DIMA 822 PEC

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DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

STUDY GUIDE FOR

DIMA 822

P
E
C

*DIMA822PEC*

FACULTY OF
ARTS






ii





















Study guide compiled by:

Doret Botha and Kylah Forbes
-
Biggs






=
Page layout by
Elsabé Botha,
g
raphikos
.

Printing arrangements and distribution by

Department Logistics (Distribution Centre)
.

Printed by The Platinum Press (018) 29
9 4226
.

Copyright


20
1
2

edition. Date of revision 20
1
2
.

North
-
West University, Potchefstroom Campus
.

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means wit
hout written
permission from the publisher
.


iii

MODULE CONTENTS

Word of welcome

................................
................................
................................
...................

iv

Opportunity for students specialising in disaster studies

................................
........................

iv

L
ecturer for this module

................................
................................
................................
.........

v

Module outcomes

................................
................................
................................
..................

v

Study material

................................
................................
................................
........................

v

Teaching methods

................................
................................
................................
.................

vi

Evaluation/assessment

................................
................................
................................
..........

vi

Essay topic

................................
................................
................................
...........................

vii

Plagiarism

................................
................................
................................
.............................

vii

Examination

................................
................................
................................
.........................

viii

Action verbs

................................
................................
................................
.........................

viii

Module plan and time schedule for DIMA822

................................
................................
.........

ix

Warning against plagiarism

................................
................................
................................
....

x

Study unit

1

Disaster risk management: Creating an understanding

...............

1

Study unit 2

Disasters explained

................................
................................
.........

3

Study unit 3

Tools for identif
ying hazards

................................
..........................

5

Study unit 4

Vulnerabilties and capacities
................................
..........................

7

Study unit 5

Governance, advocacy and self
-
help

................................
.............

9

Study unit 6

Disaster risk assessments

................................
............................

11

Study unit 7

Scenario planning

................................
................................
.........

13

Study unit 8

From damage and needs assessments to relief
..........................

15

Study unit 9

Disaster risk reduction in disaster response and recovery

.......

17

Study unit 10

Communication and participation

................................
................

19

Study unit 11

Monitoring disaster risk management

................................
.........

21

Useful websites


................................
................................
................................
........

23





iv

W
ORD OF WELCOME

Welco
me to the study of Disaster Risk M
anagement in this course, DIMA82
2. This course
aims to provide you with in
-
depth knowledge on the application of disaster risk management
(and subsequently ensure disaster risk reduction) within the Africa context. In this

course you
will be taught how to utilise disaster reduction “tools” in order to manage disaster risk on
various levels (e.g. strategic, tactical as well as operational). You will further gain insight into
the complexities of disaster risk and how this imp
acts on our development in Africa.

DIMA822 and DIMA82
1 are complementary modules although the one is not a prerequisite
for the other. Should you be in the fortunate position that you did enrol for both courses then
you will fin
d that aspects covered by D
IMA821 are applied through DIMA82
2. It is important
to note that what is represented in this module is but one of many opinions in the multi
-
disciplinary field of disaster risk reduction. We therefore encourage you to interact with
various sources of infor
mation in order to formulate your own opinion and views on the
subject matter. We therefore welcome varied and different opinions on the different topics as
long as you, the student, can justify your arguments which should, and must be, grounded in
researc
h and also theory.

We trust that you will find this course useful and a value
-
adding component to your studies.
We have tried our best to ensure that your learning experience with Disaster Risk
Management is not only an enjoyable one but also one that prov
ides you with the necessary
scientific skills to be able to critically assess and judge aspects in the international disaster
reduction arena.

O
PPORTUNITY FOR STUDE
NTS SPECIALISING IN
DISASTER STUDIES

All students doing
DIMA821 and DIMA821
, and especially

those who are resident on campus
(i.e. full
-
time students), may submit “working papers” to the African Centre for Disaster
Studies. Students will be given feedback and recommendations for revisions. If the paper
reaches a satisfactory quality level (as de
termined by African Centre for Disaster Studies
staff) it will be placed on the ACDS website (which receives more than 400 hits per day). This
opportunity may 1) help you with your research as it increases the pool of potential inputs on
your work, through

for example comments from those visiting the ACDS website 2) will
improve your profile (e.g.: you can list your working paper in your CV) and 3) you will improve
your generic scientific research and writing skills.

Southern Africa Society for Disaster Re
duction

As a student of disaster risk reduction at a Masters level it is critical for you to start building a
professional network with others in the field. The newly formed Southern Africa Society for
Disaster Reduction (SASDiR) is a community of practic
e which aims to bring together
disaster risk reduction scientists, practitioners, government officials, civil society and of
course students. You are encouraged to join SASDiR by registering for free as a member at
their website:
www.sasdir.org.




v

LECTURER FOR THIS MO
DULE

Information regarding the lecturer responsible for this course is as follows:


Title and name

Building and office
number

Telephone and e
-
mail address

Doret Botha


Building F10A

Room G03A

(018) 299
1630

doret.botha@nwu.ac.za

Kylah Forbes
-
Biggs

Building F10A

Room G06

(018) 299 1630

Biggsk77@gmail.com

or
21734798@nwu.ac.za


If you want to see the lecturer personally t
o discuss issues and challenges, you are kindly
requested to make an appointment in order to avoid disappointment.

M
ODULE OUTCOMES

After successfully completing this module, you should be able to:



Contextualise disaster risk management within contemporary
thinking in sustainable
development.



Apply the principles of disaster risk management on any level/sphere of government
and development.



Design and implement appropriate systems, strategies, policies, programmes and
projects in order to give effect to dis
aster risk management.



Determine disaster risk by means of a multi
-
disciplinary process.



Strategically integrate disaster risk management within any sphere of development.

S
TUDY MATERIAL

The primary source of this course is
The Routledge Handbook of Hazar
ds and Disaster Risk
Reduction

edited by Ben Wisner, JC Gaillard and Ilan Kelman (2012). The book is available
at Van Schaik Book Store at the Bult in Potchefstroom. An additional source that can be
used for this course is John Twigg’s book
Good practice r
eview: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming
. It is published by
the Humanitarian Practice Network of the Overseas Development Institute. Please note that
this book does not contain any copyright in
terms of its distribution but full acknowledgement
of the source should be done at all times. This book it therefore included on your CD
-
ROM
as part of this study guide.




vi

The full bibliographical reference for the above source
s are
:

Wisner, B., Gaillard,
J.C. and
Kelman, I
. 2012. The Routledge Handbook of Hazards
and Disaster Risk Reduction.
London
: Routledge.

Twigg, J. 2004. Good Practice Review: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and
preparedness in development and emergency programming. London:
Over
seas
Development Institute
.

http://www.odihpn.org/hpn
-
resources/good
-
practice
-
reviews/disaster
-
risk
-
reduction
-
mitigation
-
and
-
preparedness
-
in
-
aid
-
programming

Date
of access: 13 Apr. 2012


The information in the study guide interacts with the contents of the

textbook. This means
that you must use both sources extensively.

Furthermore, you received a CD
-
ROM with this study guide which will also be used
throughout the course. This CD
-
ROM contains your prescribed reading and most of your
additional reading. Some

other sources for further reading are also included. This does not
mean that the CD
-
ROM is your exclusive source of information. As a masters degree student
it is expected of you to find other sources as well. Please note that as a minimum you
must

read a
ll compulsory reading as indicated in your unit ou
tlines. Some units also contain

additional sources which you might find helpful in furthering your knowledge on the subject at
hand.

T
EACHING METHODS

First and foremost, you must realise that
YOU

are respon
sible for achieving the study
outcomes of this course. An

independent

approach must characterise your conduct in this
study. Of course, the responsible lecturer will play a guiding role and will be available to
assist you in handling any problem that might

occur. This course is, however, mostly
distance learning and you should allocate your time and

effort accordingly in order to

not only
attain the outcomes of this course, but also those of the other modules which you are
enrolled for.

E
VALUATION/ASSESSMEN
T

As with all other courses in this masters programme, you have two assessment
opportunities. You are required to submit one written essay and also sit of one examination.
Both of these count 50% of your final mark.

You need to achieve a grade of 50% for t
he course in order to pass.

Please note
: There is a
sub
-
minimum

(40%) for each of the two assessments. Thus, if you
receive a mark below 40% for either the exam or the essay, you will fail the course. For
example, if you achieve 70% for the essay and 34%
for the exam you will fail even though
your average for the course is 52%.
Students who do not achieve 40% for the essay will
not be allowed to write the exam.

With regard to all assignments and examination answers the following basic requirements
apply:



Be systematic and logical.



Identify and state the core problem/issue clearly.



Give a correct account of views and facts from sources.



Use language accurately and formulate clearly.



Use the correct style of reference, in the text as well as the bibliography
.


vii

The following elements are considered when assignments are being assessed:



Problem statem
ent (topicality, aims, etc.)

(25
)



Factual basis (number and quality of sources)

(20)



Argumentation (discussion, unity, and interpretation)

(20)



Conclusion

(10
)



Langu
age

(10)



References (in text and bibliography)

(15)


100

E
SSAY TOPIC


Topic of the essay will be communicated to students during the close of the contact
session with lecturers

Hand in date:

To be announced in class


PLAGIARISM


Plagiarism is a serious off
ence. Plagiarism occurs when you represent another person’s
work (the work of an author or a fellow
-
learner) as your own. Essays containing plagiarism
will receive a mark of
0
. In addition, guilty students may be referred to the University’s
disciplinary

committee. Examples of plagiarism are paraphrasing, verbal copying or the use
of the ideas of an author without proper referencing.


The following plagiarism statement must be signed and submitted with your assignment.
Assignments not accompanied by the
statement will not be marked.


Statement



I hereby declare that the work in this assignment is my own, that I make proper
reference in the text and in the bibliography of this assignment to each quotation and
contribution which I got from other people or

sources, and that I did not allow anyone else
to copy my work with the intention to present it as their own.


Signature: .....................................................................

Date: ........................



viii

EXAMINATION

You must complete
a formal “sit down” exam at the end the semester. You will be given a list
of essay questions in September (after essays have been marked) to prepare for the
examination. In the exam you will be given five questions identical to those received prior to
the

exam, of which you have to complete three (approximately one hour per question).
NB
:
You are given the questions beforehand for a reason. Answers must be well structured and
should reflect a significant level of critical engagement with the study material
.
The exam will
cover the entire course.


Examination date:

To be announced in class


A
CTION VERBS

Certain verbs in question papers indicate the level of cognitive skills which the question is
testing. The table underneath will help you with this (remembe
r that at Masters Level the
learner is particularly expected to demonstrate
skills to analyse
,
synthesise
and
evaluate)
.

Examination questions will basically be formulated according to the outcomes of each
seminar.


Cognitive skill

Applicable verb

Knowle
dge (know)

Describe, give an account, name, label, list,
state, give, indicate, show, point out,
recognise, identify, sketch, give an overview,
draw, illustrate, complete.

Comprehension / Insight (understand)

Explain, define, clarify, expound, reformulate
,
illustrate by means of …, interpret, convert,
argue, summarise, recap.

Application (apply / employ)

Calculate, estimate, prove, process,
determine, show how …, demonstrate, how
would one in practice ..., apply, employ, infer,
conclude, generalise, class
ify.

Analysis (analyse)

Differentiate, distinguish, pick out, select,
compare in terms of …, point out
differences/correspondences, contrast,
analyse, examine, order, make pairs.

Synthesis (put together)

Design, plan, draw up, create, develop,
produce, c
ompose, combine, diagnose,
advise, recommend, propose, construe, show
the relationship, bring in connection with.

Evaluation (evaluate)

Give an opinion, make a choice, decide, take
a stand, judge, criticise, select, classify,
estimate, value, account for,

motivate.




ix

M
odule plan and time schedule for
DIMA82
2

Week

Theme

Hours

1

Unit 1: Disaster Risk Management
Creating an Understanding

5

2

Unit 2: Disasters Explained

5

3

Unit 3: Tools for Identifying Hazards

5

4
-
5

Unit 4: Vulnerabilities and Capacit
ies

15

6
-
7

Unit 5: Governance, Advocacy and Self
-
Help

15

8

Unit 6: Disaster Risk Assessments

5

9

Unit 7: Scenario Planning

5

10

Unit 8
: From Damage and Needs
Assessments to Relief

10

11

Unit 9
: DRR in Disaster Response and
Recovery

5

12

Unit 10
: Co
mmunication and
Participation

5

13

Unit 11
: Monitoring in Disaster Risk
Management

5


Essay

40


Exam Preparation

40


Total

160



x

WARNING AGAINST PLAG
IARISM


ASSIGNMENTS ARE INDIVIDUAL TASKS AND NOT GROUP ACTIVITIES
.
(UNLESS
EXPLICITLY INDICATED AS
GROUP ACTIVITIES)

Copying
of text from other learners or from other sources (for instance the study guide,
prescribed material or directly from the internet) is
not allowed



only brief quotations are
allowed and then only if indicated as such.

You should

reformulate

existing text and use your
own words
to explain what you have
read. It is not acceptable to retype existing text and just acknowledge the source in a
footnote


you should be able to relate the idea or concept, without repeating the original
a
uthor to the letter.

The aim of the assignments is not the reproduction of existing material, but to ascertain
whether you have the ability to integrate existing texts, add your own interpretation and/or
critique of the texts and offer a creative solution

to existing problems.

Be warned: students who submit copied text will obtain a mark of zero for the
assignment and disciplinary steps may be taken by the Faculty and/or University. It is
also unacceptable to do somebody else’s work, to lend your work to t
hem or to make
your work available to them to copy


be careful and do not make your work available
to anyone!





Study unit 1


1


1

DISASTER RISK
MANAGEMENT: CREATING

AN
UNDERSTANDING




Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Define and explain disa
ster risk management.



Understand the difference between disaster risk management, disaster risk reduction
and disaster management.



Explain a framework for disaster risk reduction with a specific focus on disaster risk
management.



Critically evaluate disast
er risk management versus disaster management/

humanitarian aid practices.



Explain the application of disaster risk management within the South African context.


Compulsory reading:



Van Niekerk, D. 2011. KP 1

-

Introduction to Disaster Risk Reduction. P
repared by
the African Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID
Disaster Risk Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Chapter 1 of:
Twigg, J. 2004. Good Practice Review: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and

preparedness in development and emergency programming. London:
HPN.



Chapter 1, Section 1 of: International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). 2004
Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives
. Kobe: UN/ISDR.



Unit summary:



Dis
aster risk management entails a multi
-
disciplinary and multi
-
sectoral approach.



Disaster risk management is concerned with the integrated management of hazards,
vulnerability and capacities throughout a society because these variables contribute to
disaste
r risk.



‘Mitigation’ is any action to minimise the impact of a potential disaster; ‘preparedness’
refers to specific measures taken before a disaster strikes, usually to issue warnings,
take precautions and facilitate a rapid response.



Various natural disa
sters shaped the current disaster risk management and disaster
risk reduction agenda.

Stu
dy unit 1


2





Study unit 2


3


2

DISASTERS EXPLAINED






Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Evaluate and explain the role of natural events in creating disasters.



Judge t
he level of vulnerability in different societies.



Examine different aspects of socio
-
economic vulnerability.



Explain the influence of disaster risk on poor communities.



Demonstrate an in
-
depth understanding of the historian’s contribution to a better
appre
ciation of disasters.



Critique various disaster myths.


Compulsory reading:



Chapter 4 of:
Wisner, B., Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman, I. 2102. The Routledge
Handbook of Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. USA: Routledge.



Chapter 2 of:
Twigg, J. 2004. Good
Practice Review: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming. London:
HPN.



Chapter 1, Section 2 of:
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). 2004
Living with Risk: A global review of disaster
reduction initiatives
. Kobe: UN/ISDR.


Additional reading:



Lavell, A. 1999.
Natural and technological d
isasters:
Capacity building and human
resource development for disaster management: Concept Paper
. Geneva
,

ERD
-
UNDP.



McEntire, D.A. 2001. Trigger agents
, vulnerability and disaster reduction: Towards a
holistic approach.
Disaster Prevention and Management

10(3):189
-
196.



Quarantelli, E. L. (ed.) 1998.
What is a disaster? Perspectives on the question
.

London:
Routledge.


Study unit 2


4

Unit summary:



Disasters triggered

by natural hazards are a major threat to life and to sustainable
development, especially in developing countries.



The human and economic cost of disasters is rising, mainly because societies are
becoming more vulnerable to hazards.



Socio
-
economic vulnerab
ility is complex and often deep
-
rooted.



The weaker groups in society suffer most from disasters.



A historical perspective when considering disasters can improve the setting of industry
standards, provide modern technology with useful applications, highlig
ht issues of
social justice, prompt cultural comparisons of “best practice”, help reduce communities’
vulnerability and link reconstruction work to developmental issues.



Many persistent myths about disasters should be discarded.




Study unit 3


5


3

TOOLS FOR IDENTIFYIN
G

HAZARDS





Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Identify various hazards



Understand the role of scale and place of risk in disaster risk reduction.



Identify hazards at various space and time scales.



Utilize data, identification too
ls in disaster risk reduction efforts.


Compulsory reading:



Kabubi, J.
2011. KP
5


Varieties and characteristics of hazards
. Prepared by the
African Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID
Disaster Risk Reduction Training Progr
amme for South and southern Africa.



Saito, K. Strachen, J. Fewtrell, T. Rosser, N. Jenkins, S. Slingsby, A. and K. Haynes.
2012. Tools for Identifying Hazards. (
In
Wisner, B
.
, Gailliard, J.C. and
Kelman, I.

eds
.
The Routledge handbook of h
azards and
disast
er risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge.
p
.
191
-
204.)


Additional reading:



A
lberico, I
., P
etrosino
, P., Z
eni
, G., D’
Andrea
, F. & L
irer
, L. 2005. GEOCITY: a drill
-
hole database as a tool to assess geological hazard in Napoli urban area.
Environmental Geology
,

47(6):751
-
762, Apr.
http://web.ebscohost.com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=8&si
d=34412fb8
-
b81f
-
4e34
-
975d
-
1eace5cb654c%40sessionmgr12

Date of access: 29
Feb. 2012.



Kabubi, J. 2011. KP 13


Hydro
-
metrological hazards.
Prepared
by the African Centre
for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk
Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Mocke, F. 2011. KP 16


Anthropogenic hazards.
Prepared by the African Centre for
Disaster Studies N
WU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction
Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



N
wilo,
P.C., O
layinka
, D.N., U
wadiegwu
, I. & A
dzandeh
, E.A. 2011. An assessment
and mapping of gully erosion hazards in Abia State: a GIS appr
oach.
Journal of
Sustainable Development
, 4(5):196
-
211, Oct.
http://web.ebscohost.com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=8&si
Study unit 3


6

d=34412fb8
-
b81f
-
4e34
-
975d
-
1eace5cb654c%40sessionmgr12

Date of access: 29
Feb. 2012.



Potgieter, S. 2011. KP 14
-

Geological hazards.
Prepared by the African Centre for
Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction
Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Van Zyl, K. 2011. KP 15
-

Biological hazards.
Prepared by the African

Centre for
Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction
Training Programme for South and southern Africa.


Unit summary:



Tools are available for hazard identification at different space and scales.



Data, identification t
ools and presentation of data can be important tools used in
disaster risk reduction efforts.



Scale and place of risk can also contribute to our ability to reduce risk.





Study unit 4


7


4

V
ULNERABILTIES AND
CAPACITIES




Outcomes:

After completing this unit you shoul
d be able to:



Define and explain the nature of disaster risk.



I
dentify characteristics of vulnerability
.



D
elineate the link between vulnerabilities and capacities
.



E
stablish factors contributing to the condition of vulnerability
.




E
valuate vulnerability ut
ilising relevant models
.




To recognize vulnerable groups within societal context.



Comprehend how capacity can be used as a tool for empowering vulnerable groups.



Understand the need to incorporate vulnerable groups in disaster risk reduction.


Compulsory
reading:



Babugara, A. 2012
.

Children, youth and disaster.

(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and
Kelman, I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk r
eduction. Oxon:
Routledge.
p
.
436
-
446
.)



Fordham, M. 2012
.

Gender, sexuality and disaster.

(
In
W
isner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and
Kelman, I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk r
eduction. Oxon:
Routledge.
p
.
424
-
435
.)



Gaillard, J.C. 2012. Caste, ethnicity, religious affliation and disaster.
(
In
Wisner, B,
Gaillard, J.C. and

Kelman, I
.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of h
azards an
d disaster
risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge.
p
.
459
-
470
.)



Ngo, E. B. 2012. Elderly people and disaster.

(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and
Kelman,
I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk r
eductio
n. Oxon:
Routledge.
p
.
447
-
458
.)



Van Niekerk, D. 2011. KP 3
-

Exposure and vulnerability.
Prepared by the African
Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk
Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.


Study unit 4


8

Additional reading:



Lunga, W. 2011. KP 4
-

Vulnerabilty assessment and analysis.
Prepared by the African
Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk
Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Kuban, R.

and MacKenzie
-
Carey, H. 2001. Community
-
w
ide vulnerability and capacity
a
ssessment. Toronto: Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency
Preparedness.



M
cEntire
, D. 2011. Understanding and reducing vulnerability: from the approach of
liabi
lities and capabilities.
Disaster Prevention and Management
, 20(3):

294
-
313.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com.nwulib.nwu.ac.za/journals.htm?issn=0965
-
3562&volume=20&issue=3&articleid=1937593&show=pdf

Date of access: 29 Feb.
2012.


Unit summary:



Certain gro
ups are particularly vulnerable to disasters: they include people
marginalised by gender, age, ethnicity and disability. The root causes of their
vulnerability
exist with
in their position in society.



Disaster managers often overlook the needs of vulnerable

groups
. There should be
more planning with them, not simply for them.



Women’s skills, technical knowledge and coping capacities are a valuable resource for
risk reduction, which should be utilised more extensively.



Disasters can be used as opportunities t
o empower women and make significant
changes in gender relationships.



Older people’s knowledge and experience of previous disasters can be put to good use
in risk reduction.



Children and young people should be given more opportunities to present their view
s of
their environment and their needs.



Institutions such as schools and nurseries can provide a focus for a range of mitigation
activities benefiting both children and the community as a whole.



A number of simple, inexpensive steps can be taken to reduce
the physical
vulnerability of elderly and disabled people.



Inclusive, non
-
discriminatory approaches are needed to overcome minority groups’
vulnerability.



Appreciating the capacity of people and groups is the first step in empowering
communities
.



Models pr
ovide frameworks for understanding the nature of risk and the dynamics of
vulnerability and capacity.



Sustainable livelihoods
model
may provide a conceptual means of mainstreaming
disasters and vulnerability in development thinking.


Study unit 5


9


5

GOVERNANCE, ADVOCAC
Y
AND SELF
-
HELP






Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Explain the role of different actors in disaster risk management.



Evaluate disaster risk management as a governance issue.



Critically judge g
overnment policies in terms of the
ir contribution to vulnerability.



Apply various participatory, people
-
centred techniques for disaster risk management.



Engage civil society in participating in disaster risk management.



Understand the role of the private sector in disaster risk management.


Compulsory reading:



Bocchino, C & Murphree, M. 2011. KP 27
-

Public participation and community action.
Prepared by the African Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for
the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction Training Programme for South and so
uthern Africa.



Cadribo, R. 2011. KP 2


Disaster risk governance.
Prepared by the African Centre for
Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction
Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Delica
-
Wilson, Z. & Gaill
ard. J.C. 2012. Community action and disasters.

(
In
Wisner, B,
Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman
, I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster
risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge.
p
.
711
-
722
.)



Lavell, A. Gaillard, J.C., Wisner, B. Saunders, W. and van Nieker
k, D. 2012. National
planning and disasters.

(
In
Wisner, B
.
, Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman
, I.

eds
. The
Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk reduction. Oxon: Routledge. p. 617
-
628.
)



O’Brien, G. Bhatt, M. Saunders, W. Gaillard, J.C. and B. Wisner. 20
12. Local
government and disaster.

(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman
, I.

eds
. The
Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge.
p
.
447
-
458
.)



Thompson, M. 2012. Civil society and disaster.

(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. an
d
Kelman, I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk r
eduction. Oxon:
Routledge.
p
.
723
-
736
)


Study unit 5


10

Unit summary:



Disasters are complex phenomena that can only be addressed by deploying a wide
range of knowledge, skills, methods and resources. T
his means that risk reduction
initiatives must be multi
-
disciplinary partnerships involving a wide range of
stakeholders.



The ‘disaster community’ is very diverse, and at present it is too fragmented.



Disasters should be seen as a governance issue. Nationa
l governments should be the
main actors in risk reduction, but there are obstacles to this: lack of capacity and
resources, short
-
sighted planning, inadequate organization and political interference.



Government policies are often a major contributor to peo
ple’s vulnerability to hazards.



Decentralisation of government has had both positive and negative consequences for
risk reduction.



Civil society has an important role to play, though it is not always welcomed.



A wider range of civil society actors should b
e encouraged to take part in collaborative
risk reduction initiatives.



Better networking, especially inter
-
disciplinary networking, is needed; so too is regional
collaboration, which can be very effective.



The roles and potential of the private sector and
the military are still being worked out.



Participatory approaches are valuable, helping to identify vulnerabilities and build local
capacities.



Participation should be ‘people
-
centred’: it should seek to empower communities by
involving them in defining pr
oblems, deciding solutions, implementing activities and
evaluating the results.



In practice, participation is difficult to manage and may not produce quick results.



To be effective, participation must empower and mobilise a community collectively,
avoiding

dominance by some groups and the exclusion of others.



A number of operational choices must be made about the time and scope of the
process and the choice of participatory methods.



Study unit 6


11


6

DISASTER RISK
ASSESSMENTS




Outcomes:

After completing this unit you
should be able to:



E
stablish risk as a dynamic concept
.




D
efine the nature of risk as the basis of risk assessment
.



Explain the components addressed in disaster risk assessments.




A
ppreciate the role of disaster risk assessments in disaster risk reduction
.



E
stablish the methodology for conducting disaster risk assessments (five phases)
.



Identify marginalised groups most at risk of disaster.



Utilise and collate all views on disaster risk in order to make meaningful decisions in
terms of disaster reduction.



S
upport local communities in their efforts towards disaster risk reduction.



Design and implement community
-
based disaster risk management strategies

based
on the findings of the assessments
.


Compulsory reading:



Forbes
-
Biggs, K. 2011. KP 9
-

Disaster risk a
ssessments.

Prepared by the African
Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for the USAID Disaster Risk
Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



H
olloway
, A. & R. R
oomaney. 2008. Weathering the s
torm: Participatory risk
asse
ssment for informal settlements. Rondebosch: Periperi Publications.



McCall, M. K. & Peters
-
Guarin, G. 2012. Participatory action research and disaster
risk.

(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman
, I.

eds
. The Routledge handbook of
hazards and disaster
risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge.
p
.
772
-
786
.)


Additional reading:



D
e

D
ios
, H.B., 2002. Participatory capacity
and vulnerability assessment


F
inding the
link between disasters and development. Quezon City: Oxfam Philippines Program.



I
nternational Federatio
n of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. 2007. How to do a VCA
-

A

practical step
-
by
-
step guide for Red Cross/Red Crescent staff. Geneva: International
Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.



M
ercer
, J.
,

K
elman
,
I.,
L
loyd
,

K. &
S
uchet
-
Pearson, S
. 2008. R
eflections on use of
participatory research for disaster risk reduction. Area 42, 172
-
183

Study unit 6


12



P
arker
, A. and T
ritter
.

J.

2006. Focus group method and methodology: current practice
and recent debate. International Journal of Research & Method in Education Vol.
29 (1)
23

37



S
tewart
, D.
,

S
hamdasani
, P. N
&

R
ook,

D.W.

2007. Focus groups: theory and practice


Applied Social Research Methods Series Volume 20
.
2nd edition. Thousand Oaks,
USA: Sage



UN/ISDR. 2011. Words into Action


A guide for implementing the Hyogo
Framework.
Geneva: United Nations.



V
an Aalst
, M. K., C
annon, T
, and B
urton
.
I.
2008. Community level adaptation to
climate change the potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Global
Environmental Change 18: 165
-
179.



V
enton
, P. & H
ansford
. B. 2006. Reducing risk of disasters in our community.
Teddington: Tearfund.


Unit summary:



Community
-
level approaches are an important element of risk management, since in
reality local people and their organisations are the main actors in reducing risk
and
responding to disasters.



Working at community and local levels presents significant challenges, including how
far it can address supra
-
local problems, how to scale up impact, and how to ensure
sustainability.



Local activities take place in relation to
a range of stakeholders, within and beyond the
community. Supporting agencies must often assume the role of facilitators and
intermediaries.



Disaster risk assessments are important tools for appreciating risk at the local level.



Risk assessments allow comm
unity members to participate in identifying risk as well as
compiling strategies to help reduce it.



Study unit 7


13


7

SCENARIO PLANNING





Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Define and explain scenario planning.



Discuss the origins of the sce
nario planning approach.



Identify and discuss the underlying rationale for scenario planning.



Explain the scenario planning process.



Critically evaluate the role of scenario planning in disaster risk reduction.


Compulsory reading:



Murphree, M. 2011. KP
9

-

Scenario
p
lanning. Prepared by the African Centre for
Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus in the preparation of the USAID
Disaster Risk Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Segal, N. 2007. Breaking the mould:
T
he role of

scenarios in shaping South Africa’s
future. Stellenbosch: Sun Press
.


Additional reading:



Chermack, T.J. 2004. Improving decision
-
making with scenario planning.

Futures
,
36(3): 295
-
309.



Murphree, M.J., Hurst, F. & Bocchino, C. 2010. Strengthening c
onventional protected
area planning in Syria: A scenario planning approach. Via Nova Group/UNDP
-
GEF
Biodiversity Conservation and Protected Areas Management Project (SYR/05/010).



Wilson, I. 2000. From scenario thinking to strategic action.
Technologica
l Forecasting
and Social Change

65: 23
-
29.


Useful websites:



Shell Oil :
http://www.shell.com/home/content/aboutshell/our_strategy/shell_global_scenarios/




G
lobal Business Network:



http://www.gbn.com/about/scenario_planning.php



See also
Drivers, Scales and Misfits

www.acds.co.za


Study unit 7


14

Unit summary:



Scen
ario planning is interchangeably referred to as a tool, methodology or process for
thinking about the future in a creative and innovative way that challenges the mind to
use past experience with current indicators and drivers to create plausible alternativ
e
futures.



Scenario planning is more about “thinking” than “planning”, working very differently to
conventional planning approaches. Scenario planning is able to address very complex
systems where there is a high degree of uncertainty.



The documentation o
f the scenario planning process can range from a simple report to
more sophisticated documentation with extensive graphics, the strength of the process
is not in the report but in the participation.



Scenario planning has two main components. Firstly, it an
alyses the factors or drivers
that are influencing the “system” to build a present or “default scenario”. Secondly, it
extrapolates the current drivers into possible futures that can be used to guide
planning, research or management interventions.



Scenario

planning can be used as an effective tool to achieving disaster risk reduction
and addressing systemic disasters. It can also be used to assist the development of
more detailed simulation models that address disaster
management and response
issues.



Study unit 8


15


8

F
ROM DAMAGE AND NEEDS

ASSESSMENTS TO RELIE
F





Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Define the term relief.



Establish the role of information management in disasters.



Identify the three (3) predominant types of assessments used

foll
owing hazard impact.



Recognise the common indicators used in damage assessments
.



Describe the procedures for conducting the three (3) type of assessments.



Realise the value of damage and needs assessment in assisting communities post
-
disaster scenarios.


C
ompulsory reading:



De Ville de Goyet, C. 2012. From Damage and Needs Assessments to Relief.
(
In
Wisner, B, Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman
I.
eds
. The Routledge handbook of hazards and
disaster risk r
eduction. Oxon: Routledge. P.
518
-
529
.)


Unit summary:



The gre
atest challenge to relief efforts is the limited, accurate information following
hazard impact.



Information management serves as the foundation of effective disaster management.



Assessments are used to establish the severity of hazard impact in order to pr
ovide
guidance for humanitarian aid and decision
-
makers for the purpose of mobilizing
adequate resources.



Assessments can also inform decision
-
makers that additional external resources are
necessary which can result in appeals for assistance







Study unit 8


16




Study
unit 9


17


9

D
ISASTER RISK REDUCTI
ON
IN DISASTER RESPONSE

AND
RECOVERY




Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Define the terminology for response and recovery.



Determine expectations for response and recovery activities.



Consider policy implicati
ons of the success or failure in disaster recovery and
response.



Recognise the providers of disaster assistance and the possible implications of disaster
aid.



Understand the role of culture and politics in recovery efforts.


Compulsory reading:



Nakagawa, Y
.
&

Shaw
,

R. 2004.
Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery.
International Journal for Mass Emergencies and Disasters

Vol. 22(1): 5
-
34.



Quarantelli, E.L. 1999. The d
isaster recovery process: What we know and don’t know
from research. Preliminary

Paper #286. Newark: University of Delaware.



Reid, P. 2011. KP 30


Disaster risk reduction in disaster response and recovery.
Prepared by the African Centre for Disaster Studies NWU Potchefstroom Campus for
the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction Training Progr
amme for South and southern Africa.



Rubin, C.

& Barbee. D. 1985. Disaster recovery and hazard m
itigation: Bridging the
i
nte
r
g
overnmental g
ap.
Public Administration Review

Special Issue: Emergency
Management: A Challenge for Public Administration

145: 57
-
63
, January.



Schneider, S. K. 1992. Government response to
d
isasters: The conflict between
bureaucratic procedures and emergent norms.
Public Administration Review
.
52(2)
:135
-
145,

Mar
ch
-
Apr
il
.


Study unit 9


18

Unit summary:



Determine expectations for response and recovery
activities.



There are a number of implications that influence the success or failure of response
and recovery phases.



International aid agencies, national governments, regional partners, multi
-
national
organisations and local business can all be potential

providers of disaster assistance.
This assistance can come in many forms ranging from cash, loans (low interest or non
-
interest bearing), in
-
kind services (such as skilled labour or rescues services),
equipment (construction) or food. National governments

need to understand the
potential political consequences of incurring loans or accepting support from
organisations that may have a hidden agenda.



Corruption and the failure to acknowledge cultural sensitivities may undermine the
success of recovery effort
s such as through the allocating resources to favoured
groups or by causing friction among various persons who follow different beliefs.





Study unit 10


19


10

C
OMMUNICATION AND
PARTICIPATION





Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Argue the need f
or good and thorough disaster risk communication.



Explain the link between development and disaster risk reduction.



Explain how the principles of participatory development communication can be used in
the context of disaster risk reduction



Identify and d
iscuss contextual factors and their influence on communication for
disaster risk reduction.



Understand and explain the communication policy and strategy for disaster risk
reduction.



Design an appropriate disaster reduction communication plan.



Explain the r
ole of training and education in disaster risk reduction.



Compile a disaster risk management research agenda.


Compulsory reading:



Snoer, E. 2011. KP 29

-

Communication for
d
isaster
r
isk
r
eduction. Prepared by the
African Centre for Disaster Studies NWU
Potchefstroom Campus in the preparation of
the USAID Disaster Risk Reduction Training Programme for South and southern Africa.



Chapter 62 of: Wisner, B., Gaillard, J.C. and Kelman, I. 2102. The Routledge
Handbook of Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction.

USA: Routledge.



Chapter 11 of:
Twigg, J. 2004. Good Practice Review: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming. London:
HPN.



Chapter 4, Section 3, 4 and 5 of: International Strategy for Disaster Reducti
on (ISDR).
2004
Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives
. Kobe: UN/ISDR.



Enabler 2 of: South Africa (Republic). 2005. National Disaster Management
Framework. Pretoria: Government Printer.



Msibi, F. & Penzhorn, C. 2010. Participa
tory communication for local government in
South Africa: a study of the Kungwini Local Municipality.
Information Development
,
26(3): 225


236.


Study unit 10


20

Additional reading:



Bennett, R.
&

Daniel, M. 2002. Media reporting of Third World disasters:
T
he
journalist’s

perspective.
Disaster Prevention and Management

11
(
1
): 33
-
42
.



Bessette, G. 2004. Involving the community: A guide to participatory development
communication. International Development Research Center. Ottawa, C
AN
:
Southbound Penang.



Del Castello, R. & Br
uan, P.M. 2006. Framework on effective rural communication for
development. Rome, Italy: FAO
.



Servaes, J. 1995. Development communication


For who and for what?
Communicatio

21(1): 39
-
49
.



Servaes, J., Jacobson, T.L. & White, S.A. 1996. Participatory commu
nication for social
change. New Delhi, India: SAGA.



Servaes, J. 1999. Communication for development: one world, multiple cultures.

Cresskill, J.N.: Hampton Press.



Moemeka
, A.

2000. Development communication in action: building understanding and
creating p
articipation. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.


Unit summary:



Communication about risk reduction needs to be approached as a dialogue and
exchange of information with vulnerable people, not as one
-
way information
dissemination.



Disaster managers c
an learn a lot from the experiences and practices of development
agencies.



All disaster reduction programmes should include communications and awareness
-
raising as central components, and should have a clear communications plan.



Creation of a ‘culture of s
afety’, in which risk awareness and the adoption of risk
-
reducing measures are part of daily life, is a long
-
term process.



A wide variety of methods is available, some of which are relatively simple. The right
mix will vary according to local contexts.



Eva
luation of communications initiatives presents several practical challenges, and little
is known about their effectiveness.



Risk education through schools has considerable potential, if approached
pragmatically.



Opportunities for professional training and
education are growing, but careful thought
should be given to the appropriateness of courses, especially at the agency level.



The Internet is greatly improving communications between practitioners.



The World Wide Web could play a significant role in educat
ing and supporting the
public.


Study unit 11


21


11

M
ONITORING DISASTER R
ISK
MANAGEMENT




Outcomes:

After completing this unit you should be able to:



Appreciate the importance of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in disaster risk
management.



Ensure accountability in disast
er risk management.



Design and implement a M&E system.



Learn from M&E and adapt and change disaster risk management actions.


Compulsory reading:



Chapter 18 of:
Twigg, J. 2004. Good Practice Review: Disaster risk reduction


Mitigation and preparedness in
development and emergency programming. London:
HPN.



Summary of the NDMF (see end of document):
South Africa (Republic). 2005. National
Disaster Management Framework. Pretoria: Government Printer.


Unit summary:



M&E is important in making agencies accountab
le, demonstrating that risk reduction
works and improving understanding of how it works.



Organisations involved in risk reduction have given low priority to M&E and it is poorly
covered in technical manuals and other literature. This makes it difficult to
offer a view
of ‘good practice’ in this area.



M&E systems must be planned carefully, bearing in mind that no two projects are
identical. The purpose and methods of any evaluation exercise should be clearly
defined and agreed, there should be some focus to
the assessment, and its objectives
must be realistic.



Many evaluators are not given the time or resources to do their work thoroughly.
However, snapshots of initiatives, and small
-
scale or rapid assessments,

can be useful.



M&E should be approached as a mut
ual learning process for all involved. Beneficiary
communities should be involved in evaluation, remembering that they are not the only
project stakeholders.



The balance between external and internal assessors, between local people and
outsiders, between d
ifferent technical specialists and generalists and between women
and men are important considerations when assessment teams are formed.

Study unit 11


22



Identifying linkages between cause and effect is a particular challenge, especially since
good risk reduction work shoul
d comprise a range of diverse but mutually reinforcing
activities. Triangulation of different data sets and sources is important.



Most evaluations of mitigation and preparedness projects focus on outputs rather than
impact. There are few long
-
term impact a
ssessments.



Choice of indicators presents a number of problems, including identification of suitable
proxy indicators of impact and the need to draw on very diverse data sets (quantitative
and qualitative).



Cost

benefit analysis is generally held to make a

convincing case for risk reduction,
but it is very difficult to carry out


particularly in pricing the environmental, social,
political and psychological costs and benefits. A focus on purely economic aspects
addresses only one dimension of vulnerability
.



M&E findings must be used to improve agencies’ performance, but organisations of all
kinds are poor at absorbing these lessons. Much more transparency is needed in M&E:
the failure to share and publish evaluations hinders the acquisition of knowledge abo
ut
success and failure.



Identifying linkages between cause and effect is a particular challenge, especially since
good risk reduction work should comprise a range of diverse but mutually reinforcing
activities. Triangulation of different data sets and sour
ces is important.



Most evaluations of mitigation and preparedness projects focus on outputs rather than
impact. There are few long
-
term impact assessments.



Choice of indicators presents a number of problems, including identification of suitable
proxy indic
ators of impact and the need to draw on very diverse data sets (quantitative
and qualitative).



Cost

benefit analysis is generally held to make a convincing case for risk reduction,
but it is very difficult to carry out


particularly in pricing the environ
mental, social,
political and psychological costs and benefits. A focus on purely economic aspects
addresses only one dimension of vulnerability.



M&E findings must be used to improve agencies’ performance, but organisations of all
kinds are poor at absorbi
ng these lessons. Much more transparency is needed in M&E:
the failure to share and publish evaluations hinders the acquisition of knowledge about
success and failure.






Useful websites


23

Useful websites

Benfield Hazard Research
Centre (University College
London)

http://www.benfieldhrc.org


Gender and Disaster
Network

http://www.gdnonline.org/

Livelihoods.org

www.livelihoods.org

Natural H
aza
rds Centre
(University of Colora
do)

http://www.colorado.edu/hazards


Overseas Development
Institute (UK)

www.odi.org.uk


Prevention web

www.preventionweb.net

Provention Consortium

www.proventionconsortium.org

Relief web

www.reliefweb.int

School for Development
Studies, Univ
ersity of East
Anglia

http://www1.uea.ac.uk/cm/home/schools/ssf/dev/more



Southern African Regional
Poverty Network

www.sarpn.org.za


United N
ation International
Strategy for Disaster
Reduction

www.unisdr.org


UNISDR Africa

www.unisdrafrica.org