3. the 2005 common humanitarian action plan - UN OCHA Webmail

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IRIN/BURUNDI/2004




ORGANISATIONS PARTICIPATING IN CONSOLIDATED APPEALS DURING 2005:


AAH

ABS

ACF/ACH

ACTED

ADRA

Africare

Alisei

AMREF

ARC

Atlas Logistique

AVSI

CAM

CARE Int'l

CARITAS

CEASOP

CESVI

CIRID

COLFADHEMA

COMED

COOPI

CORDAID


CPA
-
LIRA

CPAR

CPCD

CRC

CREAF

CRS

DDG

DENAL

DRC

EMSF

ERM

FAO

Fondn. Suisse Déminage

GAA

GPI

HA

HABEN

Handicap Int'l

HDIG

HDO

HFe.V



HIA

Horn Relief

HWA

IFRC

ILO

IMC

INTERMON

INTERSOS

IOM

IRC

IRIN

Islamic Relief

JVSF

KOC

LIBA

LSTG

MAG

Mani Tese

MAT

MDA

NE



Non
-
Violence Int'l

NPA

NRC

OCHA

OCPH

OHCHR

Open Continent

Orphan's Aid

OXFAM
-
GB

PAPP

PIN

PRC

RUFOU

SBF

SCF / SC
-
UK

SCU

SERLO

SFP

Solidarités

TASO

TEARFUND



TEWPA

UNAIDS

UNDP

UNESCO

UNFPA

UN
-
HABITAT

UNHCR

UNICEF

UNIFEM

UNMAS

UNODC

UNRWA

UNSECOORD

VESTA

VETAID

WACRO

WANEP/APDH

WFP

W
HO

WV Int'l



Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)



The CAP is much more than an appeal for money. It is
a
n inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of
:




strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);



resource mobilisation (leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal);



coordinated programme implementation;



joint monitoring and

evaluation;



revision, if necessary; and



reporting on results.


The CHAP is a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or region and includes the
following elements:




a common a
nalysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes pl
ace;



an assessment of needs;



best, worst, and most likely scenarios;



stakeholder analysis, i.e. who does what and where;



a clear statement of longer
-
term objectives and goals;



prioritised response plans; and



a framework for monitoring the strategy and revi
sing it if necessary.


The CHAP is the foundation for developing a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break or natural
disasters occur, a Flash Appeal. The CHAP can also serve as a reference for organisations deciding not to
appeal for funds through a com
mon framework. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, the
CHAP is developed at the field level by the Inter
-
Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Country Team.
This
team mirrors the IASC structure at headquarters and includes UN agencies, and sta
nding invitees, i.e. the
International Organization for Migration, the Red Cross Movement, and NGOs that belong to ICVA,
Interaction, or SCHR. Non
-
IASC members, such as national NGOs, can be included, and other key
stakeholders in humanitarian action, in p
articular host governments and donors, should be consulted.


The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal
document
. The document is launched globally each November to enhance advocacy and resource
mobili
sation. An update, known as the
Mid
-
Year Review
, is presented to donors in June of each year.


Donors provide resources to appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals. The
Financial
Tracking Service (FTS)
, managed by the United Nations Off
ice for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA), is a database of donor contributions and can be found on
www.reliefweb.int/fts


In sum, the
CAP is about how the aid community collaborates to provide civili
ans in need the best
protection and assistance available, on time
.




iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

................................
................................
................................
....................

1


T
able I. Summary of Requirements


By Appealing Organisation and By Sector

................................
..

2


2. 2004 IN REVIEW

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

4


2.1

E
VOLVING
H
UMANITARIAN
N
EEDS

................................
................................
................................
....

4


2.2

S
UCCESSES
,

C
O
NSTRAINTS AND
L
ESSONS
L
EARNED

................................
................................
........

5


3. THE 2005 COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN
................................
................................
....

6


3.1

T
HE
C
ONTEXT AND ITS
H
UMANITARIAN
C
ONSEQUENCES
................................
................................
....

7

3.1.A The Context: Peace Process and Political Transition

................................
...........................

7

3.1.B The Humanitarian Consequences

................................
................................
.........................

8


3.2

S
CENARIOS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

9


3.3

S
TRATEGIC PRIORITIES
FOR
H
UMANITARIAN
R
ESPONSE

................................
................................
..

10


3.4

R
ESPONSE
P
LANS

................................
................................
................................
.........................

10

3.4.A Agriculture and Food Security

................................
................................
.............................

11

3.4.B Education

................................
................................
................................
............................

13

3.4.C Health

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

14

3.4.D Mine Action

................................
................................
................................
.........................

16

3.4.E Water and Sanitation

................................
................................
................................
...........

16

3.5.F Special Needs of I
DPs

................................
................................
................................
........

17

3.5.G Community Reintegration

................................
................................
................................
...

18

3.4.H Coordination and Support Services

................................
................................
....................

19


4. STRATEGIC MONITOR
ING PLAN

................................
................................
................................
.

22


5. CRITERIA FOR PRIO
RITISATION OF PROJEC
TS

................................
................................
........

22


Table II. List of Projects


By Appea
ling Organisation

................................
................................
..........

23

Table III. List of Projects


By Sector

................................
................................
................................
....

31


ANNEX I.

DONOR RESPONSE TO THE 20
04 APPEAL

................................
................................
......................

36


ANNEX II.


JOINT CONTINGENCY PL
AN: SUMMARY MATRIX

................................
................................
...........

52


ANNEX III.


LOCATION OF
IDPs

................................
................................
................................
............................

57


ANNEX IV.


REFUGEE RETURNS

................................
................................
................................
...........................

58


ANNEX V.


DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD
-
SECURITY VULNERABILI
TIES

................................
..............................

59


ANNEX VI.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

................................
................................
................................
...

61


P
ROJECT SUMMARY SHEET
S ARE

IN A SEPARATE VOLUME

ENTITLED
“P
ROJECTS



iv



BURUNDI



1


1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The goal of the 2005 Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) is to ensure continued support to life
-
sustaining humanitarian assistance during a key period of transition in Burundi, which if conso
lidated,
could finally enable recovery and development efforts after more than 11 years of civil war and political
conflict.


In line with the timeframe stipulated in the Arusha Accord, the second period of the transitional
Government is now nearing its f
inal stages. This development is seen as a foundation for elections
now foreseen for late 2004. Notwithstanding the progress made in the implementation of the Arusha
Accord, it is worth stressing that the situation remains fragile, with the continuous co
nflict in Bujumbura
Rural being a major concern especially in terms of protection of civilians and respect of human rights.
The disagreements between key political parties as to the timing and legal framework required for the
adequate preparation of natio
nal elections and the delayed implementation of the Disarmament
Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process, could also negatively impact on the socio
-
political
environment and the expected consolidation of national governmental and representative polit
ical
institutions.


In order to develop a commonly agreed humanitarian strategy, United Nations (UN) agencies, Non
-
Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and donors have carried out a systematic needs assessment
analysis and a review of the vulnerability crite
ria that had guided humanitarian actions in the past.
These efforts allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities of the
humanitarian situation in Burundi and of rapidly evolving needs in a mixed context of acute population
fragility
and post
-
emergency needs. Community
-
based assessments, national surveys and special
studies carried out by humanitarian organisations have followed the SPHERE standards
(Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response) and the Inter
-
Agency
Standing
Committee (IASC) Needs Assessment Framework. Response plans also incorporate the scenarios
and key initiatives included in the Joint Contingency Plan updated in July 2004.


On the basis of key findings and joint analyses, the CAP includes a comb
ination of responses ranging
from immediate life
-
saving activities to strengthened community
-
based initiatives to support population
reinsertion and reintegration in the short
-
term.


The long
-
term consequences of the crisis in Burundi and the recent chang
es in the general
humanitarian context require an approach whereby humanitarian assistance continues to address
urgent needs of the most vulnerable populations while ensuring that short
-
term actions are directed to:




Ensure rapid response to populations in

crisis;



Minimise disparities among different groups of the population and across provinces;



Support the ongoing process of population and community reinsertion with an emphasis on
community empowerment.


The CAP for 2005 is the result of the joint work an
d contributions of a wide range of UN agencies,
international and national NGOs, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and donors.
The total amount requested is
US$ 134,171,865
.



BURUNDI



2


T
able I. Summary of Requirements


By Appealing Organisation
and By Sector

Consolidated Appeal for

Burundi 2005

Summary of Requirements
-
By Appealing Organisation

as of 23 October 2004

http://www.reliefweb.int/fts

Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing or
ganisation.

Original Requirements

Appealing Organisation

388,220

ABS

148,000

CENAP

190,000

CIRID

2,654,000

CRS


1,395,000

Danchurchaid

12,052,216

FAO

1,600,000

Fondation Suisse pour le Déminage


686,000

HI B

140,000

JVSF

621,800

OA


2,154
,372

OCHA

1,246,000

OHCHR

95,000

RFEP

190,847

Solidarites

1,664,521

TEARFUND

6,700,000

UNDP

421,000

UNDP/UNIFEM

2,446,287

UNESCO

1,732,250

UNFPA

4,000,000

UN
-
HABITAT

65,001,360

UNHCR

20,882,159

UNICEF

266,000

UNIFEM

1,690,000

UNM
AS

150,000

UNSECOORD

1,534,244

WFP

4,122,589

WHO

134,171,865

Grand Total



BURUNDI



3


Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing organisation.

Consolidated Appeal for

Burundi 2005

Summary of Requirements
-
by Sector

as of 23 October 2004

http://www.reliefweb.int/fts

Original Requiremen
ts

Sector Name

15,440,399

AGRICULTURE

3,688,616

COORDINATION AND SUPPORT SERVICES

6,700,000

ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

6,132,346

EDUCATION

6,201,334

FAMILY SHELTER AND NON
-
FOOD ITEMS


-


FOOD

21,125,483

HEALTH

6,730,650

MINE ACTION

63,301,060

MULTI
-
SECTOR

2,447,977

PROTECTION/HUMAN RIGHTS/RULE OF LAW

150,000

SECURITY

2,254,000

WATER AND SANITATION

Grand Total

134,171,865


BURUNDI



4


2. 2004 IN REVIEW

The year 2004 was marked by important changes and developments in Burundi. On the one hand,
the progress of the peace process in late 2003 ushered in a new
-
fou
nd hope for the stabilisation of the
country. As a result, the pattern of population movements and humanitarian needs evolved. On the
other hand, forced displacement, instability and armed conflict continued affecting some regions,
especially Bujumbura R
ural. To address these widespread changes, humanitarian partners reviewed
the response strategy, and issued in June 2004 a revised appeal, outlining an adjusted CHAP and
related response plans to address the needs. Being acutely aware of shifting vulnera
bilities, a number
of agencies and organisations undertook comprehensive needs assessment studies, not only to
compile new data, but also to consolidate findings from smaller, independent assessments. In
preparation for the elaboration of this document, h
umanitarian actors in Burundi engaged in a review
of the successes of their efforts and constraints which impeded meeting their stated objectives, as
outlined in the Revised CAP for 2004.



2.1

E
VOLVING
H
UMANITARIAN
N
EEDS

During the year, widespread cha
nges in security conditions throughout the country led to expanded
and sustained access to Burundian populations, including those communities living in remote areas.
With the exception of the continuous armed conflict in the province of Bujumbura Rural, wh
ere access
to and protection of civilian populations remained a major concern, the gradual stabilisation of security
conditions in the rest of the country favoured both the expansion of initiatives and the re
-
definition of
priorities for humanitarian actio
n.


The year was marked by the focus of a wide range of UN agencies, NGOs and donors on a
systematic needs assessment analysis and a review of the vulnerability criteria that had guided
humanitarian action in the past. These efforts allowed for a more co
mprehensive understanding of the
complexities of the humanitarian situation in Burundi and of the rapidly evolving needs in a mixed
context of acute population fragility and post
-
emergency needs.


The main findings point to the fact that the protracted si
tuation of extreme poverty in Burundi,
compounded with the effects of eleven years of conflict, have led to intertwined layers of extreme
vulnerability and disparities, especially across and within Burundian provinces. Access to basic health
and education

services is still seriously constrained by structural factors related to the application of
cost
-
recovery policies, the lack of minimum investment in infrastructure, equipment and human
resources. To a large extent, these structural problems also limit t
he impact of humanitarian actions
aimed at ensuring equity and universal access to basic services.


There were, however, some positive developments in the nutritional status of the population due to
improved security conditions in rural areas and the conti
nuous provision of food aid and emergency
agricultural assistance. These factors have largely contributed to reducing the scope of food
insecurity that had plagued Burundi until recently. However, these nutritional gains have been
constrained by the infl
uence of the higher incidence of diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea, cholera,
respiratory infections and Human Immuno
-
deficiency Virus / Acquired Immuno
-
deficiency Syndrome
(HIV/AIDS).


Overall, household food security continues to be affected by a combin
ation of chronic vulnerabilities, a
consequence of the long years of crisis, and short
-
term shock periods, such as drought, hailstorms,
and cassava pests, which further undermined families’ coping capacities.


The trend of refugee and IDP return to their
communities of origin continued throughout the year at a
relatively constant pace. Of the total return figure of 100,000 foreseen by the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for 2004, 80,400 Burundian refugees returned from Tanzania in
th
e period January
-
September 2004 under UNHCR auspices, with a concentration in the provinces of
Ruyigi, Muyinga and Makamba (See Annex IV; Refugee Returns). The return trend among IDP
families was also significant in the first quarter of 2004. By April
-
May

2004, approximately 137,000
IDPs had already returned home or were on the move. The return movement was especially quick
and widespread in the southern provinces of Makamba and Bururi, which had historically hosted the
largest IDP sites since the 1993 cr
isis (See Annex III; Location of IDPs).



BURUNDI



5


In this context, the review of initiatives, especially in the provinces where the bulk of the return
movement took place, was required to sustain the process of community reinsertion. The limited
absorption capac
ities of basic health and education services and important shortages of shelter and
housing emerged as key priority areas where additional resources are urgently required.



During the year, rapid emergency initiatives were required for recurrent malaria,

cholera and
meningitis epidemic episodes in several provinces. Rapid response initiatives were based on the joint
efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and
NGOs working in the health sector, which su
pported the alert and response mechanisms of the
Ministry of Health (MoH). In the agriculture and food security sector, the drought episodes that
affected mostly the northern provinces required the strengthening of surveillance systems of the
Ministry of
Agriculture (MoA) and expanding emergency agriculture assistance, as well as the
provision of food aid by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and WFP in collaboration with a
network of national and international NGOs.


In mid
-
2004, the sudden influ
x of approximately 20,000 refugees following the crisis in the South Kivu
region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) required the establishment of rapid response
actions in the Burundi
-
DRC border areas. To meet the needs of these refugees, the Offic
e of the High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UN agencies, partner NGOs and the ICRC collaborated in the
provision of temporary shelter, safe water and sanitation, food aid and non
-
food items (NFI), basic
health services, and family tracing services for

unaccompanied children. Agencies and organisations
reinforced efforts to assist the victims of the massacre of Congolese refugees that took place in the
Gatumba transit centre in mid
-
August
2004. In this context, UNHCR deployed staff to protect
refugees

against refoulement, and ensure adherence to refugee rights. The UNHCR presence on the
ground also aimed at preventing age
-
based and gender
-
based violence (GBV).


The continuous conflict in the province of Bujumbura Rural was of major concern to all memb
ers of the
humanitarian community throughout the year. Most of the province was and is being directly affected
by the conflict, which led to successive and recurrent waves of population displacement within the
provincial communes. While basic material ne
eds were relatively well covered, violations of human
rights and humanitarian law, sexual and gender
-
based violence (SGBV), looting, destruction, and
occupation of civilian property and land by all parties to the conflict continued to be widespread. In
ad
dition, the provision of basic shelter to the displaced was hampered by population movements
(especially in the southern provincial communes that were severely affected by the conflict), the short
periods of displacement in some cases, and the reluctance o
f the government to organise sheltering
spaces, which could be perceived as permanent structures for the displaced.


During the period, humanitarian coordination mechanisms focused on the organisation of regular rapid
assessments, rapid response coordinat
ion, and monitoring of the humanitarian situation at the
provincial level. Sector thematic groups at the national level also focused on adjusting humanitarian
responses to meet the needs of returning populations. The coordination capacities of government

structures remained limited at both national and provincial levels, especially in the framework of the
National Programme for the Rehabilitation of Vulnerable Populations, which includes conflict
-
affected
populations. Although the strong involvement of N
GOs at the provincial level, together with the
expansion of the field presence of UN agencies, helped cover some of these gaps, government
capacities and resources for the implementation of operational responses for population reinsertion
and reintegration

remained an area of concern.



2.2

S
UCCESSES
,

C
ONSTRAINTS AND
L
ESSONS
L
EARNED

The strategic priorities for 2004 were clustered around three areas: i) protection of civilians; ii)
household food security to meet food and nutritional needs; iii) basic soci
al services such as health,
education, water and sanitation.


In the area of protection of civilians, key achievements include the assisted returns of refugees,
increased awareness and response to SGBV, increased presence by all partners throughout the
cou
ntry to offer physical protection (albeit limited), mine action activities and the demobilisation of a
significant number of child soldiers. The constraining factor in protection activities included the slow
deployment of the United Nations peacekeepers,
whose simple presence and patrols acted as
deterrents to the acts of violence and vandalism to which civilians were subjected. Weaknesses in

BURUNDI



6


coordination among agencies with core protection mandates was also cited as a constraining factor.
The absence of

judicial reform and a culture of impunity were also found to be key constraints for
victims seeking redress for violations, including sexual abuses. The lesson learned in 2004, which
was taken into account for this CHAP, is the need to strengthen monitor
ing and advocacy for the
protection of civilians and concerted common action in this area.


Food security was perhaps the area where the greatest impact was made. Emergency agriculture
assistance reached 218,000 households throughout the country (represen
ting approximately 15% of
the total population) in time for the main agricultural season of the year. In terms of food assistance,
the WFP seeds protection programme covered 168,000 households. Since January 2004 WFP has
assisted up to 1.2 million people

through its relief and recovery activities. Strong collaboration
between FAO, WFP and the wide network of NGO partners in the sector was a key element for the
achievements of this sector. Better early warning systems, improved targeting of vulnerable
pop
ulations and school feeding programmes helped stabilise communities. In this context however
there is room for improvement: in particular, there is a need for stronger linkages between
humanitarian and development programmes.


With regard to access to bas
ic services, a number of accomplishments were noted, such as i) the
adoption of the new malaria treatment protocol, which has improved malaria case management; ii) the
inclusion of HIV/AIDS in education programmes; iii) back
-
to
-
school programmes. One of t
he most
important constraints in the health sector has been the governmental policy on cost recovery, which is
having a negative impact on the access of the very poor to basic care. The absence of qualified and
trained government employees and strikes in
the public sector have also played a role in limiting the
impact of health initiatives. An important lesson learned is that in order for humanitarian actions in this
area to succeed, it is necessary to build the capacity of national counterparts who can s
ustain
programmes. The importance of the involvement of government authorities in the elaboration of
response plans was also seen as an important element for the latter’s sustainability.


Humanitarian actors recognise that the wide range of activities, a
ctors and sectors have constrained
systematic and collective monitoring and evaluation of the Burundi Revised CAP for 2004. However
the sharing of experiences and the qualitative evaluation carried out during the process leading up to
the completion of t
his document was a useful exercise which will be taken into account in the
elaboration of monitoring structures.



3. THE 2005 COMMON H
UMANITARIAN ACTION P
LAN

The CHAP for 2005 presented here is the result of the joint work and contributions of a wide ran
ge of
UN agencies, international and national NGOs, the ICRC and donors. Throughout 2004, sector
studies, rapid assessments and evaluations conducted by members of the humanitarian community in
Burundi have made an essential contribution to the identifica
tion of the main sources of vulnerabilities
and of needs facing the Burundian population today and of the response required to meet these
immediate needs. Community
-
based assessments, national surveys and special studies carried out
by humanitarian organi
sations have followed the SPHERE standards and the IASC Needs
Assessment Framework. Response plans also incorporate the scenarios and key initiatives included
in the Joint Contingency Plan updated in July 2004 (see Annex II, Joint Contingency Plan). The
H
umanitarian Action Plan described below comprises the totality of these joint efforts.


Given the long
-
term consequences of the crisis in Burundi and the recent changes in the general
humanitarian context, the approach adopted envisages that humanitarian a
ssistance will continue to
address the urgent needs of the most vulnerable populations while ensuring that short
-
term actions: i)
ensure a rapid response to populations in crisis; ii) minimise disparities among different groups of the
population and across

provinces; iii) support the ongoing process of population and community
reinsertion.


The Common Humanitarian Action Plan therefore includes a combination of responses ranging from
immediate life
-
saving activities to strengthened community
-
based initiativ
es to support population
reintegration in the short
-
term.



BURUNDI



7


3.1

T
HE
C
ONTEXT AND ITS
H
UMANITARIAN
C
ONSEQUENCES


3.1.A The Context: Peace Process and Political Transition


2004 marked a key stage in the Burundian peace process and political transition. The
peace process,
which started with the Peace and Reconciliation Accord of Arusha (August 2000), gained momentum
when the largest rebel faction
1

signed a ceasefire and power
-
sharing agreement with the Transitional
Government of Burundi in November 2003.


The

news encouraged accelerated paces of return among refugees and IDPs. According to UNHCR,
in 2003, 82,366 refugees returned from Tanzania in a combination of spontaneous and facilitated
repatriation. This represented a sizeable increase as compared to the

estimated 53,315 returns of
2002. The sustained return pace continued in 2004, with 80,400 refugee returns in the period
January
-
September 2004.
2

The movement of IDPs back to their zones of origin mirrored the
movement of refugees back to the country.
In April
-
May 2004, approximately 50% of the estimated
280,000 IDPs living in displacement sites were either in the process of returning home or had already
gone back
3

(see Annexes III and IV). By mid
-
2004 most of the territory of Burundi was accessible,
i
ncluding the eastern areas bordering Tanzania, which had remained locked up in conflict for more
than seven years.


In this context, the 4
th

Forum of Partners for Development in Burundi, held in Brussels in January
2004, pledged US$ 1.03 billion towards ke
y transition and reconstruction programmes presented by
the government. The main areas targeted include good governance, public debt, security sector
reform and the national programme for assistance to vulnerable populations. The Forum took place in
an en
vironment of increased confidence in the progress towards the consolidation of peace and the
political transition in the country.


In May, the UN Security Council approved Resolution 1545 establishing a UN peace
-
keeping
operation in Burundi (ONUB) with a r
obust and comprehensive mandate to assist the Transitional
Government in the organisation of national elections, the implementation of the national programme
for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR), and the reform of the security sector in
accordance with the provisions of the Arusha Accord. The UN peacekeeping mission arrived in June
2004 and immediately started focusing on the conclusion of key agreements related to DDR and army
integration, security sector reform and preparations for elec
tions.


Despite the positive impact of the agreement signed with the Conseil National pour la Défense de la
Démocratie/Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie (CNDD
-
FDD) in late 2003, 2004 saw very slow
progress on the actual implementation of the Arusha
Accord framework. The pre
-
disarmament and
troop cantonment period


initially planned for a 45
-
60 day period starting December 2003


extended for more than nine months. Former rebel groups and the Burundian army (FAB) furthermore
failed to reach substan
tive agreement regarding the mechanisms for army integration and
disarmament. It took more than six months for the members of the Joint Ceasefire Commission
(JCC) to reach a common definition of the status of combatants and on combatant verification
proc
edures required to effectively start the demobilisation process. As of October 2004, the process
of troop cantonment had not been completed with the FAB, nor had CNDD
-
FDD/Nkurunziza forces
assembled in designated cantonment areas. At the same time, forme
r rebel groups cantoned in
assembly sites since late 2003 were not disarmed.


In a context of intense political negotiations, the lack of agreement among political parties regarding
post
-
transition power sharing, the constitutional framework and the electo
ral code remained major
obstacles throughout the year. These challenges impeded preparations for elections on 31

October
2004 as stipulated in the original schedule of the Arusha Accord. In August, 19 of the 29 officially
registered political parties end
orsed a power
-
sharing agreement accepting the 60
-
40% Hutu
-
Tutsi
ethnic representation in the government as per the Arusha Accord.
4

Representatives also agreed that



1

Conseil National pour la Defense de la Democratie


Forc
es pour la Defense de la Democratie (CNDD
-
FDD), led by Pierre Nkurunziza.

2

Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Burundi, September 2004.

3

Survey of Internally Displaced in Displacement Sites, Office for the Coordination of Humanitaria
n Affairs, OCHA/Burundi, August 2004.

4

During the meeting of 16
th

August 2004 held in Pretoria, South Africa, Burundian political parties also agreed on the composition of the
post
-
transition government structures, including the National Assembly, the Sen
ate and the Presidency.


BURUNDI



8


women would hold 30% of government positions. The agreement was opposed by the remaining te
n
parties representing the Tutsi community however, and was concluded in the absence of the CNDD
-
FDD/Nkurunziza, who did not attend the meeting. At the end of August, the National Assembly voted
for the creation of the National Independent Electoral Commi
ssion (CENI). While the creation of the
CENI represented one step towards the preparation of elections, the lack of a national electoral code,
national census, voter registration procedures and a post
-
transition national constitution poses
complex practic
al challenges for the preparation of elections.


The Ongoing Conflict in Bujumbura Rural

The first gains in security and stability that were witnessed in most parts of the country were exposed
to constant risks of instability, increased banditry, the abund
ance of weapons and the absence of
minimum conditions for reconstruction investment. In this context, the situation of civilian populations
in Burundi and their ability to cope with the widespread challenges of social and economic
reintegration at the com
munity level remained precarious. By late 2004, the unresolved conflict
between the Forces Nationales de Liberation (FNL) and the coalition of FAB and CNDD
-
FDD/Nkurunziza forces in the province of Bujumbura Rural remained a serious concern.


FNL is the o
nly Burundian rebel group remaining outside the peace process, as it continues to reject
the terms of the Arusha Accord. Several negotiation initiatives, led alternatively by the President,
ONUB and the international diplomatic community, failed in the cou
rse of the year. On 13 August
2004, 152 Banyamulenge refugees from South Kivu were killed in the transit centre of Gatumba, in the
commune of Mutimbuzi in Bujumbura Rural. Another 100 refugees sustained injuries. FNL publicly
claimed responsibility for
the attack against the refugees. As a result, all negotiations with the group
were suspended.


As the conflict has extended over time, the humanitarian space has shrunk, most notably due to
constant insecurity and limited access. Since the last months of
2003, the conflict has affected almost
all provincial communes and led to successive waves of population displacement. Eight out of the ten
provincial communes have been affected by temporary displacement ranging from days to several
months, with the comm
unes of Isale, Kabezi, Muhuta, Mutambu and the Kanyosha area of Bujumbura
city bearing the brunt of the conflict. Because military operations have taken place more than once in
the same area, people have been displaced recurrently and numbers can only be
estimated by month.
On the basis of regular assessments conducted by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA), UN agencies and NGOs, it is estimated that between December 2003 and April 2004
an average of 30
-
40,000 people were displa
ced monthly in the province as a direct consequence of
the armed conflict. As of October 2004 approximately 35,000 persons remained displaced, mostly in
the communes of Mutambu and Kabezi.


Apart from forced displacement, the population of Bujumbura Rura
l has faced widespread looting,
destruction of property and land, as well as sexual violence and abuse. As of October 2004, the
conflict in Bujumbura Rural continued, the possibility of peaceful negotiations remained elusive, and
the protection of the civ
ilian populations in the province remained a major humanitarian concern.


3.1.B The Humanitarian Consequences


The situation in Burundi is characterised by more than a decade of political conflict and civil war, the
cumulative impact of extremely low livin
g standards and the continuous deterioration of social and
economic conditions. A long
-
standing, protracted crisis combined with an overall context of structural
poverty puts the majority of Burundians in a situation of daily fragility and vulnerability.

The
progressive stabilisation of security conditions and the expanded access to most parts of the
Burundian territory allow the humanitarian community to have a more comprehensive picture of the
extremely poor conditions under which the majority of the po
pulation has lived for many years.


According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Burundi ranks among the five
nations with the lowest human development index in the world.
5

Life expectancy at birth is 40 years,
which represents a drop of

roughly ten years since 1993. Official statistics indicate that the proportion
of the population living below the poverty line has remained well above 50% in the last six years.
Since the beginning of the crisis in 1993, impoverishment has doubled, with

68.7% of the rural
population and 66% of the urban population living under the poverty line. Although poverty is



5

Human Development Report, UNDP, New York, 2003.


BURUNDI



9


widespread, the civil war has also deepened regional and social disparities. The conflict has had a
considerable impact on the agricultural
plateaus of Burundi, which have poverty rates ranging from
65% to 75%.
6


Overall household and community resources have born the brunt of more than ten years of conflict
and of recurrent crisis. Frequent looting resulting from armed conflict and displacem
ent have
dispossessed whole communities of the few resources they had, including housing, land and cattle.


Extensive population displacement has been one of the main consequences of the conflict, which has
left Burundi with one of the highest proportions

of displaced population in Africa. According to the
Vulnerability Assessment Survey conducted by WFP, 20% of the 4,243 households surveyed have at
least one member who has been displaced in the last two years, 8% had been displaced to a refugee
camp outs
ide the country and 3% were displaced outside the country, but not in a camp.
7

The
province of Bujumbura Rural, still affected by armed conflict, shows the highest levels of displacement,
with 56% of its population suffering from either temporary or long
-
term displacement.
8


Recurrent waves of displacement have had profound consequences on the social network of
Burundian communities over the years. Despite the fact that roughly 89% of the internally displaced
have been displaced within the same commune or

province of origin, the basis of household economy
and social ties have been substantially affected.
9




In parallel, the partial stabilisation of the security situation described above has resulted in a
continuous movement of population back to their zo
nes of origin. This movement, with extreme
poverty as a backdrop, brings about new needs.


Consequently, the humanitarian strategy for 2005 has been developed taking into consideration
immediate humanitarian needs emerging from a wide range of long
-
stand
ing vulnerabilities in a
context of population reinsertion and return. The key objectives and priorities of the strategy are
elaborated in the sections below.



3.2

S
CENARIOS

The fragile security, political and economic conditions in Burundi, combined wit
h climatic uncertainties,
render Burundi extremely vulnerable to sudden shocks. In July 2004, key partners including UN
agencies, NGOs, donors and the Red Cross movement collectively analysed potential scenarios in a
common Contingency Plan. Five key sc
enarios were identified:


i)

an influx of refugees from DRC into Burundi;

ii)

a sudden internal population movement;

iii)

the outbreak of an (or various) epidemics;

iv)

natural disasters (drought or resurgence of the manioc mosaic epidemic);

v)

the massive return of Bur
undians from Tanzania.


Each scenario was developed with detailed causality factors, corresponding humanitarian
consequences as well as planning, operational goals and ceilings for activation of emergency plans
(see Annex II). These scenarios assisted
all partners in Burundi identify risks and incorporate them
into their individual programmes and preparedness plans. In addition, coordination mechanisms and
lead agencies in case of such emergencies were agreed upon. Elements of this common contingency
plan have been incorporated into response plans and projects included in this CAP.





6

Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy, Government of Burundi, January 2004.

7

Food Security: Vulnerability Assessment Study, WFP, July
-
September 2004.

8

Survey on the Internally Displ
aced in Burundi, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Burundi, August 2004.

9

Survey on the Internally Displaced in Burundi, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Burundi, August

2004.


BURUNDI



10


3.3

S
TRATEGIC PRIORITIES
FOR
H
UMANITARIAN
R
ESPONSE

The assessment of humanitarian needs has been developed on the basis of three main areas of
concern:




Protection of ci
vilians affected by ongoing armed conflict and displacement, with particular
regard to the population of the province of Bujumbura Rural, IDPs still in sites for the displaced
throughout the country, IDPs and refugees returning to communities of origin; ge
neral
protection needs at the community level, with special emphasis on women and children.




Access to basic services for all groups of the population on an equal basis; enhancing the
quality of basic service provision, especially in health, reproductive
health, nutrition and
education.




Food security, defined in terms of access to, availability and utilisation of sufficient and
adequate food intake in accordance with nutritional needs, so as to ensure a healthy physical
and mental development.



3.4

R
ESP
ONSE
P
LANS

Addressing protection needs and concerns constitutes the umbrella of the humanitarian action in 2005
in Burundi. Monitoring of the treatment of civilian populations, dissemination of human rights and
international humanitarian law (IHL) principl
es among government bodies and communities, advocacy
towards the effective implementation of human rights and IHL standards, and targeted actions aimed
at monitoring abuses and violations, are all integrated in a wide range of humanitarian activities in
ac
cordance with international standards.


Indeed, the protection of civilian populations remains an overarching issue concerning all groups of
the population throughout the country. On the one hand, the rule of law is severely eroded by human
rights violati
ons, acts of impunity and an extremely weak justice system. On the other hand, the
government’s responsibilities for providing adequate protection to the population are applied
sporadically in most cases. This was most starkly in evidence during the inf
lux of Congolese refugees
into Burundi in June 2004: while UNHCR advocated with the government for a secure site away from
the border, it was only after the tragic incidents of what became known as the Gatumba massacre
(August 2004) that these measures wer
e taken. Another example is UNCHR’s request that
combatants be separated from civilian refugees: the Government of Burundi called for the support of
the UN peacekeeping forces to carry out this task.


The lack of appropriate physical protection of populat
ions at risk, forced displacement, lack of access
to some groups of the population and overall poor treatment of civilians are common in the country. In
Bujumbura Rural, where the armed conflict between the FAB/CNDD
-
FDD and FNL still continues,
violations

of international humanitarian law by all parties to the conflict are commonplace. In the
provinces, populations are forced to successive displacements due to the fighting; during
displacement they are subject to looting, abuse and sexual violence, destruc
tion and occupation of
their property, arbitrary detention and family separation.


In addition to those civilians directly affected by armed conflict, protection against violations of human
rights remains sorely needed throughout the country. Recent ini
tiatives taken to address the spread of
sexual and gender
-
based violence in the country have revealed the scope of the problem. A survey
carried out by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 2004 showed that while armed
elements are still the main
actors responsible for acts of abuse and violence, up to 50% of the
perpetrators of rape are not armed individuals. The lack of respect of children’s rights is also a
concern, with abuse and violence regularly taking place in schools.


In parallel with t
he weak performance of government bodies and recognised authorities, communities’
perceptions of their own protection are also coloured by a pervasive sense of instability and insecurity.
The willingness of IDPs to return home is conditioned by their perc
eptions of the surrounding security

BURUNDI



11


environment, including still vivid memories of the 1993 crisis and lack of confidence in the
communities’ capacities for reconciliation and acceptance.
10



The response plans of each sector have integrated this cross
-
cutt
ing issue into their analysis and
response, and the projects submitted in this CAP all pay particular attention to the protection needs of
the Burundian population.



3.4.A Agriculture and Food Security


Recent studies show that armed conflict is no longer

the main direct cause of household food
insecurity, with the exception of certain communes in Bujumbura Rural province.
11

This substantive
change is the result of the gradual stabilisation of security conditions in the country since 2003.


Nevertheless,
the long years of conflict are responsible for deepening acute poverty levels among
rural households. Extreme poverty in rural areas is characterised by:




Reduction in soil fertility, land and environmental degradation caused by intensive agricultural
pr
oduction, recurrent looting and destruction of agricultural plots;



Atomisation of agricultural lands, resulting in insufficient cultivating land surface to meet
household food needs;



Recurrent climatic hazards, such as drought and hailstorms;



Net loss of r
ural household income resulting in low productivity and a sharp drop in the price of
agricultural products.


Despite some gains registered recently, household food security remains fragile. The most common
shocks to food security are related to recurrent
drought periods, hailstorms and crop pests. In order to
cope, Burundians make dietary changes, reduce the number of daily meals, and take loans for food
expenses and food purchases, further impoverishing their households. WFP’s Coping Strategy Index
show
s that coping mechanisms are higher in Kirundo, Muyinga, Karuzi, Ngozi and Bubanza provinces.


Taking into consideration the frequency of consumption of various food items at the household level,
household food sources and expenses, the Vulnerability Asses
sment Study conducted by WFP has
identified four categories of food security vulnerabilities:
12




Chronic food insecurity (16% of surveyed households), concentrated in the provinces of
Kirundo, Ngozi, Muyinga, Karuzi, Kayanza, Muramvya and some communes of B
ujumbura
Rural. These households are characterised by poor diet quality and the lowest weekly calorie
consumption among all vulnerability categories, less than ½ hectare to cultivate, very low
agricultural production and revenues, prevalence of women
-
heade
d households or households
with handicapped members.



High
-
risk households (68% of surveyed households), concentrated in the provinces of Cankuzo,
Ruyigi, Gitega, Rutana, Mwaro, Makamba, Muyinga, and Kirundo. These households have
limited access to basic fo
od items, 40% of them have ½ hectare or more to cultivate, an
average calorie consumption estimated at 2,030 Kcal/day per person, and the household size is
larger than that of the group above.



Medium
-
risk households (11% of surveyed households), concentrat
ed in the provinces of
Bubanza, Bujumbura Rural, Cibitoke, Makamba and Bururi. These households have the
resources needed to meet their food needs and cope with food insecurity shocks, and an
average calorie consumption of 2,180 Kcal/day per person.



Low
-
r
isk households (5% of surveyed households) are found throughout the country with a
higher frequency in the provinces of Bubanza and Bujumbura Rural. These households have
higher agricultural production and revenues, and 56% of them cultivate more than ½ h
ectare.



10

Survey on the Inte
rnally Displaced, OCHA/Burundi, August 2004.

11

2003
-
2004 Crop Assessment, Ministry of Agriculture/FAO/WFP, January 2004; Rapid Assessment of Rural Local Economies, National
Commission for Assistance to Vulnerable Populations/FAO, May 2004; Food Security: V
ulnerability Assessment Study, WFP, July
-
September 2004.

12

Food Security: Vulnerability Assessment Study, WFP, July
-
September 2004. The study covered 4,243 households in 414 communes in
16 provinces. The capital, Bujumbura, was not included in the study.
Communes of Bujumbura Rural affected by ongoing armed conflict
were covered through special household questionnaires, including of internally displaced households.


BURUNDI



12


They also have the highest daily calorie consumption per household member and do not show
frequent dietary changes.


Annex V shows the geographical distribution of the four categories by provincial commune.


Based on this analysis, food security

i
nitiatives aim to strengthen access to, availability and utilisation
of sufficient and adequate food intake in accordance with nutritional needs, so as to ensure a healthy
physical and mental development. Initiatives will comprise food aid coupled with em
ergency
agriculture. Nutritional activities will be integrated in the provision of basic health services to be
supported by WFP and UNICEF, to ensure the provision of necessary supplementary and therapeutic
nutritional stocks and the provision of technica
l assistance to all nutritional centres in Burundi.


The food aid strategy in 2005 will focus on one hand on reducing relief assistance through improved
targeting methods, and on the other hand on increasing recovery activities aiming at restoring
liveliho
ods and infrastructures. Specific objectives include: i) save the lives of the most food
-
insecure
populations, ii) improve or maintain the food availability and nutritional status of the targeted
populations, and iii) increase access of the target communi
ties to physical assets, knowledge and
skills.


It is estimated that initiatives in 2005 will reach 1.5 million persons (with a monthly average of
676,000), mostly vulnerable children and women, IDPs, refugees, returnees, vulnerable farming
families, prima
ry school children, persons affected by HIV/AIDS, chronically ill persons, orphans and
demobilised soldiers.


Emergency agriculture initiatives in 2005 will continue supporting the reactivation of agricultural
production at the community level and providin
g agricultural inputs to sustain agricultural production at
the household level. The main objective of all interventions will be the progressive reduction of the
impact that the years of conflict and crisis have had on rural populations. Comprehensive mo
nitoring
mechanisms will be integrated at all levels of the response plan to ensure adequate follow
-
up of
targeted vulnerable households and the restoration of their minimum production capacities, which is
the first stage of social and economic reintegrati
on.


Emergency agricultural initiatives favour the rapid resumption of production activities for populations
that have suffered from climatic shocks, displacement, or land destruction. In parallel, programmes
focusing on the reactivation of agricultural pr
oduction, such as community
-
based quality seed
production, will target vulnerable households and specific groups with limited access to cultivating
land. These activities will also be directed to the promotion of environmentally sound agricultural
practic
es and small
-
scale rehabilitation of community agricultural infrastructure.


The estimated coverage of interventions in 2005 may be summarised as follows:




80,000 households of refugees who returned to the country in the period 2003
-
2004;



45,000 households

of IDPs who are or will be returning home;



10,000 households of temporarily displaced persons;



30,000 vulnerable households with limited access to cultivating land;



25,000 vulnerable single
-
headed households (headed by women, old people or children),
hou
seholds with people with disabilities, households affected by HIV/AIDS and households of
Batwa origin.


The Agriculture Coordination Committee, composed of FAO, WFP, ICRC and NGOs, will prepare, on
the basis of plans presented by communal and provincial au
thorities, emergency agricultural
interventions in accordance with assessed needs, ensuring distribution on an equitable basis.


The emergency agriculture response plan is based on a close collaboration with national and
provincial authorities as well as

with a wide range of national and international NGOs, WFP, UNICEF,
UNHCR, OCHA and the ICRC. UNHCR will also contribute to this sector: as per the Memorandum of
Understanding signed between UNHCR and FAO, UNHCR will purchase and distribute vegetable
see
ds and agricultural tools to returnees and help identify families to be integrated in FAO’s national
programme of seed distribution.



BURUNDI



13


3.4.B Education


As in the case of the public health sector, access to education in Burundi is seriously constrained by a
number of factors, including infrastructure destruction related to the armed conflict and profound
structural problems.
13

Lack of investment, shortage of personnel, low levels of qualification and
underpaid teachers, are all contributing factors to the cur
rent status of education in the country.
Moreover, school fees have a direct negative impact on access to schools and are a major cause of
disparities in access across provinces and regions. The following facts illustrate the current situation
in the sec
tor:




Only an estimated 50% of children aged 5
-
15 years have access to primary education. 550,000
children did not attend school during the 2003
-
2004 school year.



There are widespread disparities in levels of access to primary schooling across provinces:

100% in Bujumbura city and some communes in the provinces of Muramvya and Bururi, below
50% in Kirundo, Muyinga, Rutana and Ruyigi. In some rural areas attendance rates reach only
35%.



Gender disparities in school enrolment are stark: 50% of girls have a
ccess to primary school,
compared to 63% of boys.



Primary school is fee
-
based and not obligatory, which leads to further access disparities across
provinces and population groups.



There is an acute shortage of school facilities, classroom equipment, teachi
ng and learning
materials and textbooks.



The shortage of classrooms and teachers leads to a teacher
-
pupil ratio of 80, with some
classrooms hosting 100 students per shift. Some 5,945 units would be required to
accommodate children of school age, including
returning refugee children.



Only 30% of students complete primary school and continue on to secondary education.



There is a shortage of teachers, with a high concentration of qualified personnel in urban
centres and towns. At the primary level, 14% of te
achers working in primary schools do not
have the required qualifications. An additional 2,830 trained teachers are required to meet
current primary school needs.



At the secondary level, 80% of teachers working in urban areas are qualified, but 70% of tho
se
working in communal colleges in rural areas do not have the minimum qualifications. Literacy
rates among adults in rural areas do not exceed 46
-
50%, with considerable gender disparities.


In the area of basic education initiatives will focus on: i) imp
roving service delivery; ii) ensuring equal
access to school and educational opportunities for all IDP and refugee children returning to their zones
of origin as well as children of local communities; iii) rehabilitating classroom units; iv) providing
clas
sroom equipment, teaching aids, and students’ kits; v) producing and distributing textbooks.


Through the promotion of the greater involvement of children, adolescents, teachers and parents in
school activities, initiatives will aim to enhance children’s
school learning environment. Emphasis will
be given to the involvement of parents and communities to increase awareness of the importance of
girls’ education, promote a safe school environment for both girls and boys, and develop learning
activities with a

focus on life skills, health and hygiene education, and peace education. Attention will
also be given to increasing children’s attention span and academic performance by addressing short
-
term hunger that impedes a child’s ability to learn.

UNICEF and NGO

partners will focus on the integration of primary
-
age children in schools. Given the
acute shortage of infrastructure, UNICEF and the Ministry of Education (MoE) have agreed on a
strategy that includes the construction and rehabilitation of classroom uni
ts as well as the
establishment of temporary schools and classroom units to ensure maximum accommodation capacity
for the 2004
-
2005 school year.
Planned initiatives will be implemented in the provinces of Bururi,
Cankuzo, Gitega, Karuzi, Kirundo, Makamba,

Muyinga, Rutana, and Ruyigi. UNDP and UNHCR will
continue to support projects for the construction and rehabilitation of schools and will further develop
vocational trainings and informal education.


Teachers’ training activities will also be organised w
ith the use of Accelerated Learning
Methodologies. In collaboration with UNICEF and UNHCR, the MoE is also identifying qualified
teachers among returning refugees, who will help partially overcome widespread shortages of



13

Ministry of Education/UNICEF/UNESCO, Burundi, 2003
-
2004.


BURUNDI



14


teachers, especially in rural area
s.
UNHCR will assist children of vulnerable families in remote areas
who want to attend school but are unable to do so for lack of financial resources. Assistance will be
provided in the form of school uniforms, travel fees and the payment of other expen
ses.


School
-
feeding programmes will also be implemented by WFP and NGO partners in six selected
provinces where household food
-
security is most at risk, in collaboration with provincial education
authorities and UNICEF. The programmes will be directed at

enhancing primary school attendance,
retaining pupils, and supplementing children’s nutritional requirements. The 2005 target will be to
provide hot meals in 121 primary schools for approximately 100,000 primary
-
school children and take
-
home rations for
66,000 girls. Activities will also include distributing de
-
worming tablets to targeted
children, building school kitchens equipped with fuel
-
efficient stoves in over 80 primary schools, and
organising school vegetable gardens.


The development of alterna
tive and non
-
formal educational opportunities will also be an important
area of initiative, especially to encourage continuous education and skills acquisition among
adolescents. In this respect, initiatives will focus on upgrading secondary teachers’ ski
lls with an
emphasis on rural teachers and the development of non
-
formal literacy, vocational training, life skills
learning courses and materials for teenagers. These initiatives, under the coordination of UNESCO
and partner NGOs, aim at supporting curre
nt efforts of the MoE to promote education beyond the
primary level.


UNICEF will assist in the
provisional enrolment of repatriated youngsters in primary schools closest to
their places of origin or “colline”, as well ensure that pupils attend the commu
nal colleges nearest to
their commune of origin for those in the 1
st

cycle. Where necessary, some pupils who have attended
other educational systems will be upgraded through training and reorientation. UNESCO will support
secondary education by providing

textbooks and students’ materials for 170,000 secondary students
and non
-
formal education and vocational training for 5,000 out
-
of
-
school adolescents. In addition,
UNESCO will ensure the professional upgrading of 1,500 secondary teachers.



3.4.C Health


The following section provides a summary of vulnerability profiles and key indicators, which illustrate
the health status of the population and issues affecting equity of access to basic health services:
14




The crude mortality rate (between 1.2 and 1.9/10,
000 per day) and the under
-
five mortality rate
(ranging from 2.2 to 4.9/10,000 per day) exceed the rates of emergency situations. Maternal
mortality (ratio of 855/100,000 per live births), which is above the regional average, constitutes
one of the most i
mportant public health problems in Burundi. Approximately 80% of the
deliveries take place at home without the assistance of trained professionals, while the fertility
rate remains at a high 6.0% with a contraceptive use rate extremely low, at 5.4%;



More

than 65% of the total population is less than 25 years of age. Many adolescents are
already sexually active (16.9% of young girls have their first sexual intercourse between the
ages of 10 and 14) but they do not have easy access to sexual and reproducti
ve health
information and services, with consequences such as unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions,
higher maternal mortality rates, sterility, HIV and other STI infections;



Malaria is a major health problem accounting for 47% of hospital deaths among ch
ildren under
five and 40% of deaths of those treated at primary health centres. Malaria, meningitis and
cholera epidemics occur regularly. Respiratory infections and diarrhoea are also frequent
causes of morbidity and mortality.
During the recent mening
itis outbreak, which was controlled
with WHO, UNICEF and NGOs support, 133 people were affected and eight died. The case
fatality rate was 10%;



The causes of these diseases are often directly or indirectly related to extremely poor
environmental conditions
, poor hygiene practices and limited access to potable water;



The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is estimated at 6
-
8% (with higher rates among women and young
girls) and rapidly approaching the 9% average of sub
-
Saharan Africa. The prevalence of
HIV/AIDS is relat
ed to the increasing incidence of tuberculosis, both of which are closely linked
with malnutrition as either a consequence of the disease or a vulnerability factor;




14

Joint Health and Nutrition Need
s Assessment, WHO/UNICEF, Burundi, April 2004.


BURUNDI



15




The problem of sexual violence remains an important concern and is not yet properly
documen
ted. Those cases that reach special health services have negative consequences in
terms of reproductive and psychosocial health;



Anthropometrical surveys carried out in 2003
-
2004 show an improvement in the overall
nutritional status of the population, whi
ch is currently under the emergency threshold of 10%.
Admission rates in nutritional centres have also diminished compared to the period 2002
-
2003.
However, high levels of disease incidence, poor diet quality and chronic household food
insecurity counter
balance the improvement in the nutritional status.
15


Many of the problems described above are the result of long
-
standing structural deficiencies of the
public health sector: a critical lack of health personnel, extremely low salaries, poorly maintained
in
frastructures and lack of investment.


While it is estimated that basic health services are physically available to 80% of the population, health
fees and medicine expenses are serious access constraints. Access to referral services is a major
concern.
In addition to widespread shortages of resources and equipment, extremely high costs
render secondary services unattainable to the majority. The cost of a caesarean section, for instance,
ranges between US$ 150
-
400 at a public hospital.


In the area of ba
sic healthcare, the response plan aims to reduce disparities and constraints of access
to services and to mitigate the impact of health expenses on the household economy. Specific sector
objectives include:




reduce morbidity and mortality caused by major
common diseases

including malaria, diarrhoeal
diseases, ARI, malnutrition, pregnancy and its complications;



strengthen and expand equal access to healthcare services, with special focus on women and
children;



strengthen early detection, prevention and cont
ainment mechanisms of major epidemics;



reduce transmission of HIV/AIDS and STIs, with special attention to particularly vulnerable
groups;



ensure medical, psychosocial and legal care for victims of gender
-
based violence;



strengthen the integration of hea
lth and nutrition services to ensure adequate prevention and
management of severe malnutrition and health
-
related nutritional deficiencies.


The activities in this sector will be implemented through existing health structures with support from
WHO, UNICEF,

UNFPA, WFP as well as a network of NGOs at the provincial level. Considering
current health needs in Burundi, it is important that response plans in 2005 establish the basis for
systematic linkages between relief and development initiatives. In this resp
ect, the effective delivery
of the Min
imum Care Package (MCP) of health services for all groups of the population is a
cornerstone of the response plan.


UNHCR will address gaps not addressed by other agencies in essential preventive and curative health
services, focusing on rehabilitating and constructing primary health care facilities (to be equipped and
staffed with assistance from UNICEF and WHO). UNHCR will also support mobile clinics in returnee
areas where appropriate, and ensure that returnees rec
eive information and counseling regarding
HIV/AIDS. UNHCR will also distribute impregnated mosquito nets in particularly affected returnee
communities, in coordination with other agencies.


Strengthening coordination with government health structures at t
he national and provincial levels will
be a second key area of initiative. Technical support to provincial health authorities to enhance health
personnel training and supervision, utilisation of health surveillance systems, reporting in health
centres and

management of MCP will be key activities. The introduction of inter
-
sectoral approaches
to healthcare services at the primary level will focus on food security and nutritional vulnerabilities,
sanitation and hygiene practices, and environmental condition
s that have an impact on health.





15

Community
-
based nutritional surveys at the provincial level, ACF, Solidarites, CARE International, Cordaid, IMC, Grupo de Volontariado
Civil (GVC), MSF/Holland, MSF/France, MSF/Belgium, Concern, Tearfund, Bu
rundi, 2003
-
2004.


BURUNDI



16


At the national level, actions will focus on advocating for the adjustment of sector policies that have a
direct impact on equity of access to health services, especially those related to public health financing
and public

investment in the sector.



3.4.D Mine Action


The problem of mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) inherited from the past years of internal
conflict represents a constant danger to the free movement of people and the safe return of refugees
and IDPs, and
hinders the resumption of normal economic activities. Recent political developments,
the ratification by the Government of Burundi of the Anti
-
Personnel Mine Ban (APMB) Treaty in
October 2003 and its adhesion to the Treaty in April 2004, have paved the wa
y for mine action in the
country.


In March 2003 UNICEF completed a survey to determine the magnitude and characteristics of the
mine/UXO pro
b
lem in Burundi. The survey indicates that Bujumbura Rural, Bubanza, Makamba,
Rutana, and Ruyigi are the most aff
ected provinces. Within these regions, the survey indicates a total
of 230 reported casualties due to landmines and UXOs in 2001 and 2002, with a fatality rate of 33%.
The actual number of accidents and casualties is most likely higher (by an estimated 4
5%),
considering that records include only five provinces and exclude casualties among belligerents and
victims who reached hospitals in Tanzania.



Due to the crosscutting nature of the mine problem, mine action will be incorporated into all
humanitarian
assistance programmes to ensure the safety of war
-
affected populations as well as of
humanitarian actors.


The priorities of the Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC) in Burundi will encompass emergency
response, targeting humanitarian needs among the mo
st vulnerable, as well as support to transitional
recovery. Since mines will continue to pose a considerable threat for many years to come, it is
imperative that rural and urban populations are educated to the danger of landmines and UXOs
through comprehen
sive mine risk education programmes (MRE). In addition, programmes will be
designed to facilitate and strengthen the effectiveness of integrated humanitarian assistance
operations through strategic mine clearance, survey and demarcation to support operati
ons of
demining NGOs, and assisting the national mine action coordination authority (NMACA) to develop a
national management capacity and establish a sustainable national mine
-
action programme.



3.4.E Water and Sanitation


Water and sanitation initiatives

will focus on reducing the incidence of water
-
borne diseases,
strengthening hygiene and environmental sanitation education in schools and at the community level,
and enhancing community skills for proper management of water sources. Specific intervention
s for
the sector include:




hygiene education for the promotion of improved practices at the household level;



community
-
based management of water and sanitation facilities within the communities;



rehabilitation of community water provision systems;



improve
ment of school water and sanitation facilities;



establishment of rapid response mechanisms for emergency situations.


One of the major challenges for these interventions is the promotion of hygiene behaviour at the
household and community level, as well
as improved management of community water and sanitation
resources. The adoption of low
-
cost technologies of easy maintenance and the wide dissemination of
safe hygiene practices will be the main activities for the sector. A cross
-
sector approach will be

adopted in close coordination with health, nutrition and education activities, with special emphasis on
the provinces of Kirundo, Muyinga, Karuzi, Gitega, Ruyigi, Cankuzo, Rutana, Bururi and Makamba.
UNICEF, UNDP and WFP will implement initiatives in coll
aboration with NGOs and local authorities.
In addition, UNESCO will support the rehabilitation of some school sanitation facilities.



BURUNDI



17


3.5.F Special Needs of IDPs


Response plans for the assistance to IDPs are based on an inter
-
sectoral, collaborative appr
oach that
focuses on the following groups of displaced populations:
16




IDPs living in displacement sites: this group comprises approximately 140,000 persons
throughout the country. In the southern provinces, where the return flow is higher, the IDP
caseloa
d in sites is likely to decrease in the coming months. However, an estimated 50,000
IDPs concentrated in the northern and central provinces are likely to remain in sites in the
coming year.



IDPs in Bujumbura Rural: this group comprises 25,000
-
30,000 peopl
e who are directly affected
by the conflict in the province. Most of the displaced are concentrated in the southern
communes of the province and their periods of displacement vary considerably. Targeted
interventions will be aimed at monitoring protection

issues and providing basic emergency
assistance, including temporary shelter, food aid, health, nutrition, water and sanitation and
ensuring access to primary schooling during the period of displacement.



Returning IDPs: accurate numbers for this group ar
e not available as the return movement is
ongoing. However, on the basis of estimates, in the first half of 2004 approximately 140,000
IDPs were on their way back home and 80,000 expressed their willingness to return
immediately. The highest return rates

and willingness to return were found in the provinces of
Makamba, Rutana, Bururi, Ruyigi and Muramvya.


Specific areas of interventions for IDPs in the context of the 2005 humanitarian strategy include:


1.
Protection monitoring and advocacy
, with special

emphasis on advocacy against discrimination
because of IDP status; advocacy vis
-
à
-
vis government authorities for the recognition of residence
rights for all those IDPs who are willing to settle and remain in areas of displacement; strengthening
community
reconciliation activities and initiatives, particularly in northern and central provinces where
perceptions of inter
-
community relationships and overall security conditions remain important concerns
for IDPs; reviewing targeting systems used by local autho
rities for the identification of the most
vulnerable households within IDP sites to ensure equity of humanitarian assistance.


In the case of temporary IDPs, most notably in Bujumbura Rural, protection activities will focus on
monitoring the physical prote
ction of the population, compliance with international humanitarian law
principles by all parties to the conflict, and strengthening advocacy vis
-
à
-
vis national and provincial
authorities to ensure adequate and timely government actions for the protection
of civilians. Special
attention will be given to a “do
-
no
-
harm” approach in the provision of humanitarian assistance, which
may expose civilian populations to repeated looting, abuse and violence. In the case of returning
IDPs, protection initiatives wil
l focus on monitoring equitable conditions of community reinsertion and
reintegration.


Protection initiatives will be coordinated by the Technical Monitoring Group for the Protection of IDPs
in collaboration with NGOs, OHCHR, the Human Rights Sections of

the ONUB and OCHA. At the
same time, all UN and NGO partners directly assisting IDPs will contribute to strengthening the
monitoring of and advocacy for protection issues affecting IDPs.


2.
Access to shelter/housing, basic services and food security.

T
his set of activities will be developed
at the community level taking into account the specific vulnerabilities and needs of the IDPs as
compared to the rest of the population. The main issues include access to adequate shelter
(especially, but not only,
in the province of Bujumbura Rural) and housing, discrimination issues, and
the provision of equal access to basic services and opportunities for reintegration. The displacement
of proximity that characterises the phenomenon of internal displacement in Bu
rundi and the protection
issues affecting IDPs require a strong community
-
based approach for the provision of assistance. In
this respect, the assistance provided to IDPs will follow the same approaches adopted for all
vulnerable populations in the areas
of food security, emergency agriculture and access to health and
education services.





16

Survey on IDPs Living in Sites for the Displaced, OCHA/Burundi, August 2004.


BURUNDI



18


A key aspect of the response to IDP issues is the establishment of strong coordination and
collaboration with government structures, in particular the provincial governm
ents and the National
Commission for the Rehabilitation of Vulnerable Populations (CNRS). OCHA, in close collaboration
with the UN Inter
-
Agency Cell for Reinsertion (CIR), WHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP and NGOs, will focus
on strengthening implementation of provi
ncial plans of action in the context of community reintegration
activities.



3.5.G Community Reintegration


Since 2003, the process of community reintegration in Burundi is marked by constant population
movements into zones of origin. In this context, hu
manitarian actions have been adjusting to meet the
evolving needs of returning populations and local communities. Limited absorption capacities of basic
health and education services, marked disparities in access to basic services across regions, and
con
centration of return flows in some provinces compound needs related to shelter and housing, weak
agricultural productivity and land access, and the need to strengthen community coping mechanisms
and local capacities. The increased involvement of local gov
ernments on the one hand, and the active
participation of all communities on the other are fundamental prerequisites to meet immediate needs
in the months to come and to pave the way for medium
-

and long
-
term reconstruction activities.


Responding to sp
ecific immediate humanitarian needs requires a households approach based on
assessed vulnerabilities. Meanwhile, the response to reintegration needs increasingly relates to the
capacity of the community as a whole. Therefore a holistic approach is requir
ed, which would address
local community needs. The combination of these two approaches in the short
-
term is essential to
minimise disparities among vulnerable groups, hence mitigating potential tensions within communities.


Local economies require immedia
te support not only to improve minimum household self
-
sufficiency,
but also to help mitigate the impact of both refugees’ return and the demobilisation process amongst
recipient communities. Taking into account the overall scarcity of fertile land along w
ith the critically
decreasing average cultivating land surface per household, activities designed to support communes’
economy should also include the development of alternative income
-
generating activities.


The absence of adequate housing is also a key
challenge for the reintegration of returnees: following a
decade of absence, most returnee houses are destroyed. In this regard, UNHCR will provide
necessary materials (corrugated iron sheets for roofing, locally produced doors and windows) while
the retu
rnees will provide the remaining materials and labour. The programme will also benefit
vulnerable families in the receiving community to facilitate reintegration.


UNHCR will work with authorities on resolving problems deriving from statelessness and from

property
and inheritance rights. It will provide legal assistance to refugees and support the judiciary as well as
traditional community
-
based mechanisms of solving disputes. UNHCR will support reception
committees comprised of local authorities set up
at provincial, communal and zone level which play an