Thursday, November 11: Keynote Address Right to Know: A New Educational Order

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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Thursday, November 11:
Keynote Address

Right to Know: A New Educational Order


10:30 Room ED 129

Dr. John Willinsky (Stanford University School of Education)

The greatest educational point of change over the last decade has been the quantity a
nd quality of
knowledge that is now available, in varying degrees, to every student and adult of a global scale. We are
now all potential educational citizens of a world defined by the state of this shared knowledge. This
presentation will examine the righ
ts and responsibilities of citizenship within a new world (of knowledge)
order, and the contribution that education systems might make to such a world.


Thursday, November 11:
Session 1a

Studies in Global Citizenship


ED 165

om]ing Canadian: Strengthening Shared C

Karen Sy de Jesus (Simon Fraser University)

Globalization and its attendant ripples have been expanding and generating changes in our societies and in
our daily lives. The facility with which it has e
nabled the movement of goods, capital and people is
apparent in the ways our communities are changing. As the faces of Canadians change with the growing
diversity, what are the implications on our communities? What does it mean to share citizenship in t
middle of diversity?

This paper will look specifically into the phenomenon of the Chinese transnational of the Canadian
society. The emergence of this group of Canadians since the 1980s will be explored in the light of their
role in the Canadian soci
ety. Who are they and how did their circumstances come about? How did they
come to choose Canada and what has been the effect on the communities? Finally, how do they become

Drawing from interdisciplinary work on postmodern and postcolonial

studies, this study will examine the
experiences of the Chinese transnationals undergoing the process of becoming Canadian by negotiating
their Otherness and living their multiplicities. I hope this exploration will contribute to the possibilities
and ba
rriers to becoming Canadian and to the promise of sharing citizenship across diversities.

Global Citizenship, Learning, Complexity Theory and Narrative Theory

Andy Rathbone (University of Alberta)

Botkin, Elmandira and Malitza (1979) describe lost o
pportunities for learning by failing to understand how
we, as members of a global society, effect our environment. My research addresses this complexity of
learning as global citizens using narrative identity, the learning organization, and organic solidar
ity as
nested open systems. Complexity theory involves the interaction of systems, moving away from simple
cause and effect relationships (closed systems) to open systems where interaction with the environment is
considered (Von Bertalanffy, 1968). Von Be
rtalanffy defines systems as “a set of elements standing in
interrelations” (p. 55), and stresses the importance of patterns of interaction over the analysis of the parts.

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Deconstructing, Engaging and Reconstructing Global Citizenship D

Shelane Jorgenson (University of Alberta)

What does it mean to educate for global citizenship? Over the past few decades, a bro
ad range of activities
across educational sectors has been described as developing or educating students for global citizenship.
This trend has corresponded to a proliferation of programs that send university students abroad to work,
study and most commonl
y volunteer in contexts considered part of the ‘Third World’. As a repercussion of
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‘competencies’ to better compete for work in the global economy. In light of global citizenship education
becoming a neutralized concept or “container” (Shultz, 2011, p. 1) to connote a variety of discourses and
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portant discern and clarify the multiple and often competing discourses that inform one’s
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ip and corresponding educational practices in which everyone participates instead of ‘being
participated’ (Mignolo, 2000).

Global Citizenship vs. Rural Albertan B

Csang Ghimn (Maskwachees Cultural College)

proposed abstract

originates f
rom my two
local instruction. P

residents against the sale
land to build a mosque, Bonnyville councillors recently flipped their

vote. Some
questions arise;
Was it
caused by

the 90 percent discount rate which might

“any church” into

about Muslims in

who had already said “no” or its feuding regional Bonnyville municipal district? <3> Are they known

(not exactly since W
hites, Blacks and Yellows follow Islamic values equally) or just a “small town
[…] four hours Northeast of Edmonton” as the federal/national media depicted them? <4> Will critical
e摵da瑩潮⁢o⁰潳獩扬攠bor⁶楲瑵 汬y 湧潩獴楣

Cold Lake that hosts Canada’s
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猠湩g桴ha牥 晲潭⁨慰oe湩湧n


Thursday, November 11:
Session 1b

Citizenship Education Curriculum


12:30 Room


Reverberating Echoes: Challenging Teacher Candidates to Tell and Learn from Entwined Narrations of
Canadian H

Kent den Heye
r (University of Alberta) & Laurence Abbott (University of Alberta)

Among the critical challenges confronting teacher educators is helping their students to identify
perspectives that depart from dominant historical narratives of a Nation
State’s develop
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dden curricula, they begin to appreciate the capacity of ‘our’
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‘others’ living amongst ‘us’. In our paper, we examine the nature of this challenge bot
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睥⁨ 癥⁢ee渠瑡ng桴h

Perspectives, Practices, and Pedagogues of Global Citizenship in Urban Secondary Schools in Delhi, In

Tejwant Chana (University of Alberta)

Abstract not included

Empowering Teachers in the Public System in Brazil T
hrough New


Brazil/Canada Project
for Professional Development

Daniela Nascimento (University of Alberta)

I taught in the
public education system in Brazil for many years before moving to Canada. Inspired by the
challenges I faced as a teacher, I developed a volunteer educational Project called NewClassroom Project.
The main goal of this project was to listen to the local tea
chers’ needs in terms of pedagogic support such as
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work has been strongly influenced by Paulo Freire’s dialogue approach and the relationship of the opp

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橵獴楣i⁴桲潵 栠e摵da瑩潮

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The research program aimed to improve the quality of teaching in public

schools in Piaui State, Brazil

using a practical curriculum where the facilitator used a dialogue Freirian approach (Freire, P. 1970). It
provided the teachers the opportunity to exercise their teaching abilities and creativity in order to help them

build their self
confidence. They also discussed and shared their teaching experiences in the classroom
focusing on the multicultural teaching experiences between Canadians and Brazilian teachers.

The study is significant in what it brought a new underst
anding of the internal and external factors that
influence teaching performance in the Brazilian public schools. The information gained in the research may
provide the knowledge needed to further improve or develop effective professional development progra
in Brazil. The presentation will be focused on the outcomes of this research and how a professional
development program like “NewClassroom

Brazil/Canada Project for Professional Development” can
l culture and respecting previous local teachers’

Citizenship Education as Enacted Within the Curricula of Two J
ictions: Hungary and Hong Kong
Plus a Discussion of the Field Within Structural R

Lydia Pungur (University

of Alberta)

There is no uniform manner to teach “citizenship education.” Political and geographical contexts have
diverse methods to address it. This paper traces the history of citizenship from classical Greece, to “post
modern history,” to current lit
erature on the matter for contextual purposes. “Global citizenship education,”
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搠瑨攠dea汩ty映 e潬o扥牡汩獭s
and existing state structures that act as gates against “cosmopolitan citizenship.” This paper explores: 1) the
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Thursday, November 11:
on 1c

Community Organization Presentation:


12:30 Room
ED 158

Education’s Impact on Individual, Collective, and Systemic Change of Racism and Cultural I

Charlene Hay

(Centre for Race and Culture) and the Keshotu Leadership Academy


Centre for Race and Culture's (CRC) early roots began in the education sector, working closely with
teachers, administrators and post
secondary institutions to bring racial and cultural harmony into the
classroom setting.

CRC's resources help students of

any age see the big picture

to bring racial harmony
closer to home. Part of CRC's mission is to work towards the goals of eliminating racism, racial
discrimination, and racially motivated violence in northern Alberta and has done so since 1993.

CRC ha
fostered racial harmony and cultural inclusion through:

Education: teaching Albertans about racial prejudice and discrimination through seminars, workshops,
conferences and public forums.

Skills development: helping leaders and professionals learn more

about culture and race, and how they
affect the workplace, classroom and community.

Research: studying racism and sharing new insights into developments and trends in cultural and racial
inclusion across Alberta and Canada.

Social change:

helping org
anizations and communities learn more about systemic discrimination and
removing barriers for clients, customers and staff.

Utilizing these tools along with policy and program development, CRC promotes and supports individual,
collective, and systemic ch
ange and offers strategies to deal with the in
face realities of today's
classrooms, workplaces and communities, such as racism and intolerance in our multi
ethnic, multi
schools and communities.


Thursday, November 11:
Poster Session

1:00 to

00 Atrium, Main floor Education Building

Training Online Intergroup Dial
ogue Facilitators: Integrating Cultural Competency for Effective Cross
border F

Mari Ng Mizobe (Simon Fraser University)

This poster will present research on the n
eeds for, and possibilities of, integrating cultural competency
components into an existing training program for online intergroup dialogue facilitators. I use Soliya´s
Connect Program for analysis. A partner of the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations
, Soliya is a non
profit educational organization that brings together university students from across the globe in an online
intergroup dialogue program, in order to increase understanding between students whose cultural bases are
in "predominantly Muslim

societies" and those whose bases are in "Western societies." This program,
called the Connect Program, uses new technologies and innovative teaching
learning methods that
challenge existing notions of citizenship, identity, and participatory decision
ng. It seeks to empower
young adults with the knowledge, skills and relationships to become positive change agents in their
communities. This poster will discuss theories regarding intergroup dialogue, facilitation and cultural
competency, as well as the f
indings from interviews with current Soliya facilitators. Based on the
theoretical framework and interview results, this poster will suggest areas where additional material,
focused on developing and deepening facilitators

Rotary International: D

Global C

Jessica Scalzo (University of Alberta)

Rotary International (RI) is known throughout the world for its work in promoting peace, alleviating
hunger, providing education, and improving health and sanitation. Founded in 1905 it is now

served by
33,000 clubs worldwide and is supported by more than 1.2 million Rotarians and is found in more than 200
countries and geographical regions. RI’s various projects range from the small (constructing water wells) to
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Guided by the motto “Service Above Self”, and directed by the Four Way Test (1. Is it the truth? 2. Is it fair
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o潴慲y f湴e牮r瑩潮o氠
seeks to “... provide service to others, promote integrity, and advance world

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Bridging the Gap: Educational Cultural Brokers Supporting the Mental Health of Refugee Y

Novjyot Brar (University of Alberta) & Sophie Yohani (University of Alberta)

High rates of anxiety, depression and
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are found among refugee
youth (Ehntholt & Yule, 2006; Ellis, MacDonald, Lincoln, & Cabral, 2008). The purpose of this study was
to explore the ways in which educational cultural brokers support the psychological well
eing of refugee
youth. A qualitative case study (Merriam, 2009) informed the study design. Four cultural brokers and three
mental health practitioners were interviewed. Two meta
themes, informal supports and formal supports,
emerged from the thematic analy
sis. The sub
themes that represented informal supports were: (1)
Facilitating Cultural Integration and Sense of Belonging, (2) Bridging to Settlement Services, and (3)
Providing Supportive Counselling. The sub
themes for formal supports were: (1) Facilitat
ing Referrals, (2)
Educating, (3) Providing Contextual Information, and (4) Providing Cultural Interpretation. The clinical
implications of this research and policy recommendations are discussed.

Student Engagement (Voice) as P
art of Educating for Demo
cratic Citizenship

Ted Paszek (University of Alberta)

In democratic societies, schools are intended to play an important part in the creation of democratically
inclined citizens. The teacher has a central role in developing democratic citizenship not on
ly by delivering
a curriculum but also by engaging learners in a curriculum of life. In my research, teacher participants
express the need to develop and nurture student voice. It is in the practice of genuine experiences where
students have an opportuni
ty to express themselves in a safe environment where democratic skills of civic
engagement are developed. The development of voice also requires the development of deep listening.
Voice is an essential part of democracy.

Roots, Shoots and Budding Leav
es: Reflecting on Initiatives and Prospects of the Global Education Team

Ayesha Mian, Alexis Hillyard, Jill Metcalfe (University of Alberta)

The Global Education Team (GET) is a group of passionate graduate and undergraduate students at the
University of

Alberta committed to promoting and practicing global education for social justice. A branch
of the Centre for Global Citizenship Education and Research (CGCER), GET works collaboratively with
higher educational practitioners, community educators and teach
ers to create a vibrant socially active

This poster highlights the journeys of past and present team members working on various projects,
academic presentations, and awareness issues through the years. Students join the team with unique
ounds and interests but they all hope to explore and understand the role of education in local and
global awareness of peace, equality, equity, human rights, and environmental justice. Fuelled by passion,
enthusiasm and a sense of community, these students

aspire to
heighten their awareness and understanding
of citizenship education issues in the hopes of achieving global and local social change.

Citizenship Education and Youth Engagement in Kenyan P

James Alan Oloo (University of Saskatchewan)

The median age of Kenya’s


is 19 years. The country has often experienced ethnic tension and
violence during general elections especially in urban areas. Since 1963, successive Kenya governments


have emphasized the importance of national unity.

This has led to the inclusion of citizenship education in
grades K to 12 education curriculum. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of citizenship
education on political engagement of Kenyan youth aged 18
24 years.
Research questions tha
t will guide
this study include: what does it mean to be a Kenyan citizen? How does citizenship education within the K
12 impact your involvement in politics? What are your roles and responsibilities as a Kenyan?

I will collect and analyze data

structured interviews and a
thematic analysis

to identify emerging
categories and themes. I will employ a
conceptual framework, grounded in the socio
cultural perspective, to
address the issue of how citizen education as offered in the K
12 curriculum aff
ects youth engagement in
Kenyan politics.
The study will provide a unique insight into how citizenship education influences political
engagement among Kenyan youth.

Rural vs. Urban: A Critique of China’s Secondary School English Curriculum

Kai (Kylie)
Yang (University of Alberta)

In China today there is a growing gap between the quality of living experienced by those in costal cities and
manufacturing centers, and rural areas. This study examines qualitative factors that hinder the advancement
of Engl
ish language instructional quality in the mainland Chinese Secondary education system. To meet this
object a comprehensive literature review, as well as reflections from my own teaching practice were
integrated. A critical overview is provided of varied di
fficulties experienced by Chinese English language
instructors in implementing their administrative and curricular goals. Emphasis is placed on the rural and
urban divide in attention given by the government, as well as gaps in funding, academic credential
s of
qualified professionals, and disparities in classroom resources. In addition, there are related issues
surrounding how to develop enthusiasm for English, while at the same time there are different levels of
need, in respect to the overall utility of t
he language, for non
Han minority students living in certain regions
of China. This study concluded with recommendations for addressing the identified problems and
improving both the relevance and effectiveness of the Chinese ELT system. These difficulties

are discussed
through an analysis of both inherent and external environmental factors.

The Vulgar Notion of a Canadian Popular Press

Jan Lukas Buterman (University of Alberta)

The practice of mainstream journalism frequently asserts the ideals of ob

balance or neutrality, implying that by adhering to such ideals a media property such as a newspaper
establishes a public space or forum that reflects the populace. However, modern mainstream media
properties are typically owned by corporations

with multiple holdings rather than independent presses
solely located within a specific community or region. Viewed through the lens of elite theory, I suggest that
the delineation of Canada's mainstream print media ownership points towards a conflict bet
ween the
idealized practice of journalism and the situated reality of concentrated corporate ownership.

Russia: Education Reforms in the New Market Economy

Vera Jbanova (University of Alberta)

This work is an overview of the situation with educational

policy creation and implementation in present
time Russia. It aims to answer two questions: 1) How is society involved in the policy creation (how open
and democratic the process is)? 2) What are the possible long
term outcomes of these reforms? Cultur


and historical background of the educational system is examined, as well as the influence of external forces
on the national policy making. The need for educational reforms emerged after the collapse of the Soviet
Union in 1991, as free
market economy a
nd democracy were declared state directions and goals. Although
the educational system that was built during Soviet Union times worked for some time after 1991,
insufficient funding in uncertain economy times caused ineffectiveness, and often inaccessibili
ty of
educational process. The result of those years of neglect is clearly seen today, and demands for action to
restore effective and stable educational system in the country. After 1991 Russia became an "open" state,
subjected to the influences of inter
national organizations and agreements. In order to be competitive on the
world market, improve its economy, and provide wider educational and professional opportunities to its
citizens, educational policies are constantly under review. The latest policy on

transition to levelled higher
education system is discussed.

A Critical E
ngagement with
Global Education Discourses: A Postcolonial Analysis of Educators'

Alexis Hillyard (University of Alberta)

Across the Canadian educational landscape,
Global Education is a phenomenon growing in popularity and
practice. Although Global Education mandates have received attention in curricula throughout the country,
Global Education programs are implemented inconsistently and sporadically. Consequently, th
ere are many
diverse rationales and ideological underpinnings for Global Education that remain unproblematized. This
paper discusses the findings of a small
scale qualitative study involving teacher beliefs about Global
Education. The relationship between
teacher beliefs and attitudes and their own philosophies of Global
Education, and how these beliefs are linked to reinforcing or dismantling colonial discourses, is explored.
Using a postcolonial lens, this study seeks to “honestly examine the intellectual

and ideological traditions”
⡊潨湳潮Ⱐㄹ㤳Ⱐ瀮″⤠潦⁇汯扡氠䕤畣a瑩潮⁡湤⁴漠摩獲異琠慮y e汥浥湴猠n桡t y⁲e
楮獣物扥潴 潮猠潦o
western superiority and reinforce the ‘us/them’ binary. Postcolonialism, in this study, is used as a
me搠d琠數ca癡瑩ng⁤潭 湡湴⁅畲潣e湴物n⁴桥 物r猠s湤⁰nac瑩ce猠瑨a琠慲e⁴ e浳敬癥猠
“implicated in the long history of European colonialism” (Giroux, 1992, p. 20). As Willinsky (1998)
contends, “there is a need to examine education’s continuing contributions

瑯⁷桡琠睥牥 a湤⁷na琠t潮瑩湵n
to be colonizing divisions of the world” (p. 16). Through an exploration of teacher beliefs, practices, and
a瑴楴畤u猬⁴桩猠獴畤y⁨潰 猠瑯⁩湦潲洠灲m
獥牶楣e⁴ ac桥爠e摵da瑩潮⁰oog牡m献

How Long Will the IE Gold Rush L

Raymond Matthias (University of Alberta)

Beyond downturns in the global economy, what are other factors that might challenge the longevity of the
current IE gold rush?

At present, universities and colleges in western countries plan on recruiting ever
increasing numbers of international students.

But what of the students
are they getting what they
bargained for? Is international education playing the same role, and paying the same cultural dividends that
it did in the past?

Many students, especial
ly at the undergraduate level, are being sent overseas by parents who expect that
their children will reap the same rewards that internationally mobile individuals enjoyed in the past:
increased privilege, power and prestige.

At present, however, many int
ernational students graduate from
more sophisticated programs of study and find it difficult to find employment that meets their expectations
in both their host and home countries.

Will the challenges of current students move future cohorts to
consider ch
eaper educational alternatives closer to home?


Many of the North American gold rushes of the nineteenth century followed a pattern that shows some
parallels to the current situation: early arrivals endured intense physical hardship, but earned large fort
discovering 'surface' gold; latecomers, on the other hand, had more access to established systems of support,
yet made decreasing returns as they were forced to use more capital and labour
intensive mining

Regardless, the powerful narra
tive of the initial successes were enough to sustain successive
waves of hopeful prospectors who eventually lost money.

Will the International Education gold rush suffer
a similar crisis in the future?

Creating Discourse

Rabia Sheikh (University of Alb

The poster seeks to explore the representations of Muslims and how the groups have been excluded from
full citizenship. The approach towards Muslims starts from a point of contention creating the notion of
outsiders or foreigner who disrupt the civ
il, democratic and peaceful fabric of Canada therefore the
justification to mistrust the group is created. With this mindset, policies are created surrounding integration
of Muslims in Canadian society. This research explores the following questions: If Ca
nada has not been
able to come to a common understanding of participation for diverse groups then why are Muslims blamed
for not integrating?

If the act of citizenship is to create disruption in the social realm, how is it possible

for racialized groups
to create counter discourses or simply have the chance to explore their identity? What
are the structural foundations that need to be challenged to bring change?

Phantom Policy

Neda Asadi (University of Alberta)

There is a growing number of displaced
populations around the globe. According to the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refuges (2010), in 2006 the refugee population reached 10 million worldwide, and
this number grew to 15.2 million in 2008. Canada is one of the top five countries for refug
ee resettlement,
and Alberta is the fourth largest refugee
receiving province (Crowe, 2006). Refugees enter Canada with the
aspiration of a better life for themselves and their children. Education offers the best path for them to
achieve their goals and fo
r Canadian society to benefit from their vast potential. However, this has proven
to be a challenge given the past experiences of refugees, and, in particular, refugee youths. The United
Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund has called refugee yo
獰sc楡氠i瑴e湴n潮⁡猠s 牥獵汴映瑨 楲⁴牡畭慴楺楮i 晥⁥x灥物r湣e猠⡃牯EeⰠ㈰〶⤮⁒M灯牴猠潮⁴桥⁳畣ce獳⁲s瑥t
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㈰〰O⁩湤 ca瑥搠t 桩h栠
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c物浩湡氠慮搠gang⁡c瑩癩vy a湤n晵f瑨敲a扥汩ng映浩湯物ny
communities as a “growing problem” (Kanu,
㈰〷O⸠周K牥景feⰠ瑨e牥⁩ ⁡⁤楲  e搠瑯⁥獴慢汩獨⁡渠n摵da瑩潮o氠ly獴敭⁴桡t⁣a渠灲n癩摥v牥晵来e y潵o桳h

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摥晩f楥湣ie猠楮⁴桥⁥摵da瑩潮o氠ly獴敭⁴桡琠牥獵汴⁩渠楴猠晡楬畲u⁴漠 ee琠t桥ee摳映瑨楳⁶畬湥 a扬e


One Shot Yellow Fever, Three Sho
ts Ethics: Reflecting on the Ethics of International Engagement and
Service Learning

Wendy Loudon (University of Brit
ish Columbia),
W. Loudon, S. Radoff, K. Mitchell
Foster, T. Baldwin,
K. Markin, M. Whiteman, S. Dharamsi

The EIESL project was initiated in 2009 to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by University of British
Columbia students, staff and faculty as they
planned, participated in and/or reflected on their involvement
with international engagement or service learning (IESL) projects. IESL opportunities are an increasingly
popular way for UBC students, staff and faculty to augment their teaching and learning
experiences, in
with both UBC’s TREK 2010 and Place of Mind missions. There is growing concern within the UBC
c潭o畮楴y⁴桡琠f䕓i 灯牴畮楴楥猠i牥晴 渠ne楮g⁰畲獵e搠睩瑨潵d⁥瑨tcal⁰牥灡ra瑩潮Ⱐ灯瑥湴楡汬y 灬慣楮i

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䕓i⁴桲潵g栠a⁳ 物e猠潦s
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and offers a practical application through an easy to use “EIESL Kit”. This kit will be comprised of

a湤⁷楬n⁳畳 a楮⁴桥⁩ 灯牴p湴⁥瑨楣n氠摩a汯g略猠sr潵湤of䕓i a琠啂CK

The Aboriginal Perspective on Human Rights in Alberta

McFayden (University

of Alberta)

nal people disproportionately experience human rights violations

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ey 睡猠s潭o汥瑥搠dy
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Thursday, November 11:
Session 2a

Citizenship Education in th
e Context of Adult & Community Education


3:30 Room
ED 165

Exploring Shifts in Conceptions of ‘Good’ Citizenship: Community
Service Learning in Activist

Ayesha Mian (University of Alberta), Donna Chovanec (University of Alberta), Tani
a Kajner (University
of Alberta), Misty Underwood (University of Alberta)

Although a conception of “the good citizen” remains contested, Westheimer and Kahne (2004) have
outlined “Three Kinds of Citizens” typical in a democratic society: The Personally R
晲a浥mo牫⁷a猠a灰汩e搠楮⁡⁃潭d畮楴y⁓e牶楣e iea牮楮g
funded research project entitled “Community
pe牶楣e iea牮楮g⁡猠s物瑩ca氠
Pedagogy.” In a pre
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睩汬⁴桥⁲e獵汴猠潦⁴桩s⁳瑵dy⁩ 灡c琠t桥 c潵牳o a猠睥汬⁡猠晵瑵se 牥獥a牣栠h渠n楴楺e湳桩瀠p摵da瑩潮?

Community Organization Presentation:

g Citizens: The Challenges and Possibilities of P
g and Researching Public I

Fiona Cavanagh (Centre for Public Involvement)

This session will provide an overview of the newly established Centre for Public Involvement, a unique
partnership between the City of Edmonton, Office of Public Involv
ement and the University of Alberta,
Faculty of Extension. The aim of the Centre is to provide leadership in understanding and applying
innovative practices and new technologies for citizen participation, engagement, and deliberation.

This session will e
xamine concepts of citizenship, involving citizens on a municipal level, university
community partnerships, and the risk and potential of participatory projects and action research for cities
and beyond.


Building Citizenship: Engaged Scholarship as C

Tania Kajner (University of Alberta)

The conceptualization of engaged scholarship is a contested landscape. Viewed broadly as a form of
scholarship that brings university scholars and community members outside of academe together in an

to understand and act on issues of importance to community, the published literature on engagement
is for the most part dominated by instrumental approaches put forward by administrative leaders in higher
education. This literature emphasizes administrat
ive reform in order to encourage, measure, reward, and
institutionalize engaged scholarship. Within this framework, scholars are encouraged to be engaged both
locally and globally: contributing to efforts aimed at addressing the most pressing problems fac
communities. At the level of the scholar, however, engagement is a very personal and value driven
endeavour. It can be understood as a practice with enormous potential to expand and strengthen citizenship
through co
learning and to reshape the social
terrain in an inclusive and systemic manner. In this paper, I
will explore these competing understandings of engaged scholarship and, using the conceptual framework
of dialectics, investigate the extent to which engagement might contribute to citizenship e
ducation both
globally and locally.

Neoliberalism and Citizenship Education

Comparative S
tudy of Wielkopolska /Poland and

Celina Czech (University of Adam Mickiewicz)

In my paper, I will present findings of research for my PhD thesis r
egarding the influence of neoliberal
ideology on the programs of citizenship education in secondary schools in Wielkopolska in Poland and in
Ontario in Canada. Present global realities, such as interdependence among nation, immigration and post
sm, challenge past conceptions of citizenship education and demand one more appropriate to the
times. Despite challenges, citizenship education remains a relevant education and political category though
reformulated along the lines of neoliberal principles

of privatization, market rationality, and individual
responsibility. I outline the theory of “good citizen” presented by Joel Westheimer and Joseph Kahne
⠲〰E⤮F周楳q獴畤y e浰moyed a 浩xed

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day, November 11:
Session 2b

Citizenship Education Studies


3:30 Room
ED 158

Settlers, Sell
outs and Sons of the Soil: The Creation of Aliens in Zimbabwe and the Challenge for Higher

Munyaradzi Hwami (University of Alberta)

This pape
r argues that the nativist and Afro
radical policies of the Zimbabwean government have divided
the people. The slogan that Zimbabwe is for Zimbabweans has raised questions about who qualifies as a
Zimbabwean citizen. The ruling Zimbabwe African National Un
ion Patriotic Front (ZANU PF)
government’s ultra
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灡獴Ⱐ慮搠瑨s⁷ y⁩ ⁣潮瑩湵潵獬y⁳

Youth Participation and Citizenship in Nigeria

Eyene Okpanachi (University of Alberta)

The construction of citizenship depends crucially on political relations and active

participation by all types of social actors. Effective cit
izenship in turn can facilitate

robust collective action, which can yield more effective and better


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獴牵杧汥猠楮⁴桥⁣潵湴ry⸠周q⁰ 灥爠r楮慬iy⁥湤猠n
i瑨⁡⁳t琠潦畴畡汬y⁲e楮i潲o楮i 牭r瑩癥ⰠI浰m物ca氠慮搠
灲pc瑩ca氠牥c潭oe湤a瑩潮猠o漠扲楮o⁡扯畴⁡b牯扵獴⁳y湥rgy⁢ 瑷te渠y潵瑨o灡牴楣楰慴楯渠慮搠i渠ac瑩ve


Strategies for Improving Citizenship Education in Nigeria

Shina Olayiw
ola (University of Alberta)

Education is being considered as an instrument for ensuring desired social change by eradicating social
vices and abnormalities in the society. This underscores the inclusion of social studies and citizenship
education as a co
re school subject in the Nigerian National Policy in Education (2004) at the primary and
junior secondary school levels. The rationale is for values re
orientation and attitudinal change among the
students in the society. Despite this laudable effort, scho
lars such as (Omo
Ojugo, Ibhafidon, and Otote,
2009) examined the journey so far and concluded that poor awareness among students, teachers and general
public as regards citizenship education; and also appendaging of citizenship education to social studies

have contributed to ineffectiveness of citizenship education in Nigeria. This article addresses this problem
of ineffectiveness of citizenship education in a multicultural and multi
lingual society like Nigeria. It
therefore proposes for strategies such a
s policy formulation; democratic campaign among stakeholders;
participatory teaching methods and strategies such as inquiry, case studies, and using community resources;
and ultimately in
service training of teachers

so as to achieve national identity amon
g students and
promoting committed citizenship.

Deepening Democracy in Education: The Global Doing Democracy Research Project

David Zyngier (Monash University)

This international research project promotes the development and replication of research in
to the beliefs,
experiences and perspectives of those involved in school education in relation to democracy. At this time,
we have researchers working on the project in Canada, the USA, Italy, Belgium, Australia, Argentina,
Uruguay, Peru, Brazil, Greece, T
urkey, Israel, Cyprus and Lebanon. The research seeks to understrand

our educational systems encourage, support, and cultivate a democratic experience for students.

The debate over democracy in education could be characterized in terms of represe
ntative versus
participatory democracy, with the former highlighting electoral processes (thin), and the latter focusing on
critical engagement and social justice (thick) (Gandin & Apple, 2002). This paper reports on the
preliminary results of the Research

Group’s studies of pre
se牶楣e e摵da瑩潮⁳o畤u湴猠慮搠瑨n楲⁴iache牳⁩渠
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畮楶敲獩sy⁳瑵摥湴猠 漠畮摥牳瑡湤⁤n浯m牡cy a湤n灯汩瑩c猠楮⁡⁴桩渠睡y㬠㈩;瑨t

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桴hngⰠ楮⁰慲瑩c畬a爬⁷桡琠敤畣a瑯牳⁣a渠摯n瑯⁢散潭攠浯oe c物瑩捡汬y a睡re


Thursday, November 11:
Session 3a

Identity & Citizenship


5:15 ED 165

Toward Citizenship Education as Creating Educative Curriculum Situations for Chil
dren’s Identity

Kim Byung
Geuk (University of Alberta)

Drawing on Dewey’s (1938) view of education which highlights the importance of interaction and
c潮瑩湵楴yⰠf⁣潮獩摥爠r⁶楥i映 楴楺e湳桩瀠睨楣栠獥e猠sac栠h桩h搠楮d


睡y猠潦⁢s楮g⁡ g潯搠c楴楺e渠
扥y潮搠a⁰牥de瑥t浩湥搠癡汵敳⽶l牴略猠潲楥湴敤⁵湤n牳瑡湤楮g映 楴楺e湳桩瀮p

Be楮g⁡ware映 ⁰潳獩扩b楴y⁴

f⁷ 牫⁦牯r⁡ 牲a瑩癥⁵湤 牳ra湤楮n映eac栠c桩h搠楮

by⁡瑴e湤楮g⁴ ⁴桥⁣潭灬ex楴y a湤⁷桯ne湥獳映sac栠h桩hd
浡瑴敲映 楴楺e湳桩瀠p摵da瑩潮⁩猠a渠n癯汶v湧 牥灲e獥湴慴楯渠潦⁴桥楲⁥x灥物e湣e猠楮⁲e污瑩潮⁴漠瑨敩o畬瑩灬攠
c楴楺e湳桩瀠p猠s⁳畢 ec琠ta瑴er

⸠䅳Kf co湣e楶攠
瑨攠獵扪tc琠ta瑴e爠潦 c楴i
ze湳桩瀠p摵da瑩潮⁡猠瑨攠e癯汶v湧⁲ p牥獥湴慴楯渠潦⁴桥楲⁥x灥物r湣e猠楮⁲e污l楯渠i漠
瑨敩t畬瑩灬攠汩晥⁣潮瑥ot猬sf a摯灴⁡⁳瑯物d搠d潮ce灴映楤敮瑩py


eg楮湩湧 睩瑨⁡⁶楥眠潦⁣楴楺e湳桩瀠瑨慴⁳pe猠sac栠h桩h搠楮d

浵m瑩灬攠汩晥⁣潮瑥o瑳爠t潣楥瑩敳Ⱐf晦e爠r c潮oe灴畡汩p
ation of citizenship education as children’s identity
浡歩湧⸠f⁳ee⁴桩猠潣cu牲i湧⁷楴桩渠n畲物r畬畭⁳楴畡瑩潮猠睨o牥 c桩h摲d渠nnga来⁴桥楲睮⁳瑯物 猠
潦o睨漠瑨wy⁡牥⁩渠 桥楲畬瑩灬攠汩晥⁣潮瑥o瑳⁡猠獵扪ect



Interpretative Study of the Purposes of London Islamic School

Asma Ahmed (University of Western Ontario)

This thesis explores the purposes of Islamic schools with specific reference to the London Islamic School
[LIS] in London, Onta
rio. Drawing mainly on Ramadan’s (1999) integrative and post integrative framework
and Coleman’s social capital theory, the thesis focuses on Ramadan’s question of how “milestones” can be
灲潶楤p搠睨楣栠睯畬搠桥汰ly潵og⁍畳 業猠晩湤⁴桥楲⁷ y⁩渠 桥潤 牮

a灰牯pc栠瑯h条瑨敲楮g⁤ taⰠ瑨攠Iesearc桥爠c潮摵ote搠d⁴潴a氠潦′㜠楮le牶楥w猠睩瑨⁣畲牥湴⁳n畤u湴猬n
gra摵d瑥猠潦 䱉pⰠ灡re湴猠潦⁣畲ue湴⁳n畤u湴猬⁰a牥湴猠潦⁧ra摵d瑥猬⁴tache牳ⰠI摭d湩獴牡瑯牳⁡湤⁢潡r搠
浥浢m牳⸠周e⁦楮摩 g
猠汥搠瑨攠de獥a牣he爠瑯⁣潮c汵摥⁴桡琠t桥 i潮摯渠f獬s浩c⁳ 桯潬⁰牯癩摥猠浡sy
“milestones” for Muslim youth to build a Canadian and Muslim identity in an environment that is
c潮摵o楶攠瑯⁗e獴敲渠nn搠f獬慭楣⁶a汵敳⁡湤nc桡rac瑥tⰠa汴桯畧栠湯琠h渠n⁳ 牯湧ly
sy獴敭s瑩c 晡獨楯渮n


Does My Hijab Conflict with My Canadian Identity?: Deconstructing Canadian Media Portrayals of
Muslim Women

Ayesha Mian (University of Alberta)

Recent events have intensified the worldwide “mainstream gaze” on Muslims, particularl
individuals whose practices “are unfamiliar to the majority population” and contrary to Eurocentric notions
潦⁣楴楺e湳桩瀺⁦p浡汥⁍畳 業猠灲sc瑩c楮i

(Schmidt, 2004, p. 32). Tenuous and distorted conceptions
of Islam and Muslim women have
subsequently emerged from media portrayals, leading to increased
“Islamophobia” and perceptions of Muslims as “the other” (Said, 2006) within the Canadian climate.

and national identity, hinting that “in order to

cultures, Muslim women [can] not veil” (Byng, 2010, p. 123).

Thus, from a feminist postcolonial perspective, I seek to examine the portrayal of female Muslims in
Canadian media in an effort to answer this question: Am I Muslim

both (Ramberg, 2004)? I
will do so by exploring the current controversy in Quebec to legislate

潮o⁷ y⁩渠睨楣栠a 䵵獬業
睯浡渠n桯潳h猠瑯⁥s灲p獳⁨敲⁍畳 業⁩摥湴楴y

睨楣栠桡猠s獣a污瑥搠瑨攠d楳捯畲獥⁳畲 潵湤楮g⁴桥 灯睥爠
䵵獬業⁲ 煵楲q攠瑯⁥x灬潲p⁤楦 e牥湣e猠s湤⁳nm楬a物瑩敳⁢r瑷te渠瑨敳e⁤楳 楮捴⁩摥湴楴楥猠i湤⁴漠
ac歮潷汥d来⁡湤⁥xe浰m楦y⁴桥⁤楳 楮捴楶敮i獳映a⁃a湡摩慮
’s identity.

Multicultural Counselling: The global Citizenship Education of Two Racially Non
dominant C

Eun Jin Kim (University of Ottawa)

In this paper presentation, I will discuss the implications of multicultural counselling curriculum fo
counsellors and, furthermore, as global citizenship education by presenting the results of my doctoral
dissertation research. The research informed by post
structuralism used life story methodology to explore
the journeys of identity construction of five

racially non
dominant counsellors. Among them, my focus is
on a second
generation and bi
racial (
cottish/Japanese) counsellor
who took a multicultural counselling
course during her Master’s studies in counselling psychology. I will present specific incid
桯眠瑨h⁣潵牳o⁨e汰敤⁨l爠rx灬潲p⁨ 爠r畬u畲a氠l摥湴nty a湤⁥湨a湣e⁨e爠畮摥牳瑡湤楮g映桥牳r汦⁡n搠潴桥ds

(e.g., term paper on her father’s family with Japanese heritage, understanding cultural diversity in Canada,
睨漠wx灥物r湣e搠瑨攠業d楧ra瑩潮⁰o潣e獳⁡湤⁩猠睯牫楮r a琠愠

睩汬⁡汳漠灲l獥湴y睮⁳瑯 y映瑡

瑯⁣潭灡牥⁢ 瑷ee渠潵n⁥x灥物r湣e猠潦⁳畣栠h摵da瑩潮

䅬潮g⁷楴栠 桥獥⁳灥c楦ic⁳瑯物敳Ⱐf⁷ 汬
睨w琠tea湩ng猠瑨攠浵s瑩c畬u畲u氠捯畮獥汬楮i⁣u牲楣畬畭⁷潵汤⁨慶e⁩渠 e牭猠潦⁧ 湥ra氠慳⁷e汬⁡猠
c楦楣 e摵da瑩潮⸠

The Promise of Black
only and Male
only Schools in Improving the Educational Performance of Boys: a
Critical C

David Roemmele (McGill University)

Educational achievement is one of the most crucial factors in individuals’ suc
灡牴楣楰慴楯渠i渠獯n楥iy⸠t楴栠瑨h猠楮楮搬⁴桥 g潩og⁵湤 牡c桩敶e浥湴m潦⁢oy猬sa湤⁥獰sc楡汬y⁢ ac欠
扯y猬⁩渠sc桯潬h⁡c牯獳⁎潲瑨⁁浥m楣i⁩猠數瑲t浥my 灲潢汥ma瑩c⸠周Kre⁩猠愠gene牡氠c潮獥湳畳⁴桡琠te汬

order to address boys’ educational performance (Kimmel, 2008; Mills, Martino,


and Lingard, 2004). This paper seeks to compare the impacts of black
only and boys
only schools on boys'
educational achievement.

Drawing on literature from prominent academic
masculinity theorists (for example, Martino and Berrill,
2003; Connell, 2000), I draw out the positive and negative implications of these different school designs. In
addition, I draw on a group of oppositional Conservative writers (for example, Biddulph,
2008; Sax, 2005),
who believe that mainstream school designs are disadvantageous for boys. By considering both the
mainstream academic masculinity perspectives and Conservative perspectives, I offer a critical review of
the research on black
only and male
only schools and the advantages and disadvantages that such school
arrangements provide.

In conclusion, I will consider potential future directions of schooling arrangements that will help to ensure
that males of all ethnicities are able to improve their
performance in education; and, in doing so, more
effectively develop into successful national and global citizens


Thursday, November 11:
Session 3b

Studies of Immigration & Migration


ED 158

Attitudes T
oward Higher Education of Vietname
se Immigrants in Edmonton

Thinh Chi Nguyen (University of Alberta)

This study
was designed to enhance a deeper understanding of Vietnamese immigrants in Edmonton and
their attitudes toward attending college or university programs. This qualitative resear
ch engaged interview
as its method of collecting data with regard to exploring thoughts and insights from the respondents. The
use of interview and content analysis reflected the application of different research methods, which helped
diversify the ways in

which the same subject was being viewed. With respect to the sample and respondent
group, the research was conducted among the Vietnamese community in Edmonton with a variety of people
from different backgrounds. Purposive and snowball samples were select
ed for the interviews to ensure that
certain types of individuals or persons displaying certain attributes were included in the study (Berg, 2009).
The study adopted the Attitude
Behaviour Consistency theory as its theoretical framework, and its findings
ould contribute to the fact that personal experience affected immigrants’ attitudes to higher education. In
a摤楴楯測⁴桥⁦楮摩湧猠睯畬搠桥汰⁖楥瑮慭t獥⁁獳潣楡瑩潮⁡湤瑨i爠業r楧牡湴⁡獳楳瑡湣e ce湴n牳⁩渠
Edmonton understand immigrants’ attitudes to and
and assistance would be in place to help improve immigrants’ educational achievement and promote their

I Hate Canada; I Love Canada! Being A
pted Makes the Whole D

Nadia Naffi (Concordia University)

What role does social integration, i.e. peer acceptance and having a friend, have in elementary and
secondary immigrant students’ learning motivation and thus performance; and what is
relationship on immigrant children’ s feeling of belongingness? In order to answer these questions, I will
獴慲琠ty a渠nx灬慮p瑯ty⁰潲瑲a楴映業 楧ra湴⁣桩汤牥渠楮⁃a湡摡Ⱐ瑨e楲⁥浯m楯湡氠i湤⁳潣楡氠獩瑵慴楯渠慬潮t
桥y 桡癥⁴漠晡ce⁵灯渠瑨敩 ar物癡氮⁇l瑴楮i acce灴敤⁢y 瑨敩t⁰ee爠杲潵g⁩猠潮e 潦⁴桥
浡橯m⁢ 牲楥牳⁴桡琠t浭楧ra湴⁣桩汤牥渠na癥⁴漠潶e牣潭攠楮ode爠瑯⁥湳畲e⁴桥楲⁳潣楡氠楮ieg牡瑩潮⸠c潲⁴桡琠
牥a獯測⁡湤n牥ly楮g渠瑨攠灲e癩潵v 瑥ta瑵teⰠf⁷ 汬⁤楳
c畳猠u桥⁩ 灯牴p湴⁲潬攠瑨n琠灥t牳r来湥ra汬y⁰污y⁩渠
children’s gain of self
co湦楤n湣eⰠe浯m楯湡氠摥癥汯灭e湴⁡湤na牮楮g 瑩癡瑩潮⸠周o渠f 睩汬潯欠 湴漠
immigrant children’s relation with their peers and its impact on their academic achievement.Finall
yI f 睩汬
analyze my findings and try to correlate them with immigrant children’s sense of belongingness, which is a
灲業p⁰牥re煵楳q瑥⁴漠扥c潭攠癡汵慢汥⁰牯 uc瑩癥 Ca湡摩慮⁣楴楺e湳n

t桩hey⁦ 牳琠r業⁴桲潵 栠瑨h猠牥searc栠楳⁴漠畮摥牳瑡湤⁷桡琠ta灰p湥d

a牲楶慬⁴漠ia湡daⰠf⁷楬 ⁡汳漠l潯欠楮o漠瑨攠o硴敮搠瑯⁷桩x栠扥楮g⁢畬 楥搠i晦ec瑥搠瑨t洠慮搠睨w瑨敲 桡癩湧 a
晲楥湤⁣潵汤⁨慶e⁢ e渠n 灲潴pc瑩癥⁦ac瑯爠瑨牯tg栠瑨敩t⁴牡湳楴楯渮if⁢e汩e癥 瑨慴⁳t癥牡氠leade牳ry

my participants’ cases and could feel less isolated. Giving voice to unheard immigrant
children and informing practitioners about possible hidden cause for their newcomer students’ failures may,
a猠睥汬Ⱐ扥⁣潮獩摥牥搠d猠獩s湩晩na湴扪ec瑩癥猠潦smy⁳瑵 y


I will conduct my study on my own children based on the ethnographic research design that emphasizes the
participants’ individual experiences and help them process the events and make some sense out of their

The Catholic Church and Faith
Based Social Justice Engagement: A Comparative Study of Latino and
Somali Immigrants in Central Minnesota (USA)

Neil Panchmatia (University of Alberta)

Central Minnesota in the United States has witnessed a recent economic and politically
based influx o
Latino and Somali immigrants who often turn to local faith
based charities for assistance. Christian charity
organizations play a leading role in assisting with everything from housing to legal guidance and
representation, English classes, and job placem
ent. This paper focuses on the Catholic Church’s efforts in
獯s楡氠獥牶楣e enga来浥m琮tf渠獴畤y楮g⁴桥⁷潲欠of⁴睯潣 汬y
ba獥搠da瑨t汩c牧 湩na瑩潮猬⁩琠
瑨攠tx灥物r湣e猠潦sia瑩湯⁩ 浩g牡湴猠睩瑨⁴桯獥映卯 a汩⁩ 浩g牡湴n



exploring the communication and
reconciliation of religious differences and similarities between the immigrants and the organizations, it
discerns the consequent identity negotiatio
n of these immigrants.
The focus of the paper is to understand the
social bases and dynamics of faith
based social service engagement. By studying the work of the
organizations, it explores the broader motivations and implications of social services provid
ed by these
organizations. It also explores a possible gap between the goals of the individual organizations (in provision
of services, representation and support) and highlights the role of religious motivation and institutional
bureaucracy in the eventua
l effectiveness of the organizations in meeting these goals.

The Link Between Critical Theory and Ethnomethodology: Towards Understanding Intra
Relations Among Global M
igrants in Alberta


Veronica Caparas (University of Alberta

I draw on

epistemological foundations of critical social theory to 1) identify the nature and
policies of human
social capital formation
governmentality in home and host countries of
migration, 2) establish the link between human
l capital formation policies and privatized
education among migrants
citizens, and 3) look into the influence of international organizations’
a浯湧 g牡湴n

I then locate critical social theory’s pragmatic anchor on interpretive social science that is reflected in
ethnomethodology to “identify contradictions and distortions in [migrants
citizens’] belief systems
al practices [;] … [support] a kind of reasoning that is practical, moral, and ethically and politically
informed [;]… and [foster] enlightened self
political action” (Schwandt, pp.

㐶⤮4f⁵獥 e瑨湯te瑨潤潬潧y⁩渠癡汵 瑩ng

citizens’ practical art of decision
獯s楡氠ia灩pa氠来瑴楮i 浯癥搠m牯洠瑨敩r⁨潭攠 潵湴oy⁡n搠牥
host country; 2) their getting subjected to Alberta’s privatized education; and 3) the

My presentation showcases Alberta’s citizenship
e摵da瑩潮⁡猠楴⁩ 灡c瑳楧牡湴n
citizens’ decision
anada’s citizenship rights and responsibilities.


Friday, November 12: Session 4a

Citizenship Studies


ED 165

A Cosmopolitan Discourse for Educational Research and Practice

David Schmaus (University of Alberta)

Beck and Sznaider (2006)

call on the humanities and social sciences to “take cosmopolitanism as a research
a来湤n se物潵獬y a湤nra楳攠獯浥s潦o瑨t 步y c潮ce灴畡氬p浥瑨潤潬潧楣i氬le浰m物ra氠a湤n湯牭n瑩癥 i獳略猠瑨慴t
the cosmopolitanization of reality poses” (p. 2). Such a task call
猠景f a c潨o牥湴n c潮ce灴畡汩za瑩潮o of
c潳浯灯汩瑡湩獭 扵琠a猠䵥湤楥瑡t⠲〰E⤠湯瑥猬n瑨攠癡物潵猠獴牡湤猠瑨慴t浡步 異uc潳浯灯汩瑡渠摩獣潵d獥 a牥
a “veritable ruins of a tower of Babel” (p. 241). How then, can cosmopolitanism be conceptualized in a


This paper uses categories suggested by Dryzek’s (2006) description of constructivist discourse to examine
c潮瑥浰潲ary c潳浯灯汩瑡渠摩獣潵d獥献s 周e浥猠畳u晵氠瑯ta渠ed畣a瑩潮o氠牥獥a牣栠age湤n are

gleaned fr
contemporary cosmopolitanism. What/who are the key entities involved? Who are the agents? What are
the motives? What are the assumed, natural relationships (Dryzek, 2009, pp. 165
166)? Answers to these
questions help to clarify the objectives of a co
smopolitan research agenda. The paper concludes that an
educational research agenda, based on a cosmopolitan discourse, has an important role to play in
educational policy and practice.

Theorizing the Notion of Citizenship in a Post
National Context

ga Karabulut (Ankara University)

The idea of nation played an important role for the social integration of the citizens in the formation of
modern states. Citizenship in nation
states implied the legal bond between individuals and the polity but
also is
closely related to nationality. In that sense, belonging to the nation formed the basis for citizenship
and social integration. However in our contemporary world, the nation
state is facing serious challenges
against this background because the societies w
e live in today are far from being ethnically or culturally
homogeneous. We live in complex, multicultural societies with diverse cultures and forms of life. Modern
societies cannot be held together by a single overarching tradition or culture. In this con
text, this paper is
addressing the question of how to found a legitimate order and citizenship in which different cultural groups
will coexist with each other and looking for an answer in the light of the possibility of a post
citizenship through
focusing on the work of Jurgen Habermas. This paper will question, “Is it possible to
define citizenship out of national context?” and will explore how the processes by which we define the
湯瑩潮o⁣楴楺e湳桩瀠p晦ec琠桯眠睥⁥n条ge a猠s楴楺e湳⁩渠n潭o畮楴y

c潮oe灴映c楴楺e湳桩瀠p猠s 瑩潮o氠捯湳瑲畣琮t


Citizenship and Human Rights: A
or M

Carlos Roberto Jamil Cury

(Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais

PUC Minas, Brazil

The citizenshi
p idea is connected to the Classic Greece heritage, especially to the Aristote´s conception. He
signalizes the
as a community of free and equal persons, politically organized within a territory and
able to decide in the
the destination of their

community. In this sense, the citizenship involves the
idea that someone who is governed could also be able to become a governor, however within his city or
nation limits. The relationship between citizenship and its rights was developed in the classical
work of
Thomas Marshall.

On the other hand, the international Pacts signed by many countries, the experience of war, of racism, of
migrations and the updating of the jusnaturalism bring back the theme of the Human Rights and their
universalism. In this s
ense, authors like N. Bobbio, M. Bovero and Boaventura Santos contest the alleged
advanced feature of citizenship in behalf of Human Rights. These rights could be universal and also denote
a new citizenship´s substance: a global citizenship, an agent of a
truly advance for nowadays.

Equality among all human beings and regards to their differences are the aims of a new education.

Citizenship, Leadership, Dialogue and Canadian Schools

Catherine Neumann
Boxer (University of Saskatchewan)

There is a “wide
ly felt sense of crisis in citizenship”

a sense that the “quality of democratic citizenship is
dangerously low and that this needs to be addressed through effective citizenship education” (Herbert &
Citizenship education is defined as “the preparation of individuals to participate as active and responsible
citizens in a democracy” (p. 3). With a rapidly changing world and political/economic ideological f

If we want our students to become ‘good’ citizens, structures in our schools need to be built on these same
ideals to reflect and model ‘good’ citizenship. The purpo
獥映瑨楳⁰慰e爠楳⁴漠灲潰潳 ⁤楡汯 ue⁡猠say⁩渠
which educators, on the ground, in schools, can model ‘good citizenship and begin to critically analyse what
楴⁩猠 桡琠ta步猠景s⁥晦ect楶攠i楴楺e湳桩瀮†䑩p汯l略⁩猠愠灲潣e獳映浵s瑩
perspective “collecti

consciousness” (Bohm, 1996), which embodies ideals of democracy and promotes participation. Deliberate
獰sce⁦ 爠摩r汯g略

as a structural component in schools, can address the “sense of crisis in citizenship” (p.


Friday, November 12: Session 4b

Educating for Democratic & Participatory Citizenship


10:30 Room

ED 158

The Role of the Teacher in Educating for Democratic Ci

Ted Paszek (University of Alberta)

The teacher has a central role in developing democratic citizenship not by delivering a curriculum but by
engaging learners in a curriculum of life. Teachers organize experiences for learners (Dewey, 1938).

Learning for Dewey depends not only on the experience but the quality of the experience both in how well
it engages the learner but also how well it prepares the learner for subsequent experiences. Dewey’s
物r湣e⁢ 獥搠潮d摥浯捲a瑩c 獯s楡氠i牲ange浥湴献†
景獴f爠r潮瑩湵楮n 杲潷瑨t†呥ache牳⁨rve⁡渠業灯p瑡湴⁲潬攠楮⁳o汥l瑩ng⁴桥 ex灥物r湣e猠s湤牤r物r朠瑨敭g
for the learner’s growth. Teachers attempt to judge what is going on in the minds of learners and shape
扯瑨⁴桥⁥湶楲潮楮n c潮o楴楯湳映瑨f⁥x灥物r湣e猠a湤⁴桥⁥x灥物r湣e猠瑨慴ea搠瑯dg牯r瑨t

周q潳 ⁩ 灯牴p湴⁡瑴n瑵摥⁴桡琠汥 牮e牳⁣a渠桡癥 acc潲摩o
g⁴漠 e睥y⁩猠 he⁤ 獩牥⁴漠g漠潮oa牮楮朠
睨楣栠楳⁦潳he牥搠dy engag楮g⁥x灥物r湣e猠瑨慴⁨sve敡湩ng⁡湤nc潮瑩湵楴y⁩渠 桥 癥猠潦sa牮r牳⸠rBy
ex瑲tc瑩湧敡湩ng 晲潭o瑨攠灲e獥湴⁩湴敲ac瑩潮⁴桥oa牮e爠扥c潭敳⁰oe灡re搠景d⁤潩 g⁴桥⁳ 浥⁴桩湧⁩渠

晵瑵fe⸠⁄e睥y⁳ay猠s桡琠數灥物r湣e⁩猠慮⁩ 灯牴r湴⁡獰nc琠潦ea牮楮g a湤⁴桡琠摥浯捲acy⁡湤n
桵浡湩hy⁡re⁩ 灯牴p湴⁩渠瑨攠摥癥汯灭e湴映n摵ca瑩潮o氠數灥物r湣e献†se⁢ c潭攠g潯搠oe浯捲a瑩c
瑥tc桥牳⁷桯⁴敡c栠摥浯c牡cy⁢y engag楮g a牮r牳⁩渠瑨攠r畲u楣畬畭映汩feK

What has Participatory Research Got to do With Adult E

hwa Yang (McGill University)

In this presentation, I explore partici
patory research as a radical form of adult education.

research recently has emerged as an alternative qualitative research methodology in which research
participants partake in gathering and analyzing research data.

Education for the partic
ipants, therefore, has
been focused among participatory research practitioners.

This educational potential of participatory
research has drawn attention, in particular, from adult education researchers who seek research methods
that can allow adults to ac
tively engage in the process of knowledge production.

This approach to
research is based on the radical view that adults actively participate in the world and can change it through

Yet, few studies have probed what adults learn and how they le
arn it while participating in

My paper will critique theories of adult education within the context of participatory research.

Against this theoretical background, I will then examine the experiences of a group of adults who
undertook participa
tory research with me.

By analyzing the process of education from their perspectives, I
will shed light on the educational process in the practice of participatory research.


Community Performance: Opportunities for Citizenship Education

Lindsay Ruth

Hunt (University of Alberta)

Community performance, encompassing theatre, dance, and other forms of art, “crosses into other, less
c潮癥湴n潮o汬y a牴楳r楣⁰iac瑩ce猬⁳畣栠a猠sc潮潭oc⁤ 癥汯灭e湴Ⱐ桵na渠物g桴猠灯汩瑩c猬⁤s獡扩b楴y c畬u畲uⰠ
c潭o畮楴y⁲ de
velopment, capacity building…” (Kuppers & Robertson, p. 1). In this paper I aim to
摥晩湥⁣潭o畮楴y⁰e牦or浡湣eⰠ楮捬畤楮g⁰ 牴楣楰a瑯ty⁴ ea瑲e⁡湤⁰潰畬慲⁴桥 瑲tⰠI湤nc潮獩摥爠瑨r
癡物潵猠睡y猠楴⁨ 猠s潮瑲o扵瑥搠瑯⁣楴楺e湳桩瀠p摵da瑩潮⁢y⁥nc潵牡g楮g⁴
桥 摥癥汯灭e湴映necog湩n楯渠潦i
one’s place in the world. This is achieved through a brief review of community performance projects that
桡癥 c畲ue搠楮⁢潴栠h 乯k瑨⁁浥t楣a渠n潮瑥o琠慮搠f湴敲na瑩潮o汬y⁴桡琠 a渠扥 湫n搠瑯⁴桥⁥湤ea癯畲v潦o
e摵da瑩潮⸠ou牴桥牭潲eⰠ瑨I猠灡pe爠煵r獴s潮猠桯眠o畴畲u⁣潭o畮楴y⁰ r景f浡湣e⁰牯橥ct猠
might contribute to a critical look at how we understand what it means to be “global citizens”. I explore

Community Organization Presentation:
Building Bridges and Making C

Heather McPherson & Julia Price (Alb
erta Council for Global Cooperation)

The Alberta Council for Global Cooperation (ACGC) is a coalition of Alberta non
profit organizations
working to promote sustainable human development. ACGC is committed to international cooperation that
is people
ered, democratic, just, inclusive and respectful of the environment and indigenous cultures.
One of ACGC’s main focuses is to work with Alberta classrooms through a variety of interactive

ACGC’s latest educational initiative is Development in a Box (DIAB), a resource kit designed to help
ㄲ⁣污獳牯潭献⁄f䅂⁩湣汵 e猠汥獳潮猬⁡猠睥汬⁡猠s潮oec瑩潮猠
瑯潣a氠潲条湩na瑩潮猠睨漠o牥⁷ 牫楮r渠楮
瑥牮rt楯湡氠摥癥汯灭e湴⸠f渠n畬u ㈰㄰ⰠO楶e y潵瑨⁷ore
獥汥l瑥搠t牯洠灡牴楣楰慴楮g⁄f䅂⁳c桯潬h⁴漠灡 瑩c楰慴i⁩渠 桥⁃桡湧n⁙潵 ⁗潲汤⁙潵瑨oieade牳桩瀠呯畲
瑯⁅t桩潰ha⸠K桩he⁩渠䕴h楯灩a⁴桥 y潵瑨⁷e牥 a扬b⁴漠獥 ⁷桡琠摥te汯灭e湴⁰牯橥n瑳潯欠汩步⁩渠
ㄲN湵瑥⁤潣畭敮瑡ry⁦楬洠獨m督a獩湧⁴桥楲 ex灥物r湣e⁷ 猠c牥a瑥搠ty⁴ e⁦楶 y潵瑨⸠周oy a牥
c畲ue湴ny⁴慫楮g⁴桩猠摯s畭敮瑡ry⁡湤⁴桥楲⁳瑯物e猠瑯⁳c桯潬h⁡湤⁣潭o畮楴y g牯異猠rc牯獳⁁汢敲ta⸠

iea牮潲e⁡扯畴⁴桥⁩ 灯牴p湴⁲潬攠y潵瑨⁰oay⁩
a牥⁢ 楮g⁢畩 琠扥瑷te渠n桥⁁汢 牴r e摵da瑩潮⁳y獴e洠慮搠m汢敲瑡t乇佳⸠


Friday, November 12: Session 5a

Theorizing the Global
Local Connection in Education

10:35 to 12:05
ED 165

n of the ‘International Student’ in Canadian Education Policy Development

Joe Corrigan (University of Alberta)

It is argued that the successful recruitment and retention of international students is critical to maintaining
an exceptional learning experie
nce for all students at Canadian post
secondary institutions. A recent study
sponsored by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and entitled

Best Practices on
Managing the Delivery of Canadian Education Marketing

(2009), makes recommend
ations that, if adopted,
will have long
term consequences for the conduct of international student recruitment in Canada.

This paper will critically review the scope and selected recommendations of that study using a post
structuralist approach and drawi
ng on Michel Foucault’s concept of
I suggest the key
discourses and practices evident in the recommendations will produce important change in the conditions
under which Canadian post
secondary institutions recruit and retain international
students. A brief overview
of the study and the recommendations it contains will be presented in the session, prior to focusing on
selected findings and how these will both support and constrain the recruitment efforts of Canadian post
secondary institutio

Immigrant Students and Citizenship Education:
The Greek Specificity

Vicki Macris (University of Alberta)

My topic covers Citizenship Education Policy in Greece.

More specifically, it examines c
conceptions and transformations of Greek citizenship as I experienced them as a Greek citizen in the late
1980s until present.

The surge of immigrants that entered the county in the early 1990s was perceived as a
major threat and a destabilizi
ng agent of Greek national identity and social cohesion.

This threat has
significantly altered the discourse of philoxenia (hospitality), as remnants of suspicion awake, once again,
to insidiously penetrate Greek consciousness. My paper seeks to contribut
e to the contradictions between
the discourses of "selective philoxenia"

(hospitality) and “xenophobia,” by examining how these two
notions relate to Greece’s responsibility toward the emerging and flux of immigration and immigrant


t桩he⁴桥潴楯渠潦⁰桩h潸e湩愠楮⁴桥⁴潵物獭⁩湤畳nry⁩猠捵 re湴ny⁢ 楮i
畳u搠瑯⁰牯浯de⁥c潮潭oc⁧牯 瑨Ⱐ慴⁴桥⁳tme⁴ 浥Ⱐm⁳ 灡牡瑥

discourse of xenophobia has implications
for the changing concept of “Greekness” or “Hellinikotita,” whereby
priority is given to “real Greeks,”
while “others” are considered to be second class citizens


exa浩湥⁴桥⁩浰 楣i瑩潮o⁦潲⁣楴楺e湳桩瀠睩瑨p渠n⁰潬 瑩ca汬y⁣桡rge搠de湯灨潢楣⁣汩浡瑥⁡湤⁴桥⁳潣楡氠

f 睩汬⁩湩瑩a汬y⁳ 牵瑩湩ze⁳潭e映瑨 ⁵湤 牬y楮g⁣a畳u猠潦⁤楳灡物瑩敳⁡湤nf潲浳o
摩獣d業楮慴楯渠i桡琠灬ague⁇ eece⁴潤ay⁡湤潯欠a琠桯眠瑨攠摥epe湩ng⁳ n瑩浥湴猠潦⁸e湯灨潢楡Ⱐ瑨a琠
摯浩湡瑥⁴桥⁰潬 瑩ca氬

social, spiritual and ed
ucational spheres

tend to work against, or limit the processes
of taking effective action to combat such sentiments.


The Impact of Internet on Citizenship Education in China

Xu Chun
Ping (Maggie) (Brock University)

According to
CNNIC (China Internet

Network Information Center), the number of netizens (net citizens) in
China has rose up to 420,000,000 by the end of June 2010, among which cell phone citizens are more than
277,000,000. Under such circumstances, the citizenship education in China has bee
n affected a great deal
by Internet. In this paper, the researcher will look into the ways in which Internet has affected the
citizenship education and the impact of Internet on citizenship education in China as well as the response
from Chinese citizens a
nd the government.

From the first Email born on Sep. 20, 1987 when China initiated Internet exploration, Internet network in
China has gone through great changes and has affected Chinese citizens’ life in many ways. The netizens
e楲i灵扬pc灩湩潮猠癩a f湴敲湥琬any映f桩捨⁨hve 灲潤pce搠grea琠t晦ec瑳渠瑨攠
灵扬pc⁰潬 c楥猠浡歩湧⸠c潲⁩湳瑡湣eⰠ瑨攠偲業e⁍ 湩獴e爠
Wen, Jiabao

chatted with Chinese netizens in
spring 2009 for two hours and 300,000 messages were sent to him. In tur
n, responses from the government
remold citizenship education via Internet.

Rethinking the Politics of Participation in Educational Policymaking: A Global/local M

Thi Xuan Thuy Nguyen (McGill University) & David Roemmele (McGill University)


contemporary context of education is marked by various aspects of social change in the global and
local arenas. Grounded on a historical policy studies on the inclusion of children with disabilities into
educational system in Vietnam, this paper presents
a theoretical critique of the politics of participation in
the process of global and local reform. I will first address how the Vietnamese educational system has been
shifted in the context of social change through an analysis of policy texts, discourses,
and practices which
promote inclusion. Second, I will reflect on my fieldwork to some educational institutions to show the
impacts of inclusion on the participation of children with disabilities in education. Finally, I will re
visit the
theoretical premis
es of disability and mainstreaming to discuss the implications of inclusion and social
change, as well as to critically examine the politics of participation in the contemporary context of
reforming local institutions
(Foucault, 1977; Slee, 1996; Stiker, 1999)
. I argue that the process of including
children with disabilities into mainstream education, commonly referred to as inclusive education in policy
reform, is implicated in the new regime of management that ope
rates in the complex arrangements of social
power. This “regime of truth” (Foucault, 1980) enables the mainstreaming of out

e摵da瑩潮o氠ly獴敭⸠䅴⁴he⁳ 浥⁴業eⰠ楴⁡汬潷猠od畣a瑩潮⁴漠睯o欠k猠s渠楮n瑲畭t湴⁦潲⁳潣楡氠ieg畬慴楯渠i

瑨攠浯癥浥湴⁴潷m牤猠ra楮獴牥a浩ng⁤楳慢楬楴y⁩ ⁧汯扡氠l湤nca氠l来湤n


ay, November 12: Session 5b

Citizenship in Praxis

10:35 to 12:0
ED 158

Women and Work, Wo
men and Weaving: Exploring the L
egitimacy of the Fair

Trade Handicraft
Industry in Nepal Through Producers Perceptions of W

Sarah Rich
Zendel (University of Ca

This paper examines the legitimacy of Fair Trade from the perspective of textile weavers in Nepal using
‘work’ as a subject of inquiry and the everyday lives of female workers as agents making forms of global
桲潵g栠a⁣潭灡oa瑩癥 a湡ly獩s映㘰S牲a瑩癥⁩湴e牶楥睳⁷楴栠ha楲i
呲a摥 a湤潮
ca楲⁔iade⁦ 浡汥 睥ave牳Ⱐf 睩汬⁤楳捵獳⁨潷⁦e浡汥⁷eave牳⁰rrce楶攠瑨ii爠r潲欠
e湶楲潮浥n瑳⁡湤⁴桥慲ge爠r潮瑥o琠t渠睨楣栠瑨敳h⁰ 牣e灴p潮猠o浥m来⸠周e⁳業楬a物瑩敳⁡湤⁤n
畮摥牳瑡湤⁨潷⁤nve汯l浥湴⁩湴e牶r湴n潮猠o楫攠䙡楲⁔ ade⁦畮 瑩潮⁡琠t桥e癥氠潦⁰l潤oc瑩潮⸠iea摩湧⁴漠
業灯牴p湴ⁱ略獴n潮猠牥条r摩湧⁩映 湤⁨n眠
ca楲⁔ia摥 ga湩na瑩潮猠oc瑵慬楺e⁴桥楲⁤ 癥汯灭e湴ngoa汳⁡琠l
汯捡氠le癥氠慮搠楦⁴桥 e 杯g汳⁡le⁲e汥癡湴⁴漠瑨攠汩癥猠潦⁰s潤畣e牳r

The Role of Indigenous Education in Ensuring Safe Drinking Water

Anna Wilson (University of Alberta)

This paper will

examine the question of why Alberta does not follow Health Canada’s regulations for safe
摲楮歩湧⁷a瑥t⁡湤⁴ne⁨ a汴栠業灬pca瑩潮猠景o⁁汢 牴r湳⁷桯⁤n楮欠i桩猠睡te爮⁁ 瑥ta瑵te⁲e癩敷映
卄oc⤠睩汬⁰牯 楤攠獣楥湴楦楣⁥v楤敮ie⁴漠
a湳睥爠瑨rseⁱ略獴s潮献o䤠f楬氠灲l獥湴⁴桥⁣畲牥湴⁣桥浩ca氠灲潰l牴楥猠潦⁤si湫楮n⁷ te爠楮⁁扯物g楮i氠
桥牮⁁汢敲瑡Ⱐt畲a氠捯浭畮l瑩e猬⁴潷湳⁡湤s橯爠j楴楥献⁔桥渠f⁷楬 ⁰牥se湴⁴桥
獯汵s楯渠景i⁴牥a瑩湧 c潮oa浩湡瑥搠ta瑥爠楮⁲畲u氠a湤⁵n扡渠䅬扥牴a⁣潭ou湩n楥猬⁷桩捨⁩猠h桥⁣桥浩ca氠晲ee
牥癥牳e獭潳楳⁷ 瑥t⁴ ea瑭e湴e瑨潤⁦t潭⁴桥 pa晥⁄ 楮歩ng⁗a瑥t

c潵湤n瑩潮⸠f 睩汬⁡湡lyze⁴ e獥
摯d畭敮瑳⁡湤⁴桥ng潶or湭敮琠灯汩瑩c猠s湤⁰潬ncy⁥浢敤摥搠楮⁴桥獥⁤ cu浥湴猠畳m湧⁡⁴桥潲e瑩ca氠

f渠c潮o汵獩潮Ⱐf⁷楬 ⁰牯 e⁴桡琠瑨攠桥a汴栠潦†a汬⁁汢 牴r湳⁩猠s琠物獫⁦t潭⁤物湫楮n⁵牢a
䅬扥牴r湳⁣a渠摥癥汯瀠a 獬潷⁡cc畭畬a瑩潮o⁩湴e獴s湡氠灡la獩se猠s湤nc潬o渠na湣e爠r牯洠楮ge獴sng⁴a瀠
water. I will prove that the Advanced Aboriginal Treatment Team’s method of chemical free reverse
潳浯獩s⁩猠 桥⁢ 獴e瑨t搠景d⁣汥a湳楮n 䅬
berta’s urban tap water from the 100 micrograms per litre of
桡汯浥瑨m湥猬⁰sra獩se猠s湤⁶楲畳i猠⡐整s牳潮rC⁆物r步爬′〰㠬⁰⸱㐩⸠f⁷楬 ⁰牯 e⁴桡琠
瑨攠te癥牳r獭潳楳⁷ 瑥爠瑲ea瑭e湴n瑳⁳桯畬搠扥⁰牯 楤敤⁴漠i汬⁁汢 牴r湳⁩渠慣c潲oa
湣e 睩瑨⁴桥楲i物r桴h
瑯⁳慦e⁤物湫楮g⁷ 瑥爠r猠楮摩ca瑥搠楮⁴桥⁕湩ne搠da瑩潮猠啮楶o牳r氠䑥c污la瑩潮o⁈畭 渠n楧桴献⁁hl
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creating Social Justice Messages with Y
outh in Uganda

Leslie Robinson (University of Alberta)

This multimedia presentation reflects on the researcher’s experiences working with youth from resource
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and ‘transacti
onal love’ will be described. Final messages

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摡湣e a湤⁤na浡⁴ec桮楱略s

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The Pedagogy of Food: Engaging Students’ Hystories Tow
ards Citizenship Education

Miriam N. Sekandi (University of Alberta)

Food is an everyday aspect of life that connects people from all spheres of life. It is often taken for granted,
and yet it holds the potential to promote global citizenship. Canadian f
oods studies classrooms are
increasingly diverse and therefore ideal spaces to engage in dialogue about food. In this paper I explore my
proposed doctoral research in which I intend to examine how Canadian high school foods studies teachers
promote intercu
ltural understanding among diverse students through the pedagogy of food. Specifically, I
focus on the foods studies classroom, an excellent space in which teachers can engage students’

relation to food vis
vis the current global trends. I u
se the term

to refer to the known and unknown
experiences of students which they consciously and/or unconsciously bring into the classrooms. I examine
the importance of pedagogical strategies that attend to students’

experiences and crea
te dialogic
spaces across cultures about curriculum content and context towards citizenship education. Such dialogue
promotes interrogation of the postcolonial legacies that have led to the homogenization and exoticization of
food, and continue to permeate

official documents like the Alberta foods studies curriculum today.


Friday, November 12: Sessio
n 5c

Methodological Workshop 2

10:35 to 12:05

ED 170

An In
Depth Picture of Participatory Video Research

hwa Yang (McGill University)


Dr. Priscilla Settee (University of Saskatchewan)

Dr. Donna Chovanec (University of Alberta)

hwa Yang (McGill University)

An In
Depth Picture of Participatory Video Research

My research will explore participatory video research through a
case study.

Within the criticisms on
based research methodologies, participatory research has emerged as a new phenomenon.

its methods, participatory video, in which research participants generate data through video production, has
just begu
n to draw attention from researchers who seek to engage participants.

Despite the great potential
of participatory video research, however, few studies have analyzed its methodological processes.

Consequently, researchers often undertake participatory vi
deo research from scratch without a systematic
knowledge of its processes.

This current trend limits the possibility to build up profound knowledge of
participatory video research and develop its methods.

Responding to this gap in the study of participat
video research, I look at how participatory video research engages its participants.

My research is based on
intrinsic case study, in which the case itself is focused because it holds unique interest.

In order to provide
an in
depth picture of partic
ipatory video research, thus, I chose intrinsic case study as the framework of my
methodology and facilitate participatory video research as the case of my study.

My research participants
will undertake two research projects over two summers.

This study
will be analyzed primarily based on: (1)
my field notes, (2) the participants´ group evaluation, (3) the assessments of two guest evaluators, and (4)
each participant´s reflection on his or her experience.


Friday, November 12:
Keynote Address


Women, Essential Knowledges in Research and Development of Nations

1:30 to 3:00 Room ED 129

Dr. Priscilla Settee (University of Saskatchewan)

As a First Nations woman, I harbour sadness, concern and rage about the statistics that face our

structural unemployment, six hundred Aboriginal women missing and murdered, epidemic
suicide rates and gang violence among our youth, and armies of children in the care of social services. But
as someone who is engaged in the energizing work of community
activism as well as academia, I know
how important it is to maintain a sense of hope and balance and to create and broadcast the stories of hope,
especially in these times of murdered and missing Aboriginal women, high unemployment, natural
disasters, envi
ronmental degradation, hunger, poverty,

and homelessness.

In the spaces that we have
carved out for ourselves, each of us must create a sense of hope for humanity. We need to claim our spaces
to tell our stories and listen to others stories. There is not
one formula, whether we are students, faculty,
stay at home mothers or one of the unemployed masses each must use the skills they have to create

hope and global solidarity. (Settee, Speaking Truth to Power, 2010).