future Electronics,citing Future’s investment in
dedicated engineering expertise and customer
support as key factors encouraging more customers
to start PSoC designs with Future than with any other
distributor in Europe.
With 30 engineers nowcertified to the highest
level of Cypress’s PSoC education supporting its
programmable digital-and-analogue SoC technology,
Future is able to provide valuable customer facilities
such as one-on-one design support,workshops and
seminars.Future’s SystemDesign Centre also provides
individual design services for customers.
Tyco Electronics rewards Future’s focus with
extra growth opportunities
Tyco Electronics has signalled its commitment to
global distributor Future Electronics by extending its
franchise agreement to cover the whole of Europe
including central and eastern Europe,and by naming
Future its top UK & Ireland distributor.Future also
nowhas authority to sell Tyco’s passive and filter
products and its extensive line of relays.
Future’s focus on providing high-quality design-in
assistance for customers has been central to this
success,and special focus on the lighting market and
joint customer visits with Tyco Electronics’ engineers
have proved especially valuable.
NXP combines GreenChip strengths for
greater energy savings
NewGreenChip functions fromNXP Semiconductors
cover PFC and synchronous-rectification control,and
complement the company’s 30V power MOSFETs in
loss-free LFPAK packages to improve power-supply
efficiency in the 75-600Wrange.
The GreenChip PFC includes several energy-saving
features such as quasi-resonant operation,which are
also available in NXP’s GreenChip III adapter chip.Also
new,the GreenChip SR TEA1791 synchronous-
rectification controller is a robust SO-8 Silicon-On-
Insulator device compatible with GreenChip and
other power-supply controllers.These newdevices
combine well with NXP’s latest low-loss 30V power
MOSFETs,which have on-resistance as lowas 1.7mΩ.
Integrated solution to mobile-device
overcharging
Fairchild Semiconductor has responded to emerging
safety standards to prevent over-charging of mobile
devices by introducing the FAN3989 over-voltage
protection IC with integrated USB-charger detection.
The integrated detection feature simplifies design
and saves up to 20%of board space by eliminating
external circuitry.The FAN3989 signals the host
controller if a USB device or other charger is detected.
Over-voltage protection generates a warning if the
main supply bus moves outside the range 3.3V to 6.0V.
The FAN3989 delivers more accurate and compact
protection compared to using discrete components.
2
N
ews
i n bri ef...
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
01
info@my-ftm.com
￿
I NDUSTRY
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090302
02
info@my-ftm.com
￿
COMPONENT FOCUS
The low-cost dsPIC33FJ12MC family includes
dedicated motor-control hardware including an
optimised ADC and a quadrature-encoder
interface.The on-chip PWMmodule provided has
two independent clock sources,enabling motor-
control and power-factor-correction algorithms to
be co-hosted on the same device.
The peripheral-pin select capability common to
all family members allows re-mapping of digital
I/Oto target the smallest suitable device.Several
package options,including a 6mmx 6mm28-pin
QFN,enable designers to minimise PCB space and
optimise board layout to reduce noise.
Microchip’s sensorless FOC algorithmenables
faster design of variable-speed controls for
Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM),
and includes a motor start-up sub-routine as well
as phase-advance capability.The algorithmcan be
fully evaluated using the dsPICDEM™MC1 Motor
Control Development Board along with the
dsPICDEMMC1HThree-Phase High-Voltage Power
Module.

APPLI CATI ONS

Pumps

Air conditioners

Compressors

Refrigerators

Washing machines
Motor-control processor familycomes
withfreesensorless-control algorithm
MI CROCHI P
The DM300027
starter board
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
With a selection of dsPIC® processors
optimised for motor control,and new,
free source code for sensorless Field-
Oriented Control (FOC),Microchip
equips engineers to accelerate design
of advanced,energy-saving products.

FEATURES

40MIPS processor performance

20-pin and 28-pin package options

12kbytes Flash

1kbyte SRAM

User-selectable 10- or 12-bit,6-channel ADC

UART,SPI and I
2
C ports
PARTNER

Freescale’s 56F8002/6,page 3

Avago’s ACPL-796J-000E,page 6
WORKI NG
COMPONENT FOCUS
3
LOOK OUT FOR WORKI NG PARTNERS FEATURED I N COMPONENT FOCUS
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090303
03
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
04
info@my-ftm.com
￿
FREESCALE
SEMI CONDUCTOR
NXP
SEMI CONDUCTORS
www.my-ftm.com/090304
The lower-cost devices,in smaller packages,
target price-sensitive applications,and
The 16-bit 56F8002 and 56F8006 DSCs
fromFreescale Semiconductor enable
low-cost entry to digital control for
motor drives and power supplies,with
the advantage of compatibility across
the 56F8000-family platform.
The NXP Semiconductors DAC1401D125
is a dual 14-bit DAC that can be used
in either I/Q baseband or direct-IF
communications applications,due to
its 125Msample/s update rate,low
distortion,tight gain matching and
low offset error.

FEATURES

Single 3.3V supply

Power-down pin

Internal or external reference

±0.02%offset error

±0.05%typical gain mismatch
The output full-scale current can be
adjusted from 2mA to 20mA to optimise
for high dynamic range or low power
consumption.The current limit can be set for
one or both channels simultaneously using
one external resistor,or independently using
two resistors.Multiple output configurations
are supported,including differential coupling
with an output transformer or operational
amplifier,or single-ended buffered or
unbuffered voltage output.

APPLI CATI ONS

Quadrature modulation

Direct digital frequency synthesis

Medical/test instrumentation

Arbitrary-waveformgenerator

Direct-IF applications

APPLI CATI ONS

High-end power tools

AC drives

D
oor openers

Access control systems

Fan and vent controllers

Conveyor belts
Low-power DSCs cut the cost of digital control
The
MC56F8006DEMO
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
integrate analogue modules,timers and
s
erial-communications modules as well as
embedded SRAM and up to 16kbytes of
Flash.
Essential motor-control IP is also provided,
including PWM timers,two high-speed
12-channel,12-bit ADCs supported by
Programmable Gain Amplifiers (PGA),and a
programmable delay timer to reduce interrupt
overhead when sampling via the ADC.This
c
ombination delivers an effective low-cost
solution for controlling single-phase or three-
phase motors.
The 56F8002/6 also
benefit fromFreescale’s
industry-leading low-
power platform-design
methodology and IP to
ensure the lowest power
consumption in all modes.
On-chip there is a low-
power 0.9V oscillator,as well
as a voltage regulator with
fast wake-up.Clock gating
can also be implemented
to switch the clock off to
unused peripherals.
The DAC1401D125 has 1.8V-,3.3V- and 5V-
compatible digital inputs allowing easy
integration,and supports a number of input and
output configurations to fulfil versatile functions.
AMode pin allows a choice of two data-input
configurations:Dual-bus mode allows interfacing
to two separate data ports,with an independent
data input,clock input,and data-write signal to
each DAC.In single-bus mode the device
connects to a single high-speed data port,and
demultiplexes interleaved data into the original I
and Qcomponents.It then converts and uploads
at half the input rate.
Versatile125Msample/s DACsupports multipleconfigurations
Offering customconfigurability and high sampling performance,
the DAC1401D125 fulfils diverse communication needs.
PARTNER

Microchip’s dsPIC33FJ12MC,page 2

Avago’s ACPL-796J-000E,page 6
WORKI NG

FEATURES

32MHz 56800E Core

Serial communication interfaces:I
2
C,SPI,SCI

Computer Operating Properly (COP)
watchdog

Package options:
SOIC-28,SDIP-32,LQFP-32,LQFP-48
COMPONENT FOCUS
06
info@my-ftm.com
￿
05
info@my-ftm.com
￿
4
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090305
MI CREL
SEMI CONDUCTOR

APPLI CATI ONS

Bias supplies

Local boost regulators

Positive-output regulators

DC/DC conversion for:
Battery-powered products
Communication and networking devices
Combininganintegrated40V/1.2Aswitch
and2mmx 2mmMLF® package,Micrel’s
MIC2601andMIC2602boost-mode
switchingregulators deliver large-load
capability withinminimal boardspace.
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090306
FREESCALE
SEMI CONDUCTOR

APPLI CATI ONS

Wireless-access nodes

VPN router for:
Secure remote access
Intrusion detection
Remote access point
The MPC8377EWLAN implements an enterprise
wireless access point/router based on the
Freescale MPC8377E PowerQUICC™ II Pro
processor,which delivers high performance at
lowpower and low cost.The processor has
integrated hardware acceleration for wireless
security,and also implements a pair of Gigabit
Ethernet LAN/WAN interfaces.A USB2.0
host/device interface is also provided.
For early completion of 600Mbit/s
WLAN access points using the latest-
generation IEEE 802.11N wireless
standard,the Freescale Semiconductor
MPC8377EWLAN is a production-ready
Reference DesignSolution(RDS) including
comprehensive hardware-designfiles,
Board-Support Package (BSP),source
code,andbinaries tothe application
software.

FEATURES

Based on Linux kernel 2.6.25

Standard protocols in open-source
software

Advanced wireless- and network-security
protocols

Single radio plug-in card

Universal AC adapter and cables provided
EMAI L I NFO@MY- FTM.COM FOR SAMPLES
Fixed-frequency current-mode PWMcontrol at
1.2MHz for the MIC2601 and 2MHz for the
MIC2602 allows small external components,which
contributes to the high-power density.
Stable operation is achieved with small ceramic
capacitors,and internal compensation circuitry
saves additional board space by reducing overall
parts count.The compensation provided ensures
fast transient response and tight output regulation.
ASoft-start pin with an internal 15kΩresistor
allows engineers to programme inrush current
using a single external capacitor.Both regulators
also have an external Enable pin to put the device
into a sub-10µAshutdown mode,allowing an
energy-efficient and space-saving solution.
By using 3 x 3 Multiple-
Inputs/Multiple-Outputs (MIMO)
architecture,the MPC8377EWLAN supports
a total of six antennas for optimumeffective
range and speed.The device interfaces to
IEEE 802.11N radio modules via Mini PCI or
Mini PCI Express® modules provided in the
MPC8377E,and is also backwards-compatible
with IEEE 802.11a/b/g radios.Compatibility with
IEEE 802.3af Power over Ethernet (PoE) allows
operation in 3 x 3 MIMO mode over a single
Ethernet cable.
Miniature boost regulators combine high-power
density with low energy consumption

FEATURES

High conversion efficiency

Input voltage range:4.5V to 20V

Over-voltage protection

Over-temperature protection

8-pin MLF package
Small size and high switching frequency enable a minimum-footprint solution.
PARTNER

NXP’s PMEG4010,page 8
WORKI NG
600Mbit/sWLANreferencedesigncuts time
tomarket for IEEE802.11Ndevices
COMPONENT FOCUSCOMPONENT FOCUS
5
08
info@my-ftm.com
￿
EMAI L I NFO@MY- FTM.COM FOR SAMPLES
07
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090307
FBGA package for F-RAMenables extra rugged memory on-board
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090308
RAMTRON
The FM22LD16 is pin-compatible with
asynchronous static RAM,and features fast
access times,virtually unlimited read/write
cycles,and lowpower consumption.The device
is organised as 256-kbits x 16,but is also
software-configurable as 512-kbits x 8.Other
features include the ability to read and write at
bus speed for NoDelay™ writes,endurance of at
least 100 trillion writes and 10-year data retention.
Building on the space savings and
reliability advantages of battery-free,
non-volatile Ferroelectric RAM(F-RAM),
designers using the 4-Mbit Ramtron
FM22LD16 in the 48-pin FBGA package
can implement four times the F-RAM
density within the same board
footprint of earlier 44-pinTSOP devices.

FEATURES

Operating voltage range:2.7V to 3.6V

8mA read/write current

90µA standby current

55ns access time

110ns cycle time
There is also a lowpower-supply drain voltage
monitor,which protects against inadvertent writes.
With a convenient interface to modern high-
performance microprocessors,the FM22LD16
features a high-speed page mode that enables
four-byte burst read/write operations at up to
40MHz.This bus speed is significantly higher than
other non-volatile memory.

APPLI CATI ONS

RAID controllers

Networking and data storage

Multi-function printers

Industrial computers and robotics

Navigation systems
F-RAMdensity reaches a newhigh in the Ramtron
FM22LD16.
With its bi-directional H-bridge output stage,
the AH5792 provides a simple solution for low-
power single-phase,full-wave Brushless DC
(BLDC) motor control.The Hall sensor element
is located in the centre of the 0.6mm-high,
small-outline SOT553 package,which can be
built into miniature systems such as ultra-thin
cooling fans.These types of applications will
also benefit fromthe AH5792’s low-voltage
start-up capability.
The embedded digital controller eliminates
the need for external components including a
timing capacitor.Built-in features include
locked-rotor detection with automatic self-
restart.This shuts down the output driver in the
event of a locked rotor and then restarts the
motor when the rotor is freed.The frequency-
generator output produces a tachometer-like
signal that can be easily connected
to external speed-monitoring hardware.

APPLI CATI ONS

3.3V/5V,eight-pole DC fans

Low-voltage motors

Micro-vibration motors

FEATURES

1.7mmx 1.7mmfootprint

Operating voltage range:1.8V to 5V

400mA output-current capability

230mWpower dissipation
@ 25°C ambient temperature
D
I ODES
I NCORPORATED
As an easy-to-use integrated solution
for motor control,the AH5792 from
Diodes Incorporated includes a Hall
sensor and amplifier,a full-bridge
output driver,and on-chip digital
control with value-added features
including locked-rotor protection.
T
he AH5792 motor controller with integrated Hall sensor combines reliability,simplicity,and advanced capabilities.
All-in-one BLDC-motor controller adds
smart features,cuts design time
COMPONENT FOCUS
EMAI L I NFO@MY- FTM.COM FOR SAMPLES
10
info@my-ftm.com
￿
09
info@my-ftm.com
￿
6
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090309
8-bit MCUs target sensing applications with focussed feature set
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090310
FREESCALE
SEMI CONDUCTOR
On-chip peripherals include two 16-bit timers,
which can each be configured for capture,
compare or PWMto support a variety of functions.
In addition,a Real-Time Interrupt (RTI) timer
supports versatile functionality,such as generating
periodic interrupts,waking the CPUfromStop
mode,or recording the time of day when
combined with an external quartz crystal.An on-
board analogue comparator and a full 10-channel,
10-bit ADC capable of simultaneous sampling
allowthese devices to be used in numerous
sensing and measurement functions.The ADC
module also contains a temperature sensor.
External communications are handled through
a combination of a Serial Communications
Interface (SCI) module,an 8-channel Keyboard
Interrupt (KBI) module that can be used to
implement a simple keypad/keyboard system,
and up to 24 GPIOs.Enhancing flexibility,the
MC9S08SE family also has an Internal Clock

FEATURES

4kbyte or 8kbyte Flash

512byte SRAM

Watchdog module

Reset controller

Low-voltage detect module

16-pin and 28-pin package options

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial appliances

Security systems

Power supplies and battery chargers

AC line-voltage monitors

Industrial compressors
The 8-bit MC9S08SE8fromFreescale
Semiconductor creates a newentry point
for MCU-baseddesigns,startingat 4kbyte
Flashandofferingfeatures optimisedfor
sensingandmeasurement functions.
The DEMO9S08SE8
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
Source (ICS) supporting multiple clock sources
including the internal 32kHz oscillator or an
external oscillator.
Sigma-delta modulator simplifies sensor-circuit design

APPLI CATI ONS

Motor phase- and rail-current sensing

Power-inverter current and voltage sensing

Industrial process control

Data-acquisition systems

General-purpose current and voltage
sensing

Traditional current transducer replacement
The ACPL-796J-xxxE is a second-
o
rder sigma-delta modulator that
over-samples the analogue input
using an external clock connected
across the isolation barrier.This
allows synchronous operation with
any digital controller.Low offset
voltage,low gain error and high
linearity simplify the design of
sensing circuits,and the SO-16
package is smaller than conventional
current transducers as well as being
suitable for automatic placement.
The digital interface is compatible
with 3V or 5V systems,and the

FEATURES

±320mV full-scale input capability

16-bits resolution,no missing codes

≤74dB signal-to-noise ratio

≤3.5µV/°C offset drift

≤1%gain error
AVAGO TECHNOLOGI ES
Capable of converting a differential
analogue input to a serial digital
output at up to 20MHz,and with
optical isolation included,the ACPL-
796J-xxxE fromAvago Technologies
can be connected directly to
low-level signal sources.
device offers a wide dynamic range up to 80dB
at 5.0V,depending on filter selection.
Further advantages include high common-
mode rejection,allowing engineers to achieve
smoother motor controls benefitting fromthe
high precision,stability and reliability inherent
in sigma-delta modulator technology.
Worldwide safety approvals include UL1577
a
nd EN60747-5-5.
The ACPL-796J-xxxE sigma-delta modulator embodies AvagoTechnologies'
opto-isolation expertise to achieve a higher level of integration.
P
ARTNER

Microchip’s dsPIC33FJ12MC,page 2

Freescale’s 56F8002/6,page 3
W
ORKI NG
The Freescale MC9S08SE8 will enable low-cost,embedded
sensing and measurement.
EMAI L I NFO@MY- FTM.COM FOR SAMPLES
COMPONENT FOCUS
7
12
info@my-ftm.com
￿
11
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090311
MI CREL
SEMI CONDUCTOR

APPLI CATI ONS

Remote controls

Portable test equipment

Instrumentation

Domestic appliances

GPS devices
The MIC4833 implements a boost converter
and H-bridge network to generate two outputs
for EL panels up to 4cm
2
.Two internal
oscillators control the boost switching
frequency and the H-bridge driver frequency,
and both can be individually programmed to
optimise EL efficiency and brightness.The
MIC4833 also provides an independent Enable
pin for each EL-driver output.
Driving both outputs froma single inductor
saves component count and bill-of-materials
costs,and reduces typical external components
to the inductor,diode,three decoupling
capacitors,and three programming resistors.
Two resistors set the EL-driver and H-bridge
Low-cost PIC development tool increases
performance,powers the target directly
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090312
MI CROCHI P

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial controls

Motor controllers

Point-of-sale equipment

Automotive systems

Communication devices
The debugger/programmer is
connected to the host PC using
a full-speed USB interface.When
connected to the target via the
6-pin ICSP connector common
to Microchip MPLAB tools,it also
powers the board directly
thereby saving an external
power supply.
The kit allows engineers to
debug designs with minimal
additional hardware required,
and also saves expensive sockets
or adapters.As well as
supporting design and
PICkit 3DebugExpress is the latest
versionof Microchip’s low-cost
development tool for 8- and16-bit PIC®
anddsPIC® MCUs,featuringthe upgraded
PICkit 3debugger/programmer as well as
a demoboardpopulatedwith
a 44-pinPIC18F45K20MCU.

FEATURES

Voltage range:2.0V to 6.0V

Built-in over-voltage/short-circuit monitor

Real-time execution

Compatible with PICkit 2,MPLAB ICD 2/3
and MPLAB REAL ICE

USB cable and instruction CDs included
development,the kit can be used to
programme or re-programme production
and post-production models.
Also included in PICkit 3 Debug Express
are the MPLAB® Integrated Development
Environment (IDE),and a version of the
MPLAB C Compiler for PIC18 MCUs.Both
are provided free of charge.
The DV164131 kit
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
With a lowparts count and internal
wave-shaping to minimise audible
noise,the Micrel MIC4833 dual-output
Electroluminescent (EL) lamp driver
improves display backlighting in
handheld and portable devices.
Advantages of PICkit 3 include faster design starts thanks to USB power.

FEATURES

220V AC peak output voltage

152µA typical operating current

0.1µA typical shutdown current

EL-output frequency range:100Hz to 1500Hz

12-pin,3mmx 3mmMLF® package
frequencies,while the
t
hird can be used to
adjust the output slew
rate to further reduce
audible noise.EL-lamp
dimming can also be
achieved,by applying
a PWM signal to the
H-bridge oscillator via
a
n external pin.
As a further benefit of the
MIC4833,the input-voltage
range of 2.3V to 5.8V allows
use with multiple battery
configurations and chemistries,such as single-
cell Li-ion and two- or three-cell alkaline,NiCd,
or NiMH batteries.This allows use in a wide
variety of consumer and professional equipment.
Electroluminescent driver IC delivers small and
silent backlight control
COMPONENT FOCUS
EMAI L I NFO@MY- FTM.COM FOR SAMPLES
13
info@my-ftm.com
￿
Schottkybarrier rectifiers aresmall onsize,bigonpower
8
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090313
N
XP
S
EMI CONDUCTORS

APPLI CATI ONS

Low-voltage rectification

High-efficiency DC/DC converters

Switched-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)

Reverse-polarity protection

Freewheeling diode
The PMEG4010 is a member of NXP’s planar
MaximumEfficiency General Application
(MEGA) Schottky barrier rectifier family.It is
available in both the SOD123Wand the
SOD128 packages that are footprint-compatible
with industry-standard SMA packages,but have
a 50%lower profile.This is achieved without
trading power-handling capability by using
NXP’s FlatPower package technology,which
features clip-bond construction and an
integrated guard ring for stress protection.
Combining 490mV forward voltage and
peak-current capability of 25Ain a 1mm-
high package,the NXP Semiconductors
PMEG4010 lowforward-voltage rectifier
diode increases efficiency in space-
constrained applications.

FEATURES

2.6mmx 1.7mmfootprint (SOD123W)

3
.8mmx 2.6mmfootprint (SOD128)

40V reverse voltage

50µA reverse current

A
EC-Q101 compliant
As well as its high peak-current capability,the
PMEG4010 withstands 1Aaverage continuous
current,allowing use in a wide range of power-
management circuits,step-down and
synchronous converters,and freewheeling circuits
for inductive loads and motor drives.The ultra-low
f
orward voltage makes the PMEG4010 especially
valuable in battery-powered devices and other
systems prioritising energy savings and efficiency
gains.
14
￿
info@my-ftm.com
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090314
PARTNER

Micrel’s MIC2601/2,page 4
WORKI NG
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
DESI GN NOTE
9
15
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090315
For output voltages above 24V,and for power ratings in the region of 1kW,
the LLC resonant converter is a good choice.For output voltages below24V,
the ripple-current rating on the output capacitor increases,resulting in extra
systemcost as a larger number of output capacitors,or more expensive high-
ripple-current devices,are needed to meet the higher ripple current
requirement.Synchronous rectification,also,is not so simple in this topology.
Fairchild Semiconductor’s FSFR2100 LLC resonant converters contain the
two MOSFETs and the controller required for the primary side of an LLC
converter.The efficiency of this 450WPFC+LLC solution fromFairchild’s Global
Power Resource
SM
centre is more than 90%.The efficiency of the 200Wsolution
is 93%.Efficiency levels of up to 95%-96%are possible when using
synchronous rectification.Anewcontroller-only part is planned to support
designs up to 1kW.
Conclusion
As well as evaluating various topologies,in the past designers have also had to
overcome challenges such as ensuring stable operation,noise immunity,and
correct timing of resonant switching to achieve maximumefficiency.
As more designs turn to resonant switching,dedicated controller ICs such as
the FAN6300,FSFA2100 or FSFR2100 mentioned in this design note solve
these issues and combine with guidance on topology to help improve
performance and shorten time to market.
NewEuropeanUnioninitiatives are drivingthe use of energy-
savingtopologies inpower supplies.Quasi-resonant,resonant
andsoft-switchingtopologies are replacingthe older hard-
switchingtopologies suchas forwardandflyback.
One common challenge is to decide which topology is optimal for a given
application.The following topologies will be considered:LLC resonant
topology,asymmetric half-bridge topology and quasi-resonant flyback
topology.Fairchild offers solutions for these designs starting from1Wall the
way up to 450W.
The quasi-resonant flyback topology has successfully been used in power
supplies up to 250W.It has been used in applications such as televisions
since the late 1990s.This topology requires one power MOSFET and one
wound component (the flyback transformer),so it is a low-cost technology.
At higher power levels,the large transformer size and correspondingly large
leakage inductance increase the power-supply size,cost and losses.Based
on these observations and comparing with the other topologies discussed,a
quasi-resonant converter can be used for power ratings up to 100Wor
150W.
Fairchild Semiconductor’s FAN6300 quasi-resonant controller is ideal for
these higher power applications.For lower power applications,extra
integration can be achieved by combining the MOSFET and controller into
one package.An example is the FSQseries of FPS™ power switches,which
are suitable for power supplies from1Wto around 70W.
In the range of 100Wto 500W,two different topologies come under
consideration.The output voltage is the determining factor governing which
will work best.
For output voltages below24V,the asymmetric half-bridge topology is
recommended.Above this output level,the voltage rating of the output
diodes are much higher than with the LLC resonant converter,causing
unnecessary losses.If a synchronous output stage is used,the voltage rating
on the output MOSFETs would be high,resulting in extra systemcost.
Fairchild Semiconductor’s FSFA2100 asymmetric half-bridge converter
contains the two MOSFETs and the controller required for the primary side of
such a converter.The efficiency of the 360Wpower supply in Fairchild
application note AN-4153 is more than 93%.
Fig.1:Quasi-resonant converter for 30W-70Wapplications.
Fig.3:LLC resonant converter using FSFR2100.
Fig.2:Asymmetric half-bridge converter using FSFA2100.
F
AI RCHI LD
S
EMI CONDUCTOR
Choosingthe right AC-input power-supply topology
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
10
As anoptocoupler capable of directly
drivinghigh-current IGBTs or MOSFETs,
the FairchildSemiconductor FOD3120
simplifies gate-drive circuitry anddelivers
best-in-class Common-Mode Rejection
(CMR) of 50kV/µs for reliable switchingin
noisy environments.

FEATURES

Operating voltage range:15V to 30V

Under Voltage Lock-out (UVLO) with
hysteresis

Extended industrial temperature range:
-40°C to 100°C

Meets UL1577 and IEC60747-5-2

10mm- and 7mm-clearance package
options

APPLI CATI ONS

AC-input motor drives

Industrial inverters

Solar inverters

Induction heating

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

Switched-mode power supplies
Gate-drive optocoupler delivers best-in-class common-mode performance
FAI RCHI LD
SEMI CONDUCTOR
High-power electronics
small,low-power filters.The low,3Ω typical,
on-resistance of the output-driver stage also
contributes to high overall systemefficiency.
For driving smaller transistors requiring up to
1A gate drive,the FOD3150 is also available.
Both devices achieve their high CMR by
combining patented Optoplanar® coplanar
packaging technology with optimised IC
design.
W
ith energy efficiency uppermost in engineers’ minds,
i
mprovements in high-power electronics are tremendously
i
mportant.Compared to other areas of a system,significant
s
avings are available closer to the power source,where
c
urrent levels are highest.
T
he latest generations of power transistors such as new40-200V MOSFETs
fromInternational Rectifier and 60V devices fromON Semiconductor
reduce on-resistance to better than 5mΩ for current ratings well over
100A.Device architects are also bargaining hard with the silicon to
maximise switching performance and power density – not only from
discretes but also ICs such as regulators;the Exar SP7662 combines high
current rating,small dimensions and high efficiency.
Cost-down,of course,is another important market demand.Prices for
power silicon do not fall with die size,but packaging enhancements and
functional integration can unlock system-level savings.The SP7662 with its
on-chip regulator,and devices such as the Vishay SiE726DF SkyFET™
combining a MOSFET and Schottky diode,illustrate this trend by saving
external components and circuitry.
Higher integration also helps engineers implement energy-saving
topologies such as resonant converter designs,as demonstrated by the
FSFR2100 Fairchild Power Switch.You can find out more about this and
other integrated solutions in the Design Note on page 9.
Newmarkets,such as burgeoning demand for micro-generators to feed
renewable energy into the grid system,are also driving innovations.Home-
owners - as power generators - will demand the ultimate in low-cost,high-
efficiency technologies.We are already seeing newcomponents emerge,
such as IR’s IRGB40xx family,which are optimised explicitly for this sector.
With a wide operating-voltage range for
maximum usability,the FOD3120 has a
P-channel output stage capable of swinging
close to the supply rail.The 2.5A maximum
output current is adequate to control most
IGBTs up to 20A/800V directly.In addition,
the 1414V peak working voltage allows these
devices to be used with high-voltage IGBTs.
As well as saving footprint and gate-drive
complexity,the FOD3120 also boosts power
efficiency through its fast switching speed,
with 400ns propagation delay and 100ns
pulse-width distortion allowing the use of
16
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090316
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
11
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
18
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090318

FEATURES

Broad choice of current ratings

Avalanche energy specified

Lowleakage current

4.0V gate threshold voltage

APPLI CATI ONS

DC motor drives

LED drivers

Power supplies

DC/DC converters

PWMcontrols

Bridge circuits
Offering lowon-resistance in small
package sizes,and with 60V breakdown
voltage delivering an extra safety
margin in mid-voltage applications,ON
Semiconductor NTx54xxN N-channel
power MOSFETs have maximumcurrent
ratings from20A to 120A.
ON SEMI CONDUCTOR

FEATURES

Voltage range:40V to 200V

Qualified to Moisture Sensitivity Level 1
(MSL1)

Operating temperature range:
-55°C to 175°C

APPLI CATI ONS

Synchronous rectification

Active ORing

Hard-switched circuits

High-frequency circuits
Low-loss MOSFETs in standard packages improve cost,size and efficiency
I NTERNATI ONAL
RECTI FI ER
17
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090317
Part number
Rated voltage
R
DS(ON)
Rated current
Package
I
RFP4004PBF
4
0V
1
.7mΩ
1
95A*
T
O247
I
RFP4368PBF
7
5V
1
.85mΩ
1
95A*
T
O247
I
RFP4468PBF
1
00V
2
.6mΩ
1
95A*
T
O247
IRFP4568PBF
150V
5.9mΩ
171A
TO247
IRFP4668PBF
200V
9.7mΩ
130A
TO247
These power transistors minimise power
dissipation in conduction and switching modes,
with a combination of lowon-resistance values,
from5mΩ to 37.5mΩ,as well as lowgate
International Rectifier has set a new
low benchmark for power-MOSFET
on-resistance in the TO-247 package,
with a family of five devices for high-
current challenges normally solved
using high-power packages such as
ISOTOP or mini BLOC.
Other benefits of this new technology
include improved gate,avalanche and
dynamic-dV/dt ruggedness,as well as
enhanced body-diode dV/dt and dI/dt
capability.
* package-limited current rating
T
he TO-247 package allows standard MOSFET assembly
techniques.
Part
number
Rated
voltage
Rated
current
R
DS(ON)
Gate
charge
Switching
energy
NTB5411N
60V
75A
8.5mΩ
92nC
336mJ
NTP5411N
60V
75A
8.5mΩ
92nC
336mJ
NTB5412N
60V
60A
14mΩ
62nC
211mJ
NTP5412N
60V
60A
14mΩ
62nC
211mJ
NTB5426N
60V
120A
5mΩ
170nC
1000mJ
NTP5426N
60V
120A
5mΩ
170nC
1000mJ
NTD5413N
60V
45A
21mΩ
33nC
101mJ
NTD5414N
60V
20A
37.5mΩ
21.2nC
57.8mJ
charge and low switching energy.While
promoting higher efficiency in a wide
variety of motion-control and power
conversion applications,these low-loss
advantages are achieved within a small
active silicon area and thereby offer
designers the choice of a surface-mount
D
2
PAK package,or the popular 3-pin
TO-220 package.The NTD5413N and
NTD5414N,rated for 45A and 20A
applications,are offered in the DPAK
surface-mount package.
As well as offering low-loss
performance,these transistors are ideal
for use in applications where diode
speed and commutating safe operating
areas are crucial and additional safety
margin delivers valuable extra
protection against unexpected voltage
transients.
Latest-generation 60V power transistors deliver
low-loss,rugged performance in small outlines
W
ith on-resistance as low as 1.7mΩ,and
current ratings from 130A to 195A,the new
IRFP4004PBF and IRFP4x68PBF MOSFETs can
replace alternatives in the larger and more
expensive high-power packages.Up to 50%
cost savings can be achieved,as well as a
reduction in overall size.In addition to
reducing heat dissipation,the lower losses of
these MOSFETs also enable improved system
e
fficiency.
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
12
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
SEMTECH
VI SHAY
The SiE726DF combines a 30V N-channel
power MOSFET with an integrated Schottky
diode.Its encapsulated PolarPAK® package
has thermal resistance of 1°C/W and has an
exposed top for effective cooling to both
surfaces,both sides.These thermal
enhancements enable 50% higher current-
handling capability compared to a standard
SO-8 device,within the same footprint.
Maximum rated current is package-limited to
60A,and with low on-resistance of 2.4mΩ
the SiE726DF minimises losses when passing
high currents.
The characteristics of the Schottky diode
and MOSFET parasitic diode are also

FEATURES

Encapsulated,non-exposed die

Shoot-through resistant design

Heatsink-free operation
19
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090319
20
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090320

APPLI CATI ONS

High-current synchronous rectification

Voltage-Regulator Modules (VRM)

POL converters

Systems with forced-air cooling

Graphics cards
B
y integrating lowon-resistance 10A
p
ower MOSFETs,a bootstrap switch,
a
nd a programmable Low-Dropout
(
LDO) regulator,all in a 5mmx 5mm
M
LPQ-32 package,the Semtech
S
C417 standalone synchronous buck
power supply prioritises efficient use
of energy and board space.
Buck converter with integrated LDO saves power
The SC417 is flexible for use in a broad
range of applications,with an input
voltage range from 3V to 28V and LDO
output voltage adjustable from 0.75V to
5.25V using external resistors.The LDO
can supply the bias voltage for the
switching controller,allowing the device
to be operated from a single supply rail.
With a programmable operating
frequency from200kHz to 1MHz,the SC417
helps designers to optimise operating
efficiency as well as overall footprint
through selection of external components.
In addition,the buck controller uses pseudo
fixed-frequency adaptive on-time control,
which allows fast transient response and
enables the use of smaller output capacitors.In
addition to ceramic capacitors,standard
capacitor technologies such as electrolytic or
s
pecial polymer types can be used,for cost
savings in price-sensitive applications.

FEATURES

150mA LDO

1%tolerance internal voltage reference

Support for single-cell or multi-cell battery
systems

Power-good output

APPLI CATI ONS

Personal computers and servers

Networking and telecommunication
equipment

Printers

Embedded applications

Power-supply modules

Point-of-load power supplies
Combiningpackagingadvances that
boost current-handlingcapability with
lowon-resistance andlowreverse-
recovery charge,theVishay SiE726DF
SkyFET™improves the efficiency of high-
current power-control circuits.
optimised for higher overall
efficiency,with overall reverse-
recovery charge of 30nC and
source-drain voltage of 0.37V
helping to reduce power
losses compared to a standard
MOSFET.Moreover,these
savings increase with higher
switching frequency.
Implementing the external
Schottky diode inside the
package allows designers
to create smaller,more
compact circuit designs
while reducing costs.
Combined MOSFET and Schottky diode increases
current handling and cuts losses
Top and bottomheat-dissipation paths enable high performance in systems with
forced-air cooling.
Separate Enable inputs for the switching
regulator and LDO support flexible power
management.There is also a smart power-save
feature,as well as soft-start and soft-shutdown
f
unctions,over-current and over-voltage
protection,and cycle-by-cycle current limit.
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
13
ON SEMI CONDUCTOR
For high-performance audio amplifiers
that use bias trimming to prevent
output transistors overheating,
ONSemiconductor ThermalTrak™
transistors implement bias compensation
internally to save part count and
improve temperature stability.
22
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090322
With compensation on-chip,the NJL4281DN-type
and NJL4302DP-type bipolar power transistors
respond instantly to die-temperature changes,
reducing bias levels to stabilise temperature
variations that can distort the output signal.
Amplifiers using discrete bias-correction circuitry,
which is normally mounted on the heatsink near
the transistors,have inherently slower temperature
response.The faster response of ThermalTrak
transistors not only prevents harmonic distortion
due to transistor overheating,but also results in
smaller adjustments to bias levels leading to
greater bias stability.Both advantages contribute
to improved audio performance in the end
product.
Also,by reacting faster to prevent overheating,
the integrated bias-control circuitry prevents the
output transistors fromentering thermal runaway
and thereby enhances the amplifier’s reliability.All
external components for bias control are also
eliminated,delivering a valuable bill-of-materials
saving.
I NTERNATI ONAL
RECTI FI ER
21
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090321

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial battery systems

Heavy-duty power supplies

High-power DC motors

Power tools

APPLI CATI ONS

High-end consumer audio amplifiers and
receivers

Professional audio amplifiers

Theatre and stadiumsound systems

Public Address (PA) systems

FEATURES

230W,15A bipolar power transistor

Thermally-matched bias diode

Absolute thermal integrity

High Safe Operating Area (SOA)
Audio power transistors improve sound quality and
reliability with on-chip compensation
Part number
Voltage rating
R
DS(ON)
Current rating
Package
I
RFB3006PBF
6
0V
2
.5mΩ
1
95A*
T
O-220
I
RFS3006PBF
6
0V
2
.5mΩ
1
95A*
D
2
P
AK
IRFS3006-7PPBF
60V
2.1mΩ
240A*
D
2
PAK-7
I
RFS3107PBF
7
5V
3
.0mΩ
1
95A*
D
2
P
AK
IRFS3107-7PPBF
75V
2.6mΩ
240A*
D
2
PAK-7
IRFS4010PBF
100V
4.7mΩ
180A
D
2
PAK
IRFS4010-7PPBF
100V
4.0mΩ
190A
D
2
PAK-7
IRFB4115PBF
150V
1mΩ
104A
TO-220
IRFS4115PBF
150V
12.1mΩ
99A
D
2
PAK
IRFS4115-7PPBF
150V
11.8mΩ
105A
D
2
PAK-7
IRFB4127PBF
200V
20mΩ
76A
TO-220
IRFS4127PBF
200V
22mΩ
72A
D
2
PAK
The series of 12 high-current HEXFET® power
MOSFETs introduce newtechnologies that
enable increased package-current ratings;up to
The power is in the package,for super-high current,
lowon-resistance MOSFETs
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
* Package limited
For applications requiringextremely high
current ratings for extra guardband,or to
save the overheadof a multi-parallel
transistor network,International Rectifier
has achieveda 60%increase intypical
current-handlingcapability comparedto
alternatives.
195A in industry-standard
TO-220,D
2
PAK and TO-262
o
utlines,and 240A using an
enhanced 7-pin D
2
PAK-7
package.The MOSFETs also
achieve lower R
DS(ON)
compared
to previous devices,with the
D
2
PAK-7 delivering a further
reduction over and above that
of the standard D
2
PAK.
Rated voltages are from60V
t
o 200V,and the devices are
qualified to industrial grade and
Moisture Sensitivity Level 1 (MSL1).
Innovative package technologies deliver ultra-high current ratings in industry-
s
tandard outlines
ThermalTrak™ technology improves amplifier stability and
extends the operating lifetime.
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
14
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
VI SHAY
FAI RCHI LD
SEMI CONDUCTOR
Build resonant converters faster with
fully-integrated system-in-package
The FSFR2100 integrates a Pulse-Frequency
Modulation (PFM) controller with a high-voltage
gate-driver circuit and two fast-recovery
MOSFETs (FRFET®) along with soft-start,burst
operation and important protection features.
The MOSFET fast-recovery capability allows
the FPS to withstand abnormal operating
conditions,and minimises the effect of
reverse recovery on converter performance.
By using Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS)
to minimise MOSFET switching losses,
the FSFR2100 can operate up to 200W
without a heatsink and up to 450Wwith a
heatsink.Compared to conventional hard-
switched converter topologies,ZVS with
the FSFR2100 is 10%more efficient.For
applications such as PDP-TVs,efficiency
reaches 97%.An additional advantage of
ZVS is that switching noise is dramatically
reduced,by at least 5dB compared to
hard-switching techniques.

FEATURES

Built-in high-side drive circuit

Common-mode noise cancellation

External Control pin for remote on/off

Pre-optimised dead time

Operating frequency selectable up to 300kHz
Low standby power is a further advantage
of the FSFR2100,using burst operation to
keep consumption below 1W and so help
to meet the International Energy Authority’s
1-Watt Initiative.
With the addition of the FSFR2100 to
Fairchild’s wide portfolio of power switches,
designers can now choose integrated power
solutions from 1W to 450W to create energy-
and space-efficient SMPS designs for a wide
variety of applications.
23
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090323
24
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090324

APPLI CATI ONS

High-voltage power supplies

Telecomsystems

Servers

Audio power supplies
Ultra-fast recovery performance cuts losses in 8A diodes
T
he diodes are rated for 8Aforward current.By
achieving reverse-recovery time of 25ns and
forward-recovery time of 150ns,combined with
typical forward voltage drop of 1.47V at full rated
current,they minimise losses in both conduction
and switching modes.As eco-design standards
such as the European EUP Directive evolve to
specify minimumlevels of energy efficiency for
electronic products,the UH8JT and UHF8JT help
e
ngineers to meet these targets.
Combining high efficiency and high-
current capability,as well as 600V
maximumreverse voltage,they will be
used to minimise energy losses in rectifier
and freewheeling circuits as well as in
mandatory features such as power-factor
correction.
The reduction in energy loss also
results in lower heat dissipation,which
will simplify thermal design to enable
lower-cost,more compact and
lightweight products such as power
adapters,computing devices,and
telecomand networking equipment.
The UH8JT is delivered in the standardTO-220
package with cathode connected to the tab.The
UHF8JT in the ITO-220 package has the same
mechanical outline and features an insulated tab
f
or direct attachment to any heatsink.

FEATURES

Soft recovery characteristic

8
0A peak forward-surge current

Operating temperature range:-55°C to 175°C

1500V isolation voltage (ITO-220 package)

APPLI CATI ONS

High output-voltage SMPS

Continuous Conduction Mode Power-
Factor Correction (CCMPFC)

Secondary DC/DC rectification

Freewheeling-diode circuits
U
ltra-fast forward- andreverse-recovery
p
erformance fromtheVishay UH8JTand
U
HF8JThigh-voltage diodes enhances
e
fficiency ina wide range of power-
s
witchingandrectificationcircuits.
Efficient andreliable resonant converters
are easier todesignusingthe FSFR2100
FairchildPower Switch(FPS™),which
provides all the necessary components in
a single 9-pinsystem-in-package.
The FEB212
evaluation board
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
High-voltage circuits can reduce energy losses with diodes in industry-
s
tandard packages.
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
15
By achieving on-resistance as lowas
1.7mΩwithin the standard SO-8
footprint,NXP’s range of 30VTrench 6
logic-level MOSFETs enable high-power
density and efficiency in power
converters and power-ORing
systems.
26
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090326
Trench 6 technology also delivers low
gate-charge and lowgate-resistance
making the devices suitable for
switching frequencies typically up to
1MHz.They are especially suited for use in
high-efficiency synchronous buck regulators.
The devices are delivered in a Loss-Free
Package (LFPAK) matching the widely-used 5mm
x 6mmoutline but bringing extra benefits by
reducing package height to 1mm.In addition,
lowthermal resistance and lowpackage
inductance contribute to the high current
capability and switching frequency of the Trench
6 family.As a further benefit,the package is
compatible with visual inspection
techniques,unlike many other Power-
SO8 devices.
I
NTERNATI ONAL
R
ECTI FI ER
The new 600V IGBTs are optimised for
power-converter applications from 4A to
4
8A,and use IR’s latest-generation field-stop
trench technology to reduce both
conduction and switching losses.Designed
for 20kHz operation with lower switching
losses than standard IGBTs,the IRGB40xxDP
series ensures high conversion efficiency to
maximise energy sources such as solar
panels or emergency back-up batteries.
25
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090325

APPLI CATI ONS

Solar-power converters

Hybrid micro-generator converters

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

FEATURES

Lowshort-circuit requirements

Operating temperature range:
-55°C to 175°C

Square Reverse-Bias Safe Operating Area
(RBSOA)

All parts tested to four-times rated current

TO-220 and TO-247 package types
Part number
Voltage
Current rating
V
C
E(ON)
E
T
S
(typical)
I
RGB4059DPbF
6
00V
4
A
2
.20V
2
10µJ
I
RGB4045DPbF
6
00V
6
A
2
.14V
3
29µJ
I
RGB4060DPbF
6
00V
8
A
1
.95V
4
05µJ
I
RGB4064DPbF
6
00V
1
0A
2
.00V
4
15µJ
I
RGP4063DPbF
6
00V
4
8A
2
.10V
3
210µJ
Part number
R
DS(ON)
@VGS =10V
R
DS(ON)
@VGS =4.5V
PSMN1R7-30YL
1.7MΩ
2.6mΩ
PSMN2R0-30YL
2.0mΩ
3.2mΩ
PSMN2R5-30YL
2.4mΩ
3.9mΩ
PSMN3R0-30YL
3.0mΩ
4.8mΩ
PSMN3R5-30YL
3.5mΩ
5.6mΩ
PSMN4R0-30YL
4.0mΩ
6.5mΩ
PSMN5R0-30YL
5.0mΩ
8.0mΩ
PSMN6R0-30YL
6.0mΩ
9.7mΩ
PSMN7R0-30YL
7.0mΩ
11.3mΩ
PSMN9R0-30YL
8.0mΩ
13.8mΩ
Lower IGBT switching losses save energy
IR's low-loss IGBTs are optimised for 20kHz operation,the most common switching frequency in solar installations.
Co-packaged with ultra-fast soft-recovery
diodes,the new family of IGBTs has lower
c
ollector-to-emitter saturation voltage
(V
CE(ON)
) and total switching energy (E
TS
)
than Punch-Through (PT) and Non-Punch-
Through (NPT) IGBTs.In addition,the internal
ultra-fast soft-recovery diode improves
efficiency and reduces EMI.
Saving 30%of the power lost normally
fromdomestic solar-energy converters
will significantly boost returns from
renewable energy,and designers can
nowachieve this using a newseries of
IGBTs fromInternational Rectifier.

APPLI CATI ONS

Voltage regulators

Motor control

Power ORing

Load switching

Li-ion battery protection

LED lighting controls
NXP
SEMI CONDUCTORS
Silicon and package enhancements
boost power-MOSFET performance
Product launch packs are
available.To apply for
your free pack,please
email info@my-ftm.com
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
16
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
LI TTELFUSE

FEATURES

PT devices use fourth-generation
fabrication technology

Fifth-generation NPT technology

Lowconduction losses
Among the new devices,the
GA100TS60SFPbF and GA200HS60S1PbF
are standard-speed Punch-Through
(PT) IGBTs optimised for maximum
efficiency in hard-switching applications
up to 1kHz.
There are also six ultra-fast devices
optimised for use at higher operating
frequencies.All are delivered as modules
co-packaged with HEXFRED® ultra-soft-
recovery anti-parallel diodes for use in
bridge configurations.Three punch-through IGBTs
feature tight parameter distribution and
high efficiency to operate from8kHz to
60kHz in hard-switching applications
and above 200kHz in resonant mode.
In applications requiring short-circuit
capability,three ultra-fast Non-Punch-
Through (NPT) IGBTs are capable of
withstanding short-circuit conditions up
to 10µs duration in hard-switching
circuits operating from8kHz to 60kHz.
All devices are delivered in the
industry-standard Int-A-Pak package
using Direct Bonded Copper (DBC)
construction,which achieves low
thermal resistance and enables direct
heatsink connection for thermally-
efficient systemdesign.
27
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090327
28
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090328

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial welding equipment

SMPS

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

Solar inverters

Motor drives
Littelfuse has increased the blocking
voltage and dV/dt immunity of popular
thyristors and triacs by a factor of five,
to deliver improved activation stability,
greater false-triggering protection and
higher transient survival for high-stress
or high-reliability applications.
In total there are four newfamilies of Enhanced-
V
ersion (EV) Teccore-brand devices,including
0.8A and 1.5A thyristors and 0.8A and 1.0A triacs.
With rated blocking voltages up to 800V and
static dV/dt at least 75V/µs,these devices not
only provide improved load protection but also
have higher resistance to failure mechanisms
such as permanent short circuits caused by high-
speed voltage transients.
The maximumturn-on time is also significantly
reduced,with values as lowas 25µs in some
variants.In applications such as ground-fault
circuit interruption,fast turn-on time helps to
ensure proper operation of the associated
electro-mechanical breaker.
The enhanced
switching characteristics
of the EV devices also
minimise the need for
t
he snubber resistor
and capacitor often
added across the main
terminals of thyristors
or triacs with low dV/dt.
These help to ensure
proper protection of
the load,but can now
be avoided in many
a
pplications by using
EV-series devices.

FEATURES

Four families available:
0.8A thyristors:SxX8xSx EV
1.5A thyristors:Sx02xS EV
0.8A triacs:LX8 EV
1.0A triacs:L01 EV

Full range of gate sensitivities

Pin-compatible with popular models
already in use

APPLI CATI ONS

Fault-detection circuits

Direct-spark ignition systems

Control boards for solenoids,valves,pumps

Heater controls

Low-power motor controllers
T
he Teccore range nowoffers extra choice and more rugged devices.
Designers usingIGBTs inhard-switching
or resonant topologies canmatch
transistor characteristics toapplication
requirements by selectingfromVishay’s
latest range of eight devices spanning
current ratings from75Ato200Aand
voltages from600Vto1200V.
Part
number
Speed
Technology
Voltage
Current
rating
V
CE(ON)
(typical)
GA100TS60SFPbF
Standard
Generation 4 PT
600V
100A
1.39V
GA200HS60S1PbF
Standard
Generation 4 PT
600V
200A
1.13V
GA200TS60UPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 4 PT
600V
200A
1.74V
GA75TS120UPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 4 PT
1200V
75A
2.5V
GA100TS120UPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 4 PT
1200V
100A
2.25V
GB100TS60NPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 5 NPT
600V
100A
2.6V
GB150TS60NPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 5 NPT
600V
150A
2.64V
GB200TS60NPbF
Ultra-fast
Generation 5 NPT
600V
200A
2.6V
IGBT families support application-optimised design
VI SHAY
Latest-generation IGBT fabrication and packaging boost speed,ruggedness
and maximumratings.
Increase protectionandboost reliability withenhanced
thyristors andtriacs
29
info@my-ftm.com
￿
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
18
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
E
XAR
FAI RCHI LD
SEMI CONDUCTOR
Fast-recovery diodes boost PFC performance in high-power LEDlighting

FEATURES

High reverse voltage

High reliability

Lowstored charge

Avalanche-energy rated
Normally,a boost-PFC stage is inserted
between the line input and the LED power
controller to prevent interference being put
onto the supply line.Fast-recovery diodes
are needed to reduce EMI and save MOSFET
switching losses in the boost PFC,and
Fairchild’s two diode families enable the
most cost-effective solution at low or high
power levels.
For applications up to 200W,where
Boundary Conduction Mode (BCM) PFC is
preferred,the FFPxxH60S Hyperfast II diodes
have the lowest possible
forward voltage to
minimise conduction
losses.Reverse-recovery
time up to 45ns is ideal for
BCM circuits,where fast
and soft reverse-recovery is
not needed.
Continuous Conduction
Mode (CCM) is employed
at higher power ratings,
and requires fast reverse-
recovery and soft-recovery
characteristics to reduce
MOSFET switching losses
and EMI.Fairchild’s
FFPxxS60S STEALTH II
diodes are the optimum
choice for CCM PFC,
offering faster reverse-
recovery time and 2.6V
forward voltage.
30
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090330
31
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090331

APPLI CATI ONS

PFC for LED lighting

Freewheeling diode for motor drives

Power-switching circuits

General SMPS
T
he SP7662 synchronous buck
r
egulator,fromExar,delivers 12A at
o
ver 93% conversion efficiency
w
ithin less than 7cm
2
o
f board space,
r
esulting in the highest power
d
ensity in its class.
Buck regulators deliver up to 12A for best-in-class power density
Two further devices,the 3A SP7661 and 6A
SP7663,are also available as part of Exar’s
PowerBlox™ regulator family,and share a
common architecture allowing engineers to
meet varying load requirements.All devices
are packaged in a thermally-enhanced DFN
package and feature single-supply operation
with a wide input-voltage range of 4.5V to
22V.Compatibility with type-II or type-III
compensation allows designers more
freedom when selecting the output
capacitor.
All three devices have an internal
r
egulator,which allows use with a loosely-
regulated input from a supply such as a
rectified AC transformer or Intermediate Bus
Converter (IBC).With an accurate ±0.8V
reference and features enabling various
sequencing configurations,the SP7661,

FEATURES

PWMvoltage-mode architecture

Built-in low on-resistance power switches

300kHz fixed-frequency operation

Programmable soft start

Fast transient response

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial systems

Telecomcards

POL converters

Low-cost POLA™-module alternative
As power LEDs penetrate lighting
applications fromroomlighting all the
way to street lamps rated above 300W,
those above 25Wrequiring mandatory
PFC can use Fairchild Semiconductor’s
STEALTH™ II and Hyperfast II diodes for
optimumefficiency.
Product
Maximum
voltage
Average
current
Peak
current
Maximum
forward
voltage
Maximum
reverse
voltage
FFP04S60S
600V
4A
40A
2.6V
25ns
FFP04H60S
600V
4A
40A
2.1V
40ns
FFP08S60S
600V
8A
60A
2.6V
30ns
FFP08H60S
600V
8A
60A
2.5V
45ns
FFP10H60S
600V
10A
100A
2.5V
45ns
FFP15S60S
600V
15A
150A
2.6V
35ns
FFP30S60S
600V
30A
300A
2.6V
40ns
The SP7662EB
is available to
members of the
Future BoardClub.
To apply for the development board,and
membership of the Board Club,go to
www.my-boardclub.com/manf-offers.htm
This offer is free and subject to qualification.
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
N
I
C
S
F
U
T
U
R
E
SP7662 and SP7663 can also be used to
power a variety of digital processors.Fault
protection includes output under-voltage
p
rotection and output over-current
protection,as well as hiccup mode to avoid
overheating.
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
19
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
VI SHAY
Thermal package unlocks
rectifier performance gains
33
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090333
The BU10xx,BU12xx,
BU15xx,BU20xx and
BU25xx series use the
22mm x 18.5mm x 4mm
BU package,which has
low thermal resistance
from junction to case.
Together with the
integrated,electrically-
isolated metallic heat
spreader,this package enhances cooling of
the die to allow continuous operation at
high ambient temperatures.At the same
time,the lead pitch and pin layout match
the conventional GBU package,thereby
allowing a wide range of bridge-rectifier
voltage and current ratings to share the
same PCB layout.
In total there are five current ratings,with
12A,15A and 20A versions also available.
Devices in all current ratings can be
specified for 600V,800V or 1000V maximum
reverse voltage,to satisfy diverse
requirements for applied voltage,desired
safety margin,and cost.These devices allow
engineers to optimise cost,size and
performance in rectifier-bridge circuits for
high-voltage power supplies,power inverters
and primary rectifiers.
LI TTELFUSE
By adding a thermal fuse within the
industry-standard 34mmoutline,
Littelfuse TMOV34S varistors save
board re-design to satisfy the latest
UL1449 specification.
Fused varistors ease transition to UL1449 3rd edition
UL1449 3rd edition requires any over-current
protection to be included in the
surge path.This may require
designers to move an existing fuse,
but the TMOV34S with integrated
fuse element delivers a faster and
easier solution.The two-pin devices
are direct replacements for standard
34mmvaristors,and also save
component and assembly costs
compared to existing circuits
featuring a separate fuse.
In addition to the direct-
replacement devices,the TMOV34S
family also includes three-pin versions
that provide an extra pin to indicate when the
element has opened.This can be connected to
neutral via an LED and series-resistor network
to produce a visual indication when the
element has opened and the circuit is no
l
onger protected by the MOV.
The family includes devices rated for voltages
from115 to 750V AC root mean square,
delivering fast and reliable disconnect
performance with surge-current protection up
to 40kA.
32
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090332

FEATURES

Outline and pad layout shared with
standard 34mmMOV

Meets ANSI/IEEE C 62.11 accelerated-
ageing test requirements

Recognised by UL under file no.E75901

APPLI CATI ONS

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

A
C power supplies

Transient-Voltage Surge-Suppression
(TVSS) modules

A
C-panel protection modules

Electrical service panels

Cellular base stations

APPLI CATI ONS

Primary rectification in telecompower
supplies

Appliance and HVAC power inverters

Induction heaters,domestic appliances
and white goods
Product
Forward
current
rating
Peak forward
surge current
Forward voltage
BU2506
25A
300A
0.87 V @12.5 A,125°C
BU2508
BU2510
BU2006
20A
240A
0.85 V @10 A,125°C
BU2008
BU2010
BU1506
15A
200A
0.87 V @7.5 A,125°C
BU1508
BU1510
BU1206
12A
150A
0.88 V @6 A,125°C
BU1208
BU1210
BU1006
10A
120A
0.88 V @5 A,125°C
BU1008
BU1010
Featuringa thermally-enhancedpackage,
Vishay PowerBridge™ rectifiers in
current ratings from10A to 25A have
smaller outline and reduced heatsink
requirements comparedtostandard
devices.
The TMOV34S delivers a drop-in solution to the challenge of upgrading to
U
L1449 compliance.
Enhanced PowerBridge rectifiers are direct replacements for standard GBU-packaged devices.

FEATURES

High current and voltage ratings

Lowforward voltage

5µA leakage current

150°C maximumjunction temperature
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
20
THE L ATEST TECHNOLOGI ES FROM FUTURE ELECTRONI CS
LI TTELFUSE
SIDACs step up to high-energy applications,to simplify ignition circuits
A SIDAC bi-directional thyrister diode
operates as a switch to discharge
accumulated capacitor energy,and the
Littelfuse High-Energy technology now allows
the use of large capacitors to generate higher
output currents suitable for direct-spark
ignition circuits.As well as saving cost and
complexity,High-Energy SIDACs also enhance
reliability in systems such as gas-ignition
circuits and strobe or discharge lighting.
Littelfuse High-Energy SIDACs are
engineered with repetitive peak-pulse-current
capability of 280A,which allows themto
deliver high output energy to the application.
Also,their high voltage stability at high
operating temperatures ensures predictable
firing-output energy.The choice of DO-15
axial,TO-92 radial or DO-214 surface-mount
packages eases design-in to a wide variety of
equipment types.

FEATURES

Wide range of switching voltages

Maximumoperating junction temperature:
125°C

Enhanced long-termreliability
As an important additional benefit in
ignition systems,High-Energy SIDACs have
unlimited lifetime compared to alternatives
such as Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT),which are
often rated to 10,000 discharge events or
fewer.
34
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090334
35
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090335

APPLI CATI ONS

Domestic and commercial cookers

Water heaters

Furnaces

Gas-fired barbecues

Emergency and security lighting

Entertainment lighting
The SS10PH9 and SS10PH10 are planar
Schottky diodes in a 3-lead TO-277A surface-
mount case measuring 6.5mm x 4.3mm x
1.1mm high.The package is thermally
enhanced,with
an over-sized cathode connection that
solders directly to the board for maximum
heat dissipation.In addition,a guard ring is
By replacing hybrid circuits for ignition
and switching applications,High-
Energy SIDAC switches fromLittelfuse
deliver a less complex and lower-cost
solution in a variety of appliance and
lighting applications.
Part number
Switching voltage
range
Blocking
voltage
Package
K2000GH
190V to 215V
180V
DO-15
K2000SH
190V to 215V
180V
DO-214
K2000EH70
190V to 215V
180V
TO-92
K2200GH
205V to 230V
180V
DO-15
K2200SH
205V to 230V
180V
DO-214
K2200EH70
205V to 230V
180V
TO-92
K2400GH
220V to 250V
190V
DO-15
K2400SH
220V to 250V
190V
DO-214
K2400EH70
220V to 250V
190V
TO-92
K2500GH
240V to 280V
200V
DO-15
K2500SH
240V to 280V
200V
DO-214
K2500EH70
240V to 280V
200V
TO-92
implemented for enhanced
over-voltage protection.
The soldering pad layout is
compatible with lower-
rated diodes in standard
packages,allowing direct
replacement with the
SS10PH9 or SS10PH10 for
h
igher performance when
upgrading existing board
designs.
Advantages of the planar
Schottky silicon technology
include low forward
voltage of 0.661V at 10A,
low leakage current of
0.3µA,and operation up to
a junction temperature of
175°C.

APPLI CATI ONS

High-frequency rectifier or SMPS

Freewheeling-diode circuits

DC/DC converters

Polarity protection
VI SHAY

FEATURES

200A peak forward-surge current rating

20mJ avalanche energy

Automotive-grade variants available

Halogen-free
With 10A current-handling capability
in 90V or 100V ratings,Vishay
SS10PH9 and SS10PH10 rectifiers
support higher current density in
power-control circuits for increased
performance and smaller size.
H
igher current density in standard package dimensions allows existing designs to be
upgraded quickly and easily.
10Arectifier diodes boost current densityinstandardformfactor
APPLI CATI ON SPOTLI GHT
21
FREE DEVELOPMENT KI TS AVAI LABLE AT WWW.MY- BOARDCLUB.COM
NXP
SEMI CONDUCTORS
37
info@my-ftm.com
￿
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090337
The BTA204X-600D has 5mA gate sensitivity
allowing direct connection to a MCU,while
the BTA204X-600E has 10mA sensitivity for
optimumcommutation performance when
used with low-power drivers.The BTA204X-
600F is optimised for higher gate-drive
conditions,with gate sensitivity of 25mA.
The devices are rated for maximumaverage
on-state current of 4A,and withstand up to
800V repetitive off-state voltage.
Three-quadrant triacs such as the BTA204X
deliver high resistance to false triggering,but
do not require external protection such as
the snubber circuit normally required with
conventional four-quadrant devices.Hence
they allow engineers to save part count and
component costs,improve reliability,and avoid
the potential for damage to the triac through
incorrect choice of snubber components.
The BTA204X triacs are delivered in the
industry-standard SOT186A (TO-220F) package,
supporting easy design-in.The all-plastic
package offers the lowest free-air thermal
resistance of 55K/W and allows convenient
clip or screw mounting to a heatsink.
F
AI RCHI LD
SEMI CONDUCTOR
The industry’s first power modules
optimised for two-phase Switched-
Reluctance Motors (SRM) allow40%
smaller motor drives for use in industrial
automation and small vehicles.
The Fairchild Semiconductor FCAS20DN60BB
and FCAS30DN60BB are 20Aand 30Amodules
integrating all necessary power components in a
45mmx 28mmSIP package.This allows the motor
drive to be incorporated within the SRMassembly
for improved design productivity and ease of
manufacturing,as well as smaller size.
Both modules contain four IGBTs and their
drivers,four fast-recovery diodes,two bootstrap
diodes and a thermistor.There is also a high-speed
built-in High-Voltage IC (HVIC),which contributes
to size savings by providing an
optocoupler-less IGBT gate driving
capability.The integrated HVIC
f
urther simplifies motor-drive
design by allowing a single-
grounded power supply to be
used.
With low-loss IGBTs matched to
optimised protection and drive
circuitry,on-chip system-control
functions,and all components fully
tested,high reliability is assured.
U
nder-Voltage Lock-out (UVLO) and
short-circuit protection are also
provided.The lowthermal
resistance and integrated heat
spreader of the thermally-
enhanced package also help to
boost the reliability of these
modules.
36
info@my-ftm.com
￿
W
EB
www.my-ftm.com/090336

APPLI CATI ONS

Industrial automation
(e.g.weaving machines)

Electric and industrial vehicles

Household and industrial vacuumcleaners

Food processors

FEATURES

Logic-compatible input interface

600V voltage rating

1500V package-isolation voltage

Fault pin for low-side supply

APPLI CATI ONS

Motor control

Highly-inductive loads

Solenoid valve controllers

Inductive coils

Pumps and dispensers

FEATURES

Pinning compatible with 4-quadrant triacs

27A non-repetitive peak on-state current

100A/µs maximumcurrent gradient after
switch-on

125°C maximumjunction temperature
Reliableswitchingwithlow-gate-drivetriacs
The BTA204x series is NXP’s latest generation of triacs
optimised for reliable commutation
The BTA204X families of sensitive-gate
three-quadrant triacs fromNXP
Semiconductors offer a variety of gate
sensitivities for reliable operation when
driven directly froma controller such as
an MCU.
First optimised power modules for switched-reluctance motors
deliver 40% footprint saving
TECHNI CAL VI EW
22
T HE L AT E ST T E CHNOL OGI E S F ROM F UT URE E L E CT RONI CS
High-capacity batteries for
handheld devices
Is the latest technology better thanits predecessors?
The features andperformance of mobile computingdevices are
advancingquickly tosatisfy demandingusers,thanks tothe
ingenuity of electronics engineers andcomputer scientists.The
batteries for these devices,however,are constrainedby higher
powers thancircuit design:physics andchemistry.Infeature-rich
devices,the properties of different battery technologies dictate
trade-offs betweensize andweight,features andusage,andthe
recharge interval.Noamount of clever electronics canalter this
fact.Samuel Payne,FAE,Future Electronics (Israel) explains.
Proper consideration of the battery and its operating environment will
help product developers to balance the combination of advantages and
disadvantages for their application,to maximise the performance of the end
product,and to prepare for future innovations as they become available.
Lithium-based battery technologies
For portable computing devices fitted with rechargeable batteries,there are
currently two dominant battery technologies.Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology
is the most popular and fastest growing,thanks mainly to its dominance in the
laptop computer market.Its advantages include high energy density and low
weight.However,safety-protection circuitry must be used to restrict voltage
and current.
Competing with these,Lithium-ion-Polymer (Li-Po) batteries benefit from
slimmer geometry and simple packaging.On the other hand,this technology
tends to impose a higher cost per Watt-hour.
*C is the capacity of the battery,expressed in mAh.The discharge current is expressed as a multiple of
C:hence a 1000mAh battery will supply 1000mAfor one hour,or 500mAfor two hours.Amaximum
discharge rating of 2C implies that the 1000mAh battery will safely supply 2000mAcontinuous
current.Short-term,pulsed currents can be higher.
Table 1 summarises the characteristics of these battery technologies,and
also includes an interesting comparison with Nickel-Cadmium(NiCd) batteries:
NiCd has a shorter charge time,delivers a higher load current and offers a
lower overall cost per cycle.This technology has,however,been banned since
September 2008 in applications other than emergency lighting,power tools,
and medical and military equipment.This puts it beyond the use of the
majority of handheld electronics products.
The properties of lithiummake it an ideal base for a battery technology.It is
the lightest of all metals,has the greatest electrochemical potential,and
provides the highest energy density by weight.Although metallic lithium
batteries proved difficult to develop,mainly due to safety problems,lithium
ions provide a non-metallic base displaying only slightly lower energy density
than lithiummetal but offering much greater safety.In fact,the energy density
of Li-ion technology is typically twice that of NiCd,while achieving similar
discharge performance.
Unlike most other technologies,Li-ion is a low-maintenance material.It has
no‘memory’,so users do not have to fully discharge the battery before
charging and no periodic deep discharge is required to prolong the battery’s
life.Usefully,a Li-ion battery’s energy level can be monitored and displayed to
the consumer in a‘fuel gauge’ display.In addition,self-discharge is less than
half that of NiCd.Another fact,increasingly important as the consumer market
more actively questions manufacturers’ environmental credentials,is that Li-ion
cells cause little harmwhen discarded.
Despite these many advantages,Li-ion
has some drawbacks.It requires additional
protection,for example,to maintain safe
operation.Protection measures include
limiting the peak voltage of each cell during
charging,and preventing the cell voltage
fromfalling too lowon discharge.The
maximumdischarge current on most packs
is up to 2C* in continuous current discharge
mode,and higher when pulsed.
Akey consideration in the design process
is operating lifetime.In Li-ion batteries,useful
life in normal operating conditions is
determined by the number of charge/
discharge cycles.The manufacturer’s
technical data will specify the correlation
between number of cycles and any
deterioration in capacity,to allowthe design
engineer to calculate the probable lifetime
of the battery in any given application.

READ THI S TO FI ND OUT ABOUT:

Properties of battery technologies

Low-profile batteries

Battery selection at product design
Table 1:Comparison of major portable battery technologies.
Fig.1:The industry-standard 18650
cylindrical battery is the basic building
block for Li-ion battery packs.
TECHNI CAL VI EW
Li-ion batteries are available commercially in a
number of formats and formfactors.For applications
which do not require an ultra-thin geometry,the
industry-standard 18650 cylindrical format (see Figure 1)
offers a low cost-to-energy ratio.Each unit is
approximately 18mmin diameter and 65mmin length.
An example of an 18650 battery is the Varta LIC18650-(x)
family,which offers nominal energy capacities of
2200mAh,2400mAh and 2600mAh,and can be built
economically into battery packs for devices such as
laptop PCs,medical and navigation equipment.
To answer designers’ requirements for a lower-profile
solution,Prismatic Li-ion cells are available in flat
packages.These can be as thin as 4.3mm.The Varta LPP
402025,which has a footprint of 22.5mmx 20.5mm,is
one such.These reduced dimensions hurt energy
storage,however:the LPP 402025 has nominal
capacity of 150mAh.The cost per mAh is also higher.
Li-ion,then,is a mature and proven technology
which can be reliably used in consumer applications,
but which offers severely limited energy capacity when
made in low-profile packages.
Li-Po for high capacity and lowprofile
Li-Po is a newer technology which has emerged to compete with Li-ion
in low-profile applications.It is much easier to make low-profile Li-Po
cells than their Li-ion equivalents.Li-Po batteries are also light in
weight (see Figure 2).
The PoLiFlex line of Li-Po cells available fromVarta comes in package
sizes as thin as 2.2mm.This gives the designer great flexibility to
determine the dimensions,shape and enclosure design of a handheld
product.
In both practical and marketing terms,the thinness of Li-Po technology
is by far its greatest attraction.At the same time,the Li-Po products on the
market today offer slightly lower energy density than standard Li-ion cells,
and are more expensive.This has limited their appeal,and has resulted in
slower market growth than some analysts had predicted when the
technology first emerged commercially in the 1970s.The technology is
ideal,however,when thin geometries are required,such as in batteries for
mobile phones and portable media players.
Effective battery selection process
By analysing the chemistry and relative merits of Li-ion and Li-Po
admtechnologies,engineers are able to make broad-brush design
decisions based on parameters such as size,capacity and cost.However,
to fine-tune battery selection to align with more detailed considerations
such as discharging conditions,operating/storage temperatures and
©Copyright 2009 Future Electronics Ltd.All trademarks contained herein are the property of
their respective owners.All applications for samples,badge boards,demo kits and other
advertised materials fromFuture Electronics are subject to qualification.
WEB
www.my-ftm.com/090338
charger design,close co-operation with a knowledgeable supplier is
r
ecommended.
Figure 3 shows a comprehensive checklist that battery specialists will
expect to complete when assessing the needs of a particular application.
Completing this checklist for a given project will help engineers to
communicate their requirements accurately and thereby achieve a
superior solution.The size of the checklist shows the scope for a battery
expert to contribute to the evaluation process of the non-specialist.
H
owbattery technology is evolving
In the domain of Li-ion technology,a number of important advances have
been achieved in recent years.As an example,using nano-phosphate
m
aterials within the cathode has increased the power density in W/kg of
commercially available Li-ion batteries.The cell can be continuously
discharged to 100%depth-of-discharge at 35C and can endure discharge
pulses as high as 100C.In such phosphate-based systems,the nominal
voltage of 3.3V/cell and peak charge voltage of 3.6V are lower than for
other technologies.
Another cathode technology offering interesting properties is lithium-
iron-phosphate (LFP),which offers enhanced safety as one of its main
benefits,although cost remains relatively high.
Conclusion
Rarely,in the world of electronics,does a mature product resist attack
fromnewer technologies.Li-ion is an exception.The appeal of Li-Po looks
set to remain limited to niches that require ultra-thin geometries,due to
its capacity and cost drawbacks compared to Li-ion.Indeed,as the
industry’s success with nano-phosphates shows,the most significant
technology advances in batteries for handheld devices seemto be
those which build upon,rather than replace,Li-ion.
Fig.2:For a slimprofile with high energy capacity,a Li-Po battery such as Varta PoLiFlex is
i
ncreasingly the technology of choice.
38
info@my-ftm.com
￿
Fig.3:Battery selection depends on more factors than many would realise,and specialist knowledge can be helpful to
make the right decision.
Save more power.
Expend less energy.
Energy conservation is a global concern,and power engineers face
increasingly difficult design challenges.That’s why Fairchild—The Power
Franchise
®
—is committed to providing the industry’s most comprehensive
portfolio of power components and support services.
From power analog,power discrete,integrated power modules and
optoelectronic products to online tools,FAEs and regional centers staffed by
experienced power engineers,we have everything you need to minimize
energy consumption in power-sensitive applications.Now both your design
and your time are energy-efficient.
Your engineering resource for energy-efficient solutions.
Power Factor Correction
PFC Controllers • PFC/PWM Combo Controllers
Low-Side Gate Drivers • MOSFET/IGBT Switches
Isolated DC-DC
PWM Controllers • MOSFETs
Integrated Power Switches (FPS

) • HVICs
Low-Side/Sync Rectifier Gate Drivers
Optically Isolated Error Amplifiers
Integrated Power Modules (SPM
®
)
Non-Isolated DC-DC
Multi-Phase PWM Controllers • MOSFETs
Integrated Switching Regulators • DrMOS
Saving our world,1mW at a time

39
info@my-ftm.com
￿