Annotated Bibliography FINAL

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Annotated Bibliography

ED11: Doctor of Education,
Quee
nsland University of Technology

Research Topic:


What technology and level of engagement are
necessary to attain telepresence?


Author:


Carol Daunt (n1006771)


Supervisors: Dr

Alan Roberts & Dr
Radha Iyer





Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

2






Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

3

Introduction

Telepresence has traditionally been described from a technology perspective rather than the
experience that the technology enables. Steuer (1992) was the first to describe telepresence from an
expe
riential perspective and this notion continues to be discussed, analysed and researched.
From
a review of the literature
t
o date, it has become
clear that we need

to develop a deeper
understanding, both in theory and in practice, of how peop
le interact

with each other and virtual
others through communication media
, t
hat is

telepresence
.

This

study will examine the factors contributing to the
state

of telepresence

from an experiential
perspective.

It is concerned with examining
whether achieving this

state

is dependent upon a

particular

level of technology

or whether

individual

engage
ment in an
activity is the major
contributing

factor.


The study aims to:

1.

Define telepresence

2.

Examine

how much technology is needed to create a telepresence experience.

3.

Investigate the nature of engagement necessary for telepresence to occur.

4.

Investigat
e the indications for teaching and learning.

Themes

Four themes have emerged from the literature to date. These are:

1.

Defining Telepresence:



History



Definition

2.

Environment:



Videoconferencing



Virtual Worlds

3.

Engagement:



Presence



Social Presence



Interactivity



Flow



Measurement

(of
levels of
engagement)

4.

Learning Theories:



Constructivism



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

4



Connectivism




Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

5

Their relationship to the Research Topic are demonstrated in

the

diagram below
.



Literature Sources

Telepresence is an emerging concept and, as such, there is a lack of research in the area. Th
e
following types of documents have been used to inform this study:



journal articles



conference papers



books

Papers for this annotated bibliography have been chosen from the following publications:



Book: Being There: Concepts, effects and measurement of us
er presence in synthetic
environments



Book: Encyclopedia of Virtual Communities and Technologies



British Journal of Educational Technology



Conference Paper: Learning Technologies Conference, Australia 2005



Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology



Educat
ional Technology (journal)



Human

Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society



Journal of Communication



Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

6

Reviewed Papers

Following are a selection of papers chosen for this annotated bibliograph
y. They represent a broad
selection based on the following criteria:



they cover all themes identified



they are from a range of sources



they have been written across various years from 1992


2007


thus reflecting
developments in thinking in the field over

the past 15

years.

NB:

Not all readings undertaken to date are included in this review. The paper numbers reflect
those in the concept map.

Each includes a rating for relevance to my study


10 being highly
relevant.

Paper 1:

Steuer, J. (1992). Defining
v
irtual r
eality: Dimensions d
etermining t
elepresence.
Journal of
Communication
, 42(4),

73
-
97.

At the time of writing this article, Jonathan Steuer was a lecturer in the
Department of
Communication, Stanford University. He holds a

BA from Harvard Univers
ity and a Ph. D. in
Communication Theory and Research from Stanford University. He is a pioneer in online
publishing and this article is widely cited in academic and industry literature.

In this paper Steuer redefines the term “virtual reality” from one c
entred around technology to
being in ter
ms of presence and telepresence.

St
e
uer (1992) conten
d
s that:

[t
]
elepresence is defined as the experience of presence in an environment by means of a
communication medium. In other words, "presence" refers to the n
atural perception of an
environment, and "telepresence" refers to the mediated perception of an environment. This
environment can be either a temporally or spatially distant "real" environment (for
instance, a distant space viewed through a video camera),
or an animated but non
-

existent
virtual world synthesized by a computer (for instance, the animated "world" created in a
video game). (p. 6)

Steuer suggests two dimensions that contribute to telepresence, vividness and interactivity.
Vividness means the r
epresentational richness of a mediated environment as defined by its formal
features, that is, the way in which an environment presents information to the senses. Interactivity
is defined as the extent to which users can participate in modifying the form a
nd content of a
mediated environment in real time.

He conjectures that vividness and interactivity are both positively related to telepresence; that is,
the more vivid and the more interactive a particular environment is, the greater the sense of
presence
evoked by that environment.
Steuer’s vividness and interactivity matrix from this paper
has been particularly influential in shaping the discourse by defining virtual reality in terms of
human experience, rather than technological hardware, and setting ou
t vividness and interactivity
as axial dimensions of that experience.



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

7

Steuer (1992) is highly relevant to my study as this paper goes beyond telepresence as
technological and explores it as experiential. Steuer’s dimensions of vividness and interactivity
may provide a basis for measurement of telepresence experiences in my study. There are links to a
number of important studies and papers of the time.

The only shortcoming on this paper is that it
was written in 1992


long before many of the recent ICT de
velopments and the emergence of the
new media systems.
Relevance: 10

Paper 2:

Ijsselsteijn,
W.,
&
Riva, G
.

(2003). Being there: The experience of presence
in mediated
environments.
In
G.
Riva,

F.

Davide,

&

W.

I
j
sselsteijn

(Eds.)
Being t
here: Concepts, effects

and
measurement of user presence in synthetic environments

(pp. 3
-
16)
.

Ios Press, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands.

Wijnand Ijsselsteijn is an Associate Professor within the Human
-
Technology Interaction Group,
Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven U
niversity of Technology in The
Netherlands. Since 1996, he has worked on the scientific investigation of how humans interact
with advanced media technologies and is specifically interested in how to conceptualise and
measure the human experience in relatio
n to media. Giuseppe Riva, Ph.D., is Associate Professor
of Communication Psychology at the Catholic University of Milan and Head Researcher of the
Applied Technology for Neuro
-
Psychology Laboratory.

This paper is the first chapter of a book, which attempt
s to help designers and researchers develop
a better understanding of how a real sense of presence can be achieved. In this chapter,
Ijsselsteijn
and Riva

discuss different types of presence; including physical presence, social presence and co
-
presence. Th
ey investigate presence in terms of ‘point of view’ and ‘self perception’, and make the
point that presence is not intrinsically bound to any specific type of technology but is a product of
the mind. As such, it is highly likely that the presence experienc
e will vary significantly across
individuals, based on differences in perceptual
-
motor abilities, mental states, traits, needs,
preference and experience.

The authors assert that a measure of presence that is reliable, valid and robust is an essential tool

in designing and evaluating media from a user
-
centred perspective, but contend that, despite
considerable progress in investigating several candidate measurement methodologies, a reliable
tool remains one of the main research challenges of the field. In m
aking this assertion, they
examine

the factors used by several
researchers

in an attempt to measure presence
.

Ijsselsteijn and Riva overview the research of a number of authors in t
he area of presence and
conclude that
experiencing presence requires the reproduction of the physical features of external
reality; the possibility of interaction and free action, and the creation and sharing of the cultural
meaning amongst people and obje
cts populating the environment.

This paper is highly relevant to
my study in providing a basis for examin
ing what telepresence is, and

containing

many valuable
references to work in the field. Relevance: 9

Paper 3:

Jonassen, D. (1994)
.


Thinking t
echnology:

Toward a c
onstructivist d
esign m
odel.
Educational
Technology
, 34(4)
,

34
-
37
.



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

8

At the time of writing, Jonassen was a Professor of Instructional Systems at the Pennsylvania State
University. He is currently
Distinguished Professor of Education in the Schoo
l of Information
Science and Learning Technologies, Educational Psychology Program, University of Missouri
-
Columbia. Jonassen is a well
-
published and respected academic in the field of learning as it
intersects with technology. This paper was written when
constructivism was a relatively new
concept to the field of instructional systems and explains the place of constructivism in designing
learning.

Jonassen
discusses
the concept of constructivism as
being where
learners construct their own
r
eality (or at least interpret it) based upon their perceptions of experiences. He then examines this
in the light of designing learning environments that foster constructivist learning as opposed to
controlling the processing of the learner. Three common a
ttributes are presented: context,
collaboration, construction
;

and Jonassen suggests that these attributes should exist in

all

learning
environments. A Web of Constructivism is presented that centres around these three attributes
and attempts to capture the int
er
-
relationships between the attributes themselves and the various
elements of which each is comprised.

This paper is an attempt at simplifying the constructivist theory in terms of learning environments
and Jonassen has written more in
-
depth on the subjec
t since 1994. It is worthwhile as an
introduction to the subject, however more would be gained from reading the later works of
Jonassen
,

in the light of this paper
,

in order to examine how his thinking on the topic developed.
Relevance: 5

Paper 4:

Insko, B.
E. (20
03). Measuring p
resence: Subjective, b
ehavioral and p
hysiological m
ethods.
In
G.
Riva,

F.

Davide,

&
W.

I
j
sselsteijn

(Eds.)
Being t
here: Concepts, effects

and measurement of user
presence in synthetic environments

(pp. 110
-
118)
.

Ios Press, Amsterdam, Th
e Netherlands.

Brent Insko is a researcher in the Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina.
This paper is a chapter of a book, which attempts to help designers and researchers develop a
better understanding of how a real sense of presen
ce can be achieved. In this chapter, Insko
addresses the issue of

how to determine the extent to which a user feels present in the virtual
environment and examines three categories of methods commonly used for measuring presence;
their use in the field,
their
ad
vantages

and disadvantages.

Insko identifies that the definition of presence has yet to be agreed upon by researchers, and
identifies two definitions of presence that are most often discussed in the literature
, these being

1)
the sense of being in
a place even when one is physically situated in another place
;

and 2) the
“perceptual illusion of nonmediation” where a participant experiences presence, when he or she
fails to perceive or acknowledge that the environment is being presented through some t
ype of
media. He points out that the lack of a single accepted definition leads to difficulty in quantifying a
participant’s presence.

Insko overviews several existing measures of presence:



Subjective measures based on post
-
immersion questionnaires that re
ly on self
-
assessment
by the user.



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

9



Behavioural measures that examine actions or manners exhibited by the user that are
responses to objects or events in the virtual environment.



Physiological methods that attempt to measure presence by gauging changes in

the
subject's heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, etc.

He then compares these methods based on the criteria of reliability, validity, objectivity, and
sensitivity and recommends that the researcher use as many methods as is fe
asible so that it is less
likely that any differences in presence between two conditions will be missed. Insko believes that
most of the time, a questionnaire will be appropriate for use in measuring presence in an
experiment.

Insko’s paper is a comprehens
ive overview of presence measurement tools and methods and their
advantages and disadvantages. It is an excellent starting point for further, in
-
depth study of the
various methodologies and will be an important resource for my study. Relevance: 9

Paper 6:

Montgomery, H., Sharafi, P.,
&
Hed
man, L. R. (2004). Engaging in a
ctivities i
nvolving
i
nformation t
echnology: Dimensions, m
odes, and f
low.
Human Factors: The Journal of the
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society,

46(2)
,

334
-
3
48
.

Henry Montgomery is a Professor in the D
epartment of Psychology at Stockholm University.
Parvaneh Sharafi is a Research Associate in the Department of Learning, Informatics,
Management, and Ethics at the Karolins
ka Institute, Stockholm. Leif

Hedman is an Associate
Professor in the Department
of Psychology at Umeh University. The primary audience for this
paper are psychologists, engin
eers, designers, and scientists;

all of whom have a common interest
in designing systems and equipment to be safe and effective for the people who operate and
mai
ntain them.

The authors explore the concept of engagement mode, which has been used for describing general
properties of people's activities in relation to the external world. In this context engagement modes
are considered in relation to how people percei
ve qualities of their interaction with information
technology (IT). The paper specifies three dimensions that define different engagement modes in
interaction with IT (e
valuation, control, motivation)

and relates each dimension to the flow
experience. (Cs
ikszentmihalyi's flow theory determined two factors in relation to achieving ‘flow’:
the subject's skill and the challenge of the activity in which the subject is engaged.)

Montgomery et al
.

describe a study in which they developed a questionnaire purport
ing to lead to
a model of engagement modes
in relation to IT and related this to flow experience. They
constructed a questionnaire to gauge the components of pleasure, co
ntrol, concentration, exploring

and challenge in 300 subjects. The results are report
ed in considerable depth in both psychological
and statistical terms.

The paper by Montgomery et al
.

is an in
-
depth study of engagement modes and examines this
concept with a psychological bias that is too complex for my study. However, the early part of th
e
paper contains some good underpinning information about the notion of engagement and
interaction with IT. Relevance: 6



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

10

Paper 10:

Barbatsi
s, G. S. (1999). Hypermediated t
elepresence: Sensemakin
g a
esthetics of the n
ewest
c
ommunication a
rt.
Journal of Broad
casting & Electronic Media
,

43(2),

280
-
298
.

Barbatsis
is an Associate Professor of Telecommunication at Michigan State University. Her
research focuses on pictorial communication, with particular emphases in the

visual aesthetics of
mediated communication and visual literacy. The audience for this paper is those working in the
field of new media, in particular hypermedia, which is a combination of 2
-
D and 3
-
D graphics with
the ability for interaction amongst part
icipants.

Barbatsis addresses the issue
that research which focuses on distinctions among technologies
rather than on distinctions about the experiences that technologies create has prevented treating
the emergent concepts of hypermedia as qualities of co
mmunication. She cites several scholars
who
link a technology driven approach with theoretical inadequacies regarding issues of
interactivity,
and presents other supporting arguments
maintain
ing

that qualities of interpersonal
engagement are not explained simply as mediated versions of everyday, face
-
to
-
face interaction.

In this paper
Ba
rbatsis

reports in depth on a visual field analysis that was carried out to address
the "sensory world" or the "experiential environment" of mediated communication. She isolated a
set of perceptual qualities of space and time as formal features of hypermed
ia: amalgamation,
contingency, graphication, fragmentation

and synaesthesia
. Barbatsis makes clear that the method
of visual field analysis does not provide answers as to whether or not these qualities are properties
reflected in the cognitive

and affective mental mappings of hypermedia experiences but that the
method merely lays the groundwork for further investigation.

This paper by
Barbatsis deals with the topic of experiencing technology in a depth that is beyond
the scope of my study, howe
ver it informs the research process. Relevance: 6.

Paper 11:

Shin, N. (2006). Online
l
earner's "f
low" e
xperience: An e
mpirical s
tudy.
British Journal of
Educational Technology
,

37(5)
,
705
-
720.

Namin Shin is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Educati
on, Dongguk University in
Seoul.
In this paper Shin is concerned with the issue of engagement in online learning through the
lens of Csikszentmihalyi’s ‘flow’ theory.

Over the last
ten

years,
Csikszentmihalyi’s
Flow
theory has been widely applied to vario
us fields
of study dealing with issues of technology and human learning. In this study, Shin put forward a
flow model with regard to virtual class environment in a traditional university context. The virtual
course was purely online with no face
-
to
-
face se
ssions provided, but students could take part in
virtual lectures through video
-
on
-
demand (VOD). Based on the model, a virtual
-
course flow
measure (VFM) was developed and administered to 525 undergraduate students engaged in
virtual classes in order to exa
mine the empirical relationships between measured flow antecedents,
flow experiences and flow consequence
-
course satisfaction in this case.

This paper gives a useful overview and definition of flow theory (
people in flow can be depicted,
in general, as bei
ng intrinsically motivated, interested in challenging tasks at hand, being


Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

11

unconscious of themselves while performing the tasks, feeling a unity between consciousness and
activities, and oftentimes losing the sense of physical time)

and discusses various w
ays of
garnering empirical data on flow. Telepresence is one of the flow experiences (refer Fig
.

1 p. 708)
and one of the subconstructs in the
VFM,
which was developed to gauge the extent to which
individual students experience the subjective state of flow
(refer Table 1 p. 710).

In the VFM, telepresence is defined as the extent to which one feels present in an environment
mediated by communication media, to be determined by ‘vividness’ and ‘interactivity’. It provides
five measures of telepresence which ar
e drawn from the work of Steuer (1993):



While watching VOD, I adjust the volume or the screen size.



I remember vividly the way in which the contents were presented on screen.



I screen the contents and go directly to the part I need within the table of cont
ents of the
lecture.



I go over every piece of information put on the screen.



I have a clear memory of the instructor’s voice even after the class is over.

The findings show that: (1) students’ perceptions of their level of ‘skill’ and ‘challenge’ specific

to
each course are critical to determining the level of flow, (2) flow is a significant predictor of course
satisfaction and (3) other than flow, individual differences such as ‘gender’ and ‘having a clear
goal’ can make a significant difference in the le
vel of flow in a virtual course.

Shin addresses three questions that may be useful in framing my own questions.
How would the
experience be conceptualised? What factors would lead learners to be in or out of flow? What
impact would the flow experience have

on online learning?

The only limitation in this paper is that it reports numerous quantitative statistics but doesn’t
discuss the implications of these in depth. This paper could form the basis of measurement of
levels of engagement in my study


the stat
istics could be the starting point for my research.
Shin
identifies that more research is needed to link the flow and learning. Relevance: 8

Paper 12:

Debbabi, S.
,

&
Baile, S
.

(2005). Creating t
elepresence in v
irtual m
ediated e
nvironments. In D.
Subhasish

(Ed.)

Encyclopedia of Virtual Communities and Technologies

(pp
.
73
-
77)
.

Idea Group,
Inc.

Sana Debbabi is a doctoral student and Serge Baile is a Professor at the
Centre de recherche en
gestion at IAE
-
Université Toulouse, France. This paper is a chapter in a book d
esigned to provide a
compendium of terms, definitions and explanations of concepts, processes and acronyms, and
which features short articles authored by leading experts offering an in
-
depth description of key
terms and concepts related to different areas,

issues and trends in information science and
technologies.

Debbabi and Baile explain that a number of emerging technologies, including video conferencing,
are designed to enable the user to experience a sense of being present in a mediated virtual
environ
ment i.e. telepresence. They propose that telepresence should be considered as a facet of


Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

12

presence in a mediated virtual environment and refer to a number of applications for telepresence,
including the e
xpanded distance learning options that it makes avai
lable. As other authors cited in
this bibliography have done, they note that d
espite the centrality and importance of telepresence, it
has not yet been carefully defined and explicated.

The authors review several conceptualisations of telepresence and pres
ence in literature, review
telepresence determinants, and outline the main methods commonly used for measuring
telepresence. As did Insko (2003), they examine the main methods being used to measure presence
in subjective and objective terms, and outline th
e weaknesses in each method. They conclude the
paper by questioning whether
telepresence is necessarily a good thing and why we so strongly
desire a sense of telepresence.

This paper presents another view on telepresence, but as a short piece, it adds litt
le to the debate.
More is to be gained from Insko’s paper (2003). Relevance: 5

Paper 17:

Wheeler, S. (2005)
.

Creating s
ocial
p
resence in d
igital l
earning e
nvironments:
A p
resence of
m
ind? Paper presented at Learning Technologies Conference, Australia.

Steve

Wheeler is a Senior Lecturer in Education and Information Technology, University of
Plymouth and is currently working toward a Ph
.
D
.

by publication. This paper supported a
conference presentation in which the audience were educational practitioners using le
arning
technologies to support their teaching and learning programs.

In this paper Wheeler argues that social presence is an important feature of any successful learning
activity, particularly within digital learning environments (DLEs).
He discusses the v
iew of

Short,
Williams & Christie (1976)

of
social presence being the perception that one is communicating with
people rather than with inanimate objects, despite

being located in different places where all
communication is digitally mediated

and also the
view of
Tu (2002) that social presence can be
defined in terms of
a
combination of social relationships, communication styles, task analyses,

feedback levels and measures of immediacy.

Wheeler conducted a
study
to

test whether technologies yielded different affordances to support
social presence. Social presence was measured in face
-
to
-
face, telephone, email and
videoconferencing environments. The measurement tools included
Entwistle’s Approaches to
S
tudy Inventory (1981) and two instruments created by the author to measure student support
needs and communication mode
perceptions. From this study, Wheeler

offers recommendations
on how to build social
presence into DLEs, although
h
is discussion is limit
ed to the asynchronous
communication tools and doesn’t offer any recommendations for videoconferencing.

This short paper is highly relevant to my study as it includes videoconferencing as one of the
environments in which social presence was measured and it

offers some measurement tools for
this task. A closer examination of Wheeler’s work is recommended. Relevance: 8

Paper 18:

Nippard, E.
, &

M
urphy
, E. (2007)
.

Social p
resence in the w
eb
-
based s
ynchronous s
econdary
c
lassroom.
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technol
ogy
,

33(1)
,

119
-
129.



Annotated Bibliography: Carol Daunt

13

Nippard is an E
-
teacher with the Center for Distance Learning and Innovation, Stephenville, NL.
Murphy is an Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, Memorial University, St. John's,
Newfoundland. This paper was written for an

audience of teachers who are using, or interested in
the use of, technology for learning.

Nippard and Murphy provide a conceptual framework for social presence and distinguish it from
interactivity, which can be task
-
oriented and occur with content as wel
l as with others and may
indicate a level of social presence but doesn’t necessarily mean that presence has been established.
They report on a study designed to explore how teachers and students manifest social presence in
the web
-
based synchronous seconda
ry classroom. Their data collection techniques relied on
observations of recorded class sessions in six courses at two different stages of the year and
represented a cross section of classes from the three levels of schooling in the high school system in
t
heir State.

Of interest in the findings of this study is that the manifestation of social presence by the teachers
was quite different to that of students. Where teachers achieved social presence through the use of
two
-
way audio, students relied on text
-
ba
sed messaging, similar to chat or instant messaging.

Nippard and Murphy provide an avenue for consideration in my study of the telepresence
learning environment i.e. the different manifestations of social presence between teachers and
students.
However,
the paper has little further va
lue in my study.
Relevance:
5

Conclusion

The literature included in this annotated bibliography has provided a basis for determining the
approach of
this writer’s
study into telepresence.
The review
of

literature
has highlighted the lack
of research into the “experience” of tel
epresence as opposed to the equipment used and showed
that there is not a shared definition of telepresence. It has also brought to light an area of
investigation that will be an important element in
the writer’s

study, that of social presence. This
has
been just the beginning of the search for relevant literature and each of the topics in the
concept map will be investigated in further detail
. Establishing
a definition of telepresence as it is
to be used in this study
is a significant priority
.