PRIMARY SOURCE READINGS AND STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

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Prepared by
Professor
Christopher Ullman

--

Christian Life College


PRIMARY
SOURCE
READINGS

AND
STUDY GUIDE
QUESTIONS





The School of Athens

by Raphael



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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

2

Table of Contents


Battling the Philosophy of this Age



page
3

Naturalist Philosophers



page 8

Plato



page
20

Aristotle



page
37

Augustine



page 46

Thomas
Aquinas



page 59

A Final Thought on Being Philosophers



page 70

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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

3

BATTLING THE PHILOSOPHY OF THIS AGE


C.S. Lewis said, “"To be ignorant and simple now
--

not to be able to meet the enemies on their
own ground
--

would be to throw down our weapons, and t
o betray our uneducated brethren who
have, under God, no defense but us against the intellectual attacks of the heathen" … "
Good
philosophy must exist, if for no other reason, because bad philosophy needs to be answered.

. . . Most of all, perhaps, we need

intimate knowledge of the past. Not that the past has any magic
about it, but because we cannot study the future, and yet need something to set against the
present, to remind us that the basic assumptions have been quite different in different periods and

that much which seems certain to the uneducated is merely temporary fashion. A man who has
lived in many places is not likely to be deceived by the local errors of his native village; the
scholar has lived in many times, and is therefore in some degree im
mune from the great cataract
of nonsense that pouts from the press and the microphone of his own age."


Thomas Aquinas said, “
Philosophy

is the
handmaiden of theology

and theology is queen of the
sciences.”


PHILOSOPHY IS NOT EVIL IN ITSELF

Isaiah 1:18
-

"Come now,
let us reason together
," says the LORD. "Though your sins are like
scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool.


1 Peter 3:15
-

. . . Always be prepared to give an answer to e
veryone who asks you to
give the
reason

for the hope that you have.


Matthew 22:36
-
38
-

. . . 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and
with all your mind
.' This is the first and greatest commandment.


Matthew 10:16
-

I am
sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore
be as shrewd as
snakes

and as innocent as doves.


PHILOSOPHY IS A COMBINATION OF THE GREEK WORDS FOR “LOVE” AND
“WISDOM”

Proverbs 1:7
-

The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despi
se
wisdom

and discipline.



Proverbs 4:7
-

Wisdom

is supreme; therefore get wisdom. Though it cost all you have, get
understanding.


Proverbs 8:11
-

for
wisdom

is more precious than rubies, and nothing you desire can compare
with her.



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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

4

PROPHETS AND
APOSTLES REASONED WITH
PEOPLE TO PERSUADE THEM

EXAMPLE: PAUL

Acts 17:2
-

As his custom was, Paul went into the synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he
reasoned

with them from the Scriptures,


Acts 17:17
-

So he
reasoned

in the synagogue with the Jews and

the God
-
fearing Greeks, as well
as in the marketplace day by day with those who happened to be there.


Acts 18:4
-

Every Sabbath he
reasoned

in the synagogue, trying to persuade Jews and Greeks.


Acts 18:19
-

They arrived at Ephesus, where Paul left P
riscilla and Aquila. He himself went into
the synagogue and
reasoned

with the Jews.


BEWARE OF BAD PHILOSOPHY

Col. 2:8
-

See to it that no one takes you captive through
hollow

and
deceptive

philosophy,
which depends on human tradition and the basic
principles of this world rather than on Christ
.


1 Tim. 6:20
-
21
-

. . . Turn away from
godless chatter and the opposing ideas of what is falsely
called knowledge
, which some have professed and in so doing have wandered from the faith.


SOME GREAT CHRISTI
AN PHILOSOPHERS

OF THE PAST



Justin Martyr



Augustine



Anselm



Boethius



Thomas Aquinas



Gottfried Leibniz



Blaise Pascal



George Berkeley



Joseph Butler



Thomas Reid



Jonathan Edwards



Josiah Royce



C. S.
Lewis



Francis Schaeffer

OF THE PRESENT



Alvin Plantinga



Nicholas Wolterstorff



George Mavrodes



William Lane Craig



J. P. Moreland



Dallas Willard



William Alston



Norman Geisler



Francis Beckwith



Harold O. J. Brown



Peter Kreeft



Nigel de Cameron



J. Budziszewski



Scott Rae
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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

5


CONSIDER THESE KEY WORDS IN PROVERBS
11
-
14


RIGHTEOUS


11:8
-
10; 11:19; 11:21; 11:23; 11:28; 11:30
-
31; 12:3; 12:5; 12:7; 12:10; 12:12
-
13; 12:21;
12:26; 13:5; 13:9; 13:21
-
22; 13:25; 14:19; 14:32.


TRUTHFUL


12:17; 12
:19; 12:22; 14:5; 14:25


WICKED


11:5; 11:7
-
8; 11:10
-
11; 11:18; 11:21; 11:23; 12:5
-
7; 12:10; 12:12; 12:21; 12:26; 13:5;
13:9; 13:17; 13:25; 14:11; 14:19; 14:32


EVIL

11:6; 11:19; 11:27; 12:12
-
13; 12:20; 13:19; 14:16; 14:19; 14:22


FALSE


12:17; 13:5; 14:5; 14:25


KNOWING TRUTH FROM FALSEHOOD, AND RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM
WICKEDNESS AND EVIL, IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTANDING THESE FOUR
CHAPTERS OF PROVERBS. This will require philosophical thinking.


KEY VERSES FROM PROVERBS 11
-
14 ON
PHI
LOSOPHY

Proverbs 11:1
-

The LORD abhors dishonest scales, but
accurate weights

are his delight.



Proverbs 11:3
-

The
integrity

of the upright guides them, but the unfaithful are destroyed by
their duplicity.



Proverbs 11:14
-

For lack of
guidance

a nat
ion falls, but many advisers make victory sure.



Proverbs 13:5
-

The righteous hate what is
false
, but the wicked bring shame and disgrace.



Proverbs 14:15
-

A simple man
believes anything
, but a prudent man gives thought to his steps.




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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

6

SENTENCES
THAT SIMPLE PEOPLE SAY AND BELIEVE, WITHOUT
QUESTIONING THEM

a.

“All religions are simply different ways to the same God.”

b.

“Doubt everything.”

c.

“God is all, and all is God.”

d.

“I don’t believe in anything I can’t see, hear, taste, touch or smell.”

e.

“It all depend
s . . .” (followed by nothing)

f.

“It can’t be wrong, if it feels so right.”

g.

“It doesn’t matter what you believe, as long as you’re sincere.”

h.

“Nobody knows anything for sure.”

i.

“Nothing is certain.”

j.

“One opinion is just as good as another.”

k.

“That’s true for y
ou, but not for me.”

l.

“That’s your reality, but not mine.”

m.

“Trust no one.”

n.

“What’s right for you may not be right for me.”

o.

“Who are you to judge others?”

p.

“Who are you to say another culture’s values are wrong?”

q.

“You have the right to choose your own values.



YOU CAN DEFLATE THESE SLOGANS

1.

Begin by applying the statement to itself. In many cases, the statement will not withstand
this treatment. (b, h, i, j, k, m)

2.

Reflect the question back to the questioner. Questions o and p involve the questioner in a
vio
lation of his/her premise.

3.

Supply extreme examples to show the danger of uncritically applying the statement. (e, f,
g, l, n, p, q)

4.

Statement a is deflated by looking at a few of the main truth claims of the major religions.

5.

Statement c is deflated by
noting that any term that indicates all possible things has no
meaning.

6.

Statement d is deflated by pointing out that the speaker believes what he/she is saying,
but not on the basis of sensing it, since it’s truth is not capable of being sensed.


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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

7

Following

a few basic rules of logic like this will help you to
win the battle
. but you will
lose the war
, if your attitude has not been softened ahead of time by prayer and humility.



HATE

THE FALSEHOOD, BUT
LOVE

THE PERSON.



REFUTE

THE SLOGAN, BUT
RESPECT

THE
SPEAKER.

John 1:14
-

The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his
glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father,
full of
grace

and
truth
.

Philip. 2:5
-

Your
attitude

should be the same as that of Christ Jesus

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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

8

N
ATURALIST PHILOSOPHERS

Epicurus

A Greek philosopher who lived from
341
-
270 B.C.


Letter to Menoeceus

1

(
In this letter, Epicurus summarizes his ethical doctrines
.)

Epicurus to Menoeceus, greetings:

Let no one be slow to seek wisdom when he is young nor
weary in the search of it when he has
grown old. For no age is too early or too late for the health of the soul. And to say that the season
for studying philosophy has not yet come, or that it is past and gone, is like saying that the
season for happiness
is not yet or that it is now no more. Therefore, both old and young alike
ought to seek wisdom, the former in order that, as age comes over him, he may be young in good
things because of the grace of what has been, and the latter in order that, while he is

young, he
may at the same time be old, because he has no fear of the things which are to come. So we must
exercise ourselves in the things which bring happiness, since, if that be present, we have
everything, and, if that be absent, all our actions are di
rected towards attaining it.

Those things which without ceasing I have declared unto you, do them, and exercise yourself in
them, holding them to be the elements of right life. First believe that God is a living being
immortal and blessed, according to the

notion of a god indicated by the common sense of
mankind; and so believing, you shall not affirm of him anything that is foreign to his immortality
or that is repugnant to his blessedness. Believe about him whatever may uphold both his
blessedness and his

immortality. For there are gods, and the knowledge of them is manifest; but
they are not such as the multitude believe, seeing that men do not steadfastly maintain the
notions they form respecting them. Not the man who denies the gods worshipped by the
mu
ltitude, but he who affirms of the gods what the multitude believes about them is truly
impious. For the utterances of the multitude about the gods are not true preconceptions but false
assumptions; hence it is that the greatest evils happen to the wicked
and the greatest blessings
happen to the good from the hand of the gods, seeing that they are always favorable to their own
good qualities and take pleasure in men like themselves, but reject as alien whatever is not of
their kind.

Accustom yourself to bel
ieving that death is nothing to us, for good and evil imply the capacity
for sensation, and death is the privation of all sentience; therefore a correct understanding that
death is nothing to us makes the mortality of life enjoyable, not by adding to life
a limitless time,
but by taking away the yearning after immortality. For life has no terrors for him who has
thoroughly understood that there are no terrors for him in ceasing to live. Foolish, therefore, is



1

Interested? Read more at
http://classics.mit.edu/Epicurus
/menoec.html


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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

9

the man who says that he fears death, not becaus
e it will pain when it comes, but because it pains
in the prospect. Whatever causes no annoyance when it is present, causes only a groundless pain
in the expectation. Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when
we are, de
ath is not come, and, when death is come, we are not. It is nothing, then, either to the
living or to the dead, for with the living it is not and the dead exist no longer.

But in the world, at one time men shun death as the greatest of all evils, and at an
other time
choose it as a respite from the evils in life. The wise man does not deprecate life nor does he fear
the cessation of life. The thought of life is no offense to him, nor is the cessation of life regarded
as an evil. And even as men choose of foo
d not merely and simply the larger portion, but the
more pleasant, so the wise seek to enjoy the time which is most pleasant and not merely that
which is longest. And he who admonishes the young to live well and the old to make a good end
speaks foolishly,

not merely because of the desirability of life, but because the same exercise at
once teaches to live well and to die well. Much worse is he who says that it were good not to be
born, but when once one is born to pass quickly through the gates of Hades. F
or if he truly
believes this, why does he not depart from life? It would be easy for him to do so once he were
firmly convinced. If he speaks only in jest, his words are foolishness as those who hear him do
not believe.

We must remember that the future is

neither wholly ours nor wholly not ours, so that neither
must we count upon it as quite certain to come nor despair of it as quite certain not to come.

We must also reflect that of desires some are natural, others are groundless; and that of the
natural s
ome are necessary as well as natural, and some natural only. And of the necessary
desires some are necessary if we are to be happy, some if the body is to be rid of uneasiness,
some if we are even to live. He who has a clear and certain understanding of th
ese things will
direct every preference and aversion toward securing health of body and tranquillity of mind,
seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life. For the end of all our actions is to be free
from pain and fear, and, when once we have att
ained all this, the tempest of the soul is laid;
seeing that the living creature has no need to go in search of something that is lacking, nor to
look for anything else by which the good of the soul and of the body will be fulfilled. When we
are pained bec
ause of the absence of pleasure, then, and then only, do we feel the need of
pleasure. Wherefore we call pleasure the alpha and omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first
and kindred good. It is the starting
-
point of every choice and of every aversion,

and to it we
come back, inasmuch as we make feeling the rule by which to judge of every good thing.

And since pleasure is our first and native good, for that reason we do not choose every pleasure
whatsoever, but will often pass over many pleasures when a

greater annoyance ensues from
them. And often we consider pains superior to pleasures when submission to the pains for a long
time brings us as a consequence a greater pleasure. While therefore all pleasure because it is
naturally akin to us is good, not
all pleasure is should be chosen, just as all pain is an evil and yet
not all pain is to be shunned. It is, however, by measuring one against another, and by looking at
the conveniences and inconveniences, that all these matters must be judged. Sometimes w
e treat
the good as an evil, and the evil, on the contrary, as a good.

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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

10

Again, we regard independence of outward things as a great good, not so as in all cases to use
little, but so as to be contented with little if we have not much, being honestly persuade
d that
they have the sweetest enjoyment of luxury who stand least in need of it, and that whatever is
natural is easily procured and only the vain and worthless hard to win. Plain fare gives as much
pleasure as a costly diet, when once the pain of want has

been removed, while bread and water
confer the highest possible pleasure when they are brought to hungry lips. To habituate one's
self, therefore, to simple and inexpensive diet supplies all that is needful for health, and enables a
man to meet the necess
ary requirements of life without shrinking, and it places us in a better
condition when we approach at intervals a costly fare and renders us fearless of fortune.

When we say, then, that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the
prod
igal or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do by some through ignorance,
prejudice, or willful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and
of trouble in the soul. It is not an unbroken succession of drinking
-
bouts and of revelry, not
sexual lust, not the enjoyment of the fish and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce
a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance,
and banishing those beliefs thro
ugh which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul. Of all
this the beginning and the greatest good is wisdom. Therefore wisdom is a more precious thing
even than philosophy ; from it spring all the other virtues, for it teaches that we cannot live

pleasantly without living wisely, honorably, and justly; nor live wisely, honorably, and justly
without living pleasantly. For the virtues have grown into one with a pleasant life, and a pleasant
life is inseparable from them.

Who, then, is superior in y
our judgment to such a man? He holds a holy belief concerning the
gods, and is altogether free from the fear of death. He has diligently considered the end fixed by
nature, and understands how easily the limit of good things can be reached and attained, an
d how
either the duration or the intensity of evils is but slight. Fate, which some introduce as sovereign
over all things, he scorns, affirming rather that some things happen of necessity, others by
chance, others through our own agency. For he sees that
necessity destroys responsibility and
that chance is inconstant; whereas our own actions are autonomous, and it is to them that praise
and blame naturally attach. It were better, indeed, to accept the legends of the gods than to bow
beneath that yoke of de
stiny which the natural philosophers have imposed. The one holds out
some faint hope that we may escape if we honor the gods, while the necessity of the naturalists is
deaf to all entreaties. Nor does he hold chance to be a god, as the world in general doe
s, for in the
acts of a god there is no disorder; nor to be a cause, though an uncertain one, for he believes that
no good or evil is dispensed by chance to men so as to make life blessed, though it supplies the
starting
-
point of great good and great evil.

He believes that the misfortune of the wise is better
than the prosperity of the fool. It is better, in short, that what is well judged in action should not
owe its successful issue to the aid of chance.

Exercise yourself in these and related precepts da
y and night, both by yourself and with one who
is like
-
minded; then never, either in waking or in dream, will you be disturbed, but will live as a
god among men. For man loses all semblance of mortality by living in the midst of immortal
blessings.

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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

11

Pythag
oras: Music and Space
2

"We shall therefore borrow all our Rules for the Finishing our Proportions, from the Musicians, who are the greatest Masters
of this Sort of Numbers, and from those Things
wherein Nature shows herself most excellent and compleat." Le
on Battista Alberti (1407
-
1472)


Pythagoras (6th century BC) observed that when the blacksmith struck his anvil, different notes were produced
according to the weight of the hammer.

Number (in this case "amount of weight") seemed to govern musical tone...


See if you can hear the sound in your imagination before it comes, by judging from the proportions of the string
lengths. The first one's easy.

Then
mouse
-
over the strings

(
-
if you dont hear anything you'll have to click, it depends on your set
-
up.)

?


Again, number (in this case "amount of space") seemed to govern musical tone. Or does musical tone govern number? He also dis
covered that if the length of the two strings are in
relatio
n to each other
2:3
, the difference in pitch is called a
fifth
:

?

...and if the length of the strings are in relation to each other
3:4
, then the difference is called a
fourth
.

?




2

Interested? Read more at
http://www.aboutscotland.com/harmony/prop.html


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Christian Life College

12

Thus the musical notation of the Greeks, which we have inherited can be expressed mathematically as
1:2:3:4


All this above can be summarised in the following.

?

(Another consonance which the Greeks recognised was the octave plus a fifth, where 9:18 = 1:2, an octave, and 18:27 = 2:3, a
fifth;)

?

This triangular figure of numbers in the shape of the Greek letter
Lamda

is the
Tetrad

of the Pythagorians.

As was discussed by Plato in his dissertation on
the Composition of the Soul
, it is a set of numbers whose relationships with each other seemed to summarize all the inter
-
dependent harmonies within the universe of space and time.

Thus to have established the relationship between music and space/number fired the imagination of the

Pythagorians and was taken up especially by the School of Plato and the
subsequent Neo
-
Platonists. Pythagoras himself wrote nothing which has survived, and so it is the Platonists we have to thank for recording a
nd developing what had hitherto been
passed

down through two hundred and fifty years of oral tradition.

Pythagoras taught that each of the seven planets produced by its orbit a particular note according to its distance from the s
till centre which was the Earth. The distance in each case
was like t
he subdivisions of the string refered to above. This is what was called
Musica Mundana
, which is usually translated as Music of the Spheres. The sound produced is so
exquisite and rarified that our ordinary ears are unable to hear it. It is the Cosmic Musi
c which, according to Philo of Alexandria, Moses had heard when he recieved the Tablets on
Mount Sinai, and which St Augustine believed men hear on the point of death, revealing to them the highest reality of the Cos
mos. (Carlo Bertelli, Piero della France
sca, p. 60.)
This music is present everywhere and governs all temporal cycles, such as the seasons, biological cycles, and all the rhythms

of nature. Together with its underlying mathematical
laws of proportion it is the sound of the harmony of the created

being of the universe, the harmony of what Plato called the "one visible living being, containing within itself all
living beings of the same natural order".

For the Pythagorians different musical modes have different effects on the person who hears them
; Pythagoras once cured a youth of his drunkenness by prescribing a melody in
the Hypophrygian mode in spondaic rhythm. Apparently the Phrygian mode would have had the opposite effect and would have over
excited him. At the healing centers of
Asclepieion at

Pergamum and Epidauros in Greece, patients underwent therapy accompanied by music. The Roman statesman, philosopher and mathe
matician, Boethius (480
-
524
A.D.) explained that the soul and the body are subject to the same laws of proportion that govern musi
c and the cosmos itself. We are happiest when we conform to these laws
because "we love similarity, but hate and resent dissimilarity". (
De Institutione Musica
, 1,1. from Umberto Eco, Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages. p. 31).

©
J. Boyd
-
Brent

-

an article from
About Scotland

Arts Pages



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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

13

Lucretius
3

(Roman poet and philosopher who lived from 99 B.C. to 55 B.C.)


On the Nature

of Things
, Book I

“Substance is Eternal”


This terror, then, this darkness of the mind,

Not sunrise with its flaring spokes of light,

Nor glittering arrows of morning can disperse,

But only Nature's aspect and her law,

Which, teaching us, hath this e
xordium:

Nothing from nothing ever yet was born.

Fear holds dominion over mortality

Only because, seeing in land and sky

So much the cause whereof no wise they know,

Men think Divinities are working there.

Meantime, when once we know from nothing sti
ll

Nothing can be create, we shall divine

More clearly what we seek: those elements

From which alone all things created are,

And how accomplished by no tool of Gods.

Suppose all sprang from all things: any kind

Might take its origin from any thing,

No fixed seed required. Men from the sea

Might rise, and from the land the scaly breed,

And, fowl full fledged come bursting from the sky;

The horned cattle, the herds and all the wild

Would haunt with varying offspring tilth and waste;

Nor would the
same fruits keep their olden trees,

But each might grow from any stock or limb

By chance and change. Indeed, and were there not

For each its procreant atoms, could things have

Each its unalterable mother old?

But, since produced from fixed seeds are a
ll,

Each birth goes forth upon the shores of light

From its own stuff, from its own primal bodies.

And all from all cannot become, because

In each resides a secret power its own.

Again, why see we lavished o'er the lands

At spring the rose, at summer

heat the corn,

The vines that mellow when the autumn lures,

If not because the fixed seeds of things

At their own season must together stream,




3

Interested? Read more at
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/lucretius/


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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

14

And new creations only be revealed

When the due times arrive and pregnant earth

Safely may give unto the s
hores of light

Her tender progenies? But if from naught

Were their becoming, they would spring abroad

Suddenly, unforeseen, in alien months,

With no primordial germs, to be preserved

From procreant unions at an adverse hour.

Nor on the mingling of the living seeds

Would space be needed for the growth of things

Were life an increment of nothing: then

The tiny babe forthwith would walk a man,

And from the turf would leap a branching tree
-


Wonders unheard of; for, by Nature,

each

Slowly increases from its lawful seed,

And through that increase shall conserve its kind.

Whence take the proof that things enlarge and feed

From out their proper matter. Thus it comes

That earth, without her seasons of fixed rains,

Could bear
no produce such as makes us glad,

And whatsoever lives, if shut from food,

Prolongs its kind and guards its life no more.

Thus easier 'tis to hold that many things

Have primal bodies in common (as we see

The single letters common to many words)

Than
aught exists without its origins.

Moreover, why should Nature not prepare

Men of a bulk to ford the seas afoot,

Or rend the mighty mountains with their hands,

Or conquer Time with length of days, if not

Because for all begotten things abides

The chan
geless stuff, and what from that may spring

Is fixed forevermore? Lastly we see

How far the tilled surpass the fields untilled

And to the labour of our hands return

Their more abounding crops; there are indeed

Within the earth primordial germs of things,

Which, as the ploughshare turns the fruitful clods

And kneads the mould, we quicken into birth.

Else would ye mark, without all toil of ours,

Spontaneous generations, fairer forms.

Confess then, naught from

nothing can become,

Since all must have their seeds, wherefrom to grow,

Wherefrom to reach the gentle fields of air.

Hence too it comes that Nature all dissolves

Into their primal bodies again, and naught

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--

Christian Life College

15

Perishes ever to annihilation.

For, were aug
ht mortal in its every part,

Before our eyes it might be snatched away

Unto destruction; since no force were needed

To sunder its members and undo its bands.

Whereas, of truth, because all things exist,

With seed imperishable, Nature allows

Destructi
on nor collapse of aught, until

Some outward force may shatter by a blow,

Or inward craft, entering its hollow cells,

Dissolve it down. And more than this, if Time,

That wastes with eld the works along the world,

Destroy entire, consuming matter all,

Whence then may Venus back to light of life

Restore the generations kind by kind?

Or how, when thus restored, may daedal Earth

Foster and plenish with her ancient food,

Which, kind by kind, she offers unto each?

Whence may the water
-
springs, beneath
the sea,

Or inland rivers, far and wide away,

Keep the unfathomable ocean full?

And out of what does Ether feed the stars?

For lapsed years and infinite age must else

Have eat all shapes of mortal stock away:

But be it the Long Ago contained those germs,

By which this sum of things recruited lives,

Those same infallibly can never die,

Nor nothing to nothing evermore return.

And, too, the selfsame power might end alike

All things, were they not still togeth
er held

By matter eternal, shackled through its parts,

Now more, now less. A touch might be enough

To cause destruction. For the slightest force

Would loose the weft of things wherein no part

Were of imperishable stock. But now

Because the fastenings

of primordial parts

Are put together diversely and stuff

Is everlasting, things abide the same

Unhurt and sure, until some power comes on

Strong to destroy the warp and woof of each:

Nothing returns to naught; but all return

At their collapse to pri
mal forms of stuff.

Lo, the rains perish which Ether
-
father throws

Down to the bosom of Earth
-
mother; but then

Upsprings the shining grain, and boughs are green

Amid the trees, and trees themselves wax big

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16

And lade themselves with fruits; and hence in

turn

The race of man and all the wild are fed;

Hence joyful cities thrive with boys and girls;

And leafy woodlands echo with new birds;

Hence cattle, fat and drowsy, lay their bulk

Along the joyous pastures whilst the drops

Of white ooze trickle from distended bags;

Hence the young scamper on their weakling joints

Along the tender herbs, fresh hearts afrisk

With warm new milk. Thus naught of what so seems

Perishes utterly, since Nature ever

Upbuilds one thing from other,

suffering naught

To come to birth but through some other's death.


And now, since I have taught that things cannot

Be born from nothing, nor the same, when born,

To nothing be recalled, doubt not my words,

Because our eyes no primal germs perceive;

For mark those bodies which, though known to be

In this our world, are yet invisible:

The winds infuriate lash our face and frame,

Unseen, and swamp huge ships and rend the clouds,

Or, eddying wildly down, bestrew the plains

With mighty trees, or scou
r the mountain tops

With forest
-
crackling blasts. Thus on they rave

With uproar shrill and ominous moan. The winds,

'Tis clear, are sightless bodies sweeping through

The sea, the lands, the clouds along the sky,

Vexing and whirling and seizing all ama
in;

And forth they flow and pile destruction round,

Even as the water's soft and supple bulk

Becoming a river of abounding floods,

Which a wide downpour from the lofty hills

Swells with big showers, dashes headlong down

Fragments of woodland and whole branching trees;

Nor can the solid bridges bide the shock

As on the waters whelm: the turbulent stream,

Strong with a hundred rains, beats round the piers,

Crashes with havoc, and rolls beneath its waves

Down
-
toppled ma
sonry and ponderous stone,

Hurling away whatever would oppose.

Even so must move the blasts of all the winds,

Which, when they spread, like to a mighty flood,

Hither or thither, drive things on before

And hurl to ground with still renewed assault,

Or

sometimes in their circling vortex seize

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Christian Life College

17

And bear in cones of whirlwind down the world:

The winds are sightless bodies and naught else
-


Since both in works and ways they rival well

The mighty rivers, the visible in form.

Then too we know the varied s
mells of things

Yet never to our nostrils see them come;

With eyes we view not burning heats, nor cold,

Nor are we wont men's voices to behold.

Yet these must be corporeal at the base,

Since thus they smite the senses: naught there is

Save body, havi
ng property of touch.

And raiment, hung by surf
-
beat shore, grows moist,

The same, spread out before the sun, will dry;

Yet no one saw how sank the moisture in,

Nor how by heat off
-
driven. Thus we know,

That moisture is dispersed about in bits

Too small for eyes to see. Another case:

A ring upon the finger thins away

Along the under side, with years and suns;

The drippings from the eaves will scoop the stone;

The hooked ploughshare, though of iron, wastes

Amid the fields insidiously. We vie
w

The rock
-
paved highways worn by many feet;

And at the gates the brazen statues show

Their right hands leaner from the frequent touch

Of wayfarers innumerable who greet.

We see how wearing
-
down hath minished these,

But just what motes depart at any
time,

The envious nature of vision bars our sight.

Lastly whatever days and nature add

Little by little, constraining things to grow

In due proportion, no gaze however keen

Of these our eyes hath watched and known. No more

Can we observe what's lost
at any time,

When things wax old with eld and foul decay,

Or when salt seas eat under beetling crags.

Thus Nature ever by unseen bodies works.


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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
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Christian Life College

18

STUDY GUIDE FOR GREEK & ROMAN NATURALIST PHILOSOPHERS

Introductory Overview

We begin our philosophical
survey by studying the earliest rational thinkers in the
Western world

the pre
-
Socratic philosophers (that is, philosophers before Socrates). Through
them we will gain insight into the first philosophical questions asked and the first answers given
about
the nature of the world and those of us who live in it.

It has been 2,000
-
2,500 years since these pioneering philosophers asked the questions as
“How did the world come into being?” “What is the world made of?” and “How can we explain
the process of chang
e?” Even today, scientists and philosophers continue to return to the pre
-
Socratics for insight into complex philosophical questions

even though those early
philosophers lacked today’s sophisticated techniques.

The
pre
-
Socrates
philosophers offered altern
ative theories to their basic questions: “What
is the
substance

out of which the world is made?” and “How can we explain the process of
change in matter?” As materialists, the
Milesians

sought to discover the basic substance that
held the universe togethe
r. For
Thales
, this basic substance was
water
, for
Anaximander

it was
the
boundless pool of opposites
, and for
Anaximenes

it was
air
.

As thinkers probed deeper into the structures of the universe,
Pythagoras

found numbers
the basic principle on which all
else depends. The Pythgoreans were the first to conceive of
form

as well as
matter
.
Heraclitus

concluded that the universe is in a constant state of flux (change)
and that the underlying substance and unity is
fire
.

Parmenides

disagreed that motion exist
ed at all. For him, reality is permanent,
unchanging, indivisible, and
undifferentiated Being
.
Zeno

developed clever
paradoxes

to show
that motion is impossible in principle.
Empedocles

agreed that Being is the permanent and true
reality. But he argued for a plurality of Beings that change only in position.
Love

and
Strife

are
the two forces that cause the change of positions.

Anaxagoras

argued the
Nous

(mind) puts the universe in moti
on by acting on matter. The
Atomists

maintained that uncreated, imperceptible, indestructible, indivisible, and eternal atoms
in motion compose the universe. All of the pre
-
Socratic philosophers engaged primarily in
natural philosophy
, the study of mater
ial substance and the problem of change.

The Atomists marked the end of Greek natural philosophy. After the Atomists,
philosophers turned their concentration from the physical world to question about how people
should behave. The next great development i
n philosophy started with the Sophists and
Socrates, who turned from natural philosophy to concentrate on the nature of human beings, their
ethical problems, and philosophy of life. They struggled with the problems that confront every
thinking human being
:
Who am I? What do I want out of life
?

Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans

Why are they so concerned with numbers?

What brings about harmony?

Tell about the idea of the soul, as conceived by this group of philosophers.

What contributions do these philosopher
s make to culture?

What is the music of the spheres?

Epicurus

What did he teach about pleasure?

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Christian Life College

19

Did he teach that one could do whatever wanted to do, regardless of negative consequences?
Explain your answer.

Comparing his teachings to those of the Bible,
name one area of conflict.

Lucretius

What is eternal? Explain.

Describe four major points of his poem.

Questions from the Nash Chapter on Naturalism

(Please refer also to the PowerPoint presentation on naturalism.)

1.

Bertrand Russell said, “No philosophy wh
ich rejects them can hope to stand.” What was he
talking about?

2.

What theory is Democritus famous for developing?

3.

Explain the basics of this theory.

4.

Democritus’ theory teaches that all quality is an illusion. Why would he say such a thing?

5.

What are two
questions that naturalists don’t like to ask, concerning atoms?

6.

What did Epicurus think were the three great obstacles to happiness?

7.

How does Epicurus help overcome them?

8.

Lucretius thought that religion is humankind’s greatest affliction. Why would a na
turalist
think this?

9.

Consciousness is the Achilles’ heel of materialism. Why?

10.

Naturalists such as Epicurus believed that ____________ was the highest good.

11.

Nash teaches that a weakness of any philosophical “
-
ism” is that the discovery of only one
thing th
at is impossible to explain by the “
-
ism” invalidates the whole “
-
ism.” Explain.

12.

Name two things that naturalism is incapable of explaining.

13.

What does the story about the stones arranged to spell “THE BRITISH RAILWAYS
WELCOMES YOU TO WALES” seek to demons
trate?

14.

Is naturalism is self
-
referentially absurd? Why?

15.

“If everything must be exactly as it is, there is futility in saying it ought to be otherwise.” A
person who believed this would have no place in her worldview for _________________. Why?

16.

How did E
picurus’ naturalism make him unafraid of death, and unbothered by other fears?

17.

Lucretius wrote that “nothing from nothing ever yet was born” (no thing comes from
nothing, nothing ever could). Where then do things come from? His answer was that each thing

came from ____________________.

18.

What did Lucretius think of the idea of annihilation?

19.

Why is it important for Lucretius to teach that Nature wears things down?

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Prepared by Professor Christopher Ullman
--

Christian Life College

20

Plato

(Greek Athenian philosopher who lived from 429
-
347 B.C.
)


The Apology
4


How you have felt, O men of Athens, at hearing the speeches of my accusers, I cannot tell; but I
know that their persuasive words almost made me forget who I was
-

such was the effect of
them; and yet they have hardly spoken a word of truth. But many as th
eir falsehoods were, there
was one of them which quite amazed me;
-

I mean when they told you to be upon your guard,
and not to let yourselves be deceived by the force of my eloquence. They ought to have been
ashamed of saying this, because they were sure
to be detected as soon as I opened my lips and
displayed my deficiency; they certainly did appear to be most shameless in saying this, unless by
the force of eloquence they mean the force of truth; for then I do indeed admit that I am eloquent.
But in how
different a way from theirs! …


And I must beg of you to grant me one favor, which is this
-

If you hear me using the same
words in my defence which I have been in the habit of using, and which most of you may have
heard in the agora, and at the tables of

the money
-
changers, or anywhere else, I would ask you
not to be surprised at this, and not to interrupt me. For I am more than seventy years of age, and
this is the first time that I have ever appeared in a court of law, and I am quite a stranger to the
w
ays of the place; and therefore I would have you regard me as if I were really a stranger, whom
you would excuse if he spoke in his native tongue, and after the fashion of his country;
-

that I
think is not an unfair request. Never mind the manner, which m
ay or may not be good; but think
only of the justice of my cause, and give heed to that: let the judge decide justly and the speaker
speak truly.

And first, I have to reply to the older charges and to my first accusers, and then I will go to the
later one
s. For I have had many accusers, who accused me of old, and their false charges have
continued during many years; and I am more afraid of them than of Anytus and his associates,
who are dangerous, too, in their own way. But far more dangerous are these, wh
o began when
you were children, and took possession of your minds with their falsehoods, telling of one
Socrates, a wise man, who speculated about the heaven above, and searched into the earth
beneath, and made the worse appear the better cause. These are
the accusers whom I dread; for
they are the circulators of this rumor, and their hearers are too apt to fancy that speculators of
this sort do not believe in the gods.




Men of Athens, this reputation of mine has come of a certain sort of wisdom which I

possess. If
you ask me what kind of wisdom, I reply, such wisdom as is attainable by man, for to that extent
I am inclined to believe that I am wise; whereas the persons of whom I was speaking have a
superhuman wisdom, which I may fail to describe, becaus
e I have it not myself; and he who says
that I have, speaks falsely, and is taking away my character.


Chaerephon

asked the oracle
at
Delphi
to tell him whether there was anyone wiser than I was, and the Pythian prophetess
answered that there was no man w
iser.






4

Interested? Read more at
http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html


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Why do I mention this? Because I am going to explain to you why I have such an evil name.
When I heard the answer, I said to myself, What can the god mean? and what is the interpretation
of this riddle? for I know that I have no wisdom, small or g
reat. What can he mean when he says
that I am the wisest of men? And yet he is a god and cannot lie; that would be against his nature.
After a long consideration, I at last thought of a method of trying the question. I reflected that if I
could only find a

man wiser than myself, then I might go to the god with a refutation in my hand.
I should say to him, "Here is a man who is wiser than I am; but you said that I was the wisest."
Accordingly I went to one who had the reputation of wisdom, and observed to hi
m
-

his name I
need not mention; he was a politician whom I selected for examination
-

and the result was as
follows: When I began to talk with him, I could not help thinking that he was not really wise,
although he was thought wise by many, and wiser stil
l by himself; and I went and tried to explain
to him that he thought himself wise, but was not really wise; and the consequence was that he
hated me, and his enmity was shared by several who were present and heard me. So I left him,
saying to myself, as I
went away: Well, although I do not suppose that either of us knows
anything really beautiful and good, I am better off than he is
-

for he knows nothing, and thinks
that he knows. I neither know nor think that I know. In this latter particular, then, I see
m to have
slightly the advantage of him. Then I went to another, who had still higher philosophical
pretensions, and my conclusion was exactly the same. I made another enemy of him, and of
many others besides him.

After this I went to one man after anothe
r, being not unconscious of the enmity which I
provoked, and I lamented and feared this: but necessity was laid upon me
-

the word of God, I
thought, ought to be considered first. And I said to myself, Go I must to all who appear to know,
and find out the
meaning of the oracle. And I swear to you, Athenians, by the dog I swear!
-

for I
must tell you the truth
-

the result of my mission was just this: I found that the men most in
repute were all but the most foolish; and that some inferior men were really wi
ser and better. I
will tell you the tale of my wanderings and of the "Herculean" labors, as I may call them, which I
endured only to find at last the oracle irrefutable. When I left the politicians, I went to the poets;
tragic, dithyrambic, and all sorts.
And there, I said to myself, you will be detected; now you will
find out that you are more ignorant than they are. Accordingly, I took them some of the most
elaborate passages in their own writings, and asked what was the meaning of them
-

thinking that
th
ey would teach me something. Will you believe me? I am almost ashamed to speak of this, but
still I must say that there is hardly a person present who would not have talked better about their
poetry than they did themselves. That showed me in an instant th
at not by wisdom do poets write
poetry, but by a sort of genius and inspiration; they are like diviners or soothsayers who also say
many fine things, but do not understand the meaning of them. And the poets appeared to me to
be much in the same case; and I

further observed that upon the strength of their poetry they
believed themselves to be the wisest of men in other things in which they were not wise. So I
departed, conceiving myself to be superior to them for the same reason that I was superior to the
po
liticians.

At last I went to the artisans, for I was conscious that I knew nothing at all, as I may say, and I
was sure that they knew many fine things; and in this I was not mistaken, for they did know
many things of which I was ignorant, and in this the
y certainly were wiser than I was. But I
observed that even the good artisans fell into the same error as the poets; because they were good
workmen they thought that they also knew all sorts of high matters, and this defect in them
overshadowed their wisdo
m
-

therefore I asked myself on behalf of the oracle, whether I would
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like to be as I was, neither having their knowledge nor their ignorance, or like them in both; and I
made answer to myself and the oracle that I was better off as I was.

This investigat
ion has led to my having many enemies of the worst and most dangerous kind,
and has given occasion also to many calumnies, and I am called wise, for my hearers always
imagine that I myself possess the wisdom which I find wanting in others: but the truth is
, O men
of Athens, that God only is wise; and in this oracle he means to say that the wisdom of men is
little or nothing; he is not speaking of Socrates, he is only using my name as an illustration, as if
he said, He, O men, is the wisest, who, like Socrat
es, knows that his wisdom is in truth worth
nothing. And so I go my way, obedient to the god, and make inquisition into the wisdom of
anyone, whether citizen or stranger, who appears to be wise; and if he is not wise, then in
vindication of the oracle I sh
ow him that he is not wise; and this occupation quite absorbs me,
and I have no time to give either to any public matter of interest or to any concern of my own,
but I am in utter poverty by reason of my devotion to the god.

There is another thing:
-

youn
g men of the richer classes, who have not much to do, come about
me of their own accord; they like to hear the pretenders examined, and they often imitate me, and
examine others themselves; there are plenty of persons, as they soon enough discover, who thi
nk
that they know something, but really know little or nothing: and then those who are examined by
them instead of being angry with themselves are angry with me: This confounded Socrates, they
say; this villainous misleader of youth!
-

and then if somebody

asks them, Why, what evil does
he practise or teach? they do not know, and cannot tell; but in order that they may not appear to
be at a loss, they repeat the ready
-
made charges which are used against all philosophers about
teaching things up in the cloud
s and under the earth, and having no gods, and making the worse
appear the better cause; for they do not like to confess that their pretence of knowledge has been
detected
-




And now I will try to defend myself against these new accusers.


What do they

say? Something of this sort:
-

That Socrates is a doer of evil, and corrupter of the
youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state, and has other new divinities of his own.

Come hither, Meletus, and let me ask a question of you. You think a gre
at deal about the
improvement of youth?

Yes, I do.

Tell the judges, then, who is their improver; for you must know, as you have taken the pains to
discover their corrupter, and are citing and accusing me before them. Speak, then, and tell the
judges who
their improver is. Observe, Meletus, that you are silent, and have nothing to say. But
is not this rather disgraceful, and a very considerable proof of what I was saying, that you have
no interest in the matter? Speak up, friend, and tell us who their impr
over is.

The laws.

But that, my good sir, is not my meaning. I want to know who the person is, who, in the first
place, knows the laws.

The judges, Socrates, who are present in court.

What do you mean to say, Meletus, that they are able to instruct and
improve youth?

Certainly they are.

What, all of them, or some only and not others?

All of them.

By the goddess Here, that is good news! There are plenty of improvers, then. And what do you
say of the audience,
-

do they improve them?

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Yes, they do.

And

the senators?

Yes, the senators improve them.

But perhaps the members of the citizen assembly corrupt them?
-

or do they too improve them?

They improve them.

Then every Athenian improves and elevates them; all with the exception
of myself; and I alone
am their corrupter? Is that what you affirm?

That is what I stoutly affirm.

I am very unfortunate if that is true. But suppose I ask you a question: Would you say that this
also holds true in the case of horses?
Does one man do them harm and all the world good? Is not
the exact opposite of this true? One man is able to do them good, or at least not many;
-

the
trainer of horses, that is to say, does them good, and others who have to do with them rather
injure them
?


Happy indeed would be the condition of youth if they had one corrupter only,
and all the rest of the world were their improvers.


But still I should like to know, Meletus, in what I am affirmed to corrupt the young. I suppose
you mean, as I infer from

your indictment, that I teach them not to acknowledge the gods which
the state acknowledges, but some other new divinities or spiritual agencies in their stead. These
are the lessons which corrupt the youth, as you say.

Yes, that I say emphatically.

The
n, by the gods, Meletus, of whom we are speaking, tell me and the court, in somewhat plainer
terms, what you mean! for I do not as yet understand whether you affirm that I teach others to
acknowledge some gods, and therefore do believe in gods and am not a
n entire atheist
-

this you
do not lay to my charge; but only that they are not the same gods which the city recognizes
-

the
charge is that they are different gods. Or, do you mean to say that I am an atheist simply, and a
teacher of atheism?

I mean the
latter
-

that you are a complete atheist.

That is an extraordinary statement, Meletus. Why do you say that? Do you mean that I do not
believe in the godhead of the sun or moon, which is the common creed of all men?



Someone will say: And are you not ash
amed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring
you to an untimely end? To him I may fairly answer: There you are mistaken: a man who is good
for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living or dying; he ought only to consider
whether
in doing anything he is doing right or wrong
-

acting the part of a good man or of a bad.
Whereas, according to your view, the heroes who fell at Troy were not good for much, and the
son of Thetis above all, who altogether despised danger in comparison wit
h disgrace; and when
his goddess mother said to him, in his eagerness to slay Hector, that if he avenged his companion
Patroclus, and slew Hector, he would die himself
-

"Fate," as she said, "waits upon you next after
Hector"; he, hearing this, utterly des
pised danger and death, and instead of fearing them, feared
rather to live in dishonor, and not to avenge his friend. "Let me die next," he replies, "and be
avenged of my enemy, rather than abide here by the beaked ships, a scorn and a burden of the
earth.
" Had Achilles any thought of death and danger? For wherever a man's place is, whether
the place which he has chosen or that in which he has been placed by a commander, there he
ought to remain in the hour of danger; he should not think of death or of anyt
hing, but of
disgrace. And this, O men of Athens, is a true saying.


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Strange, indeed, would be my conduct, O men of Athens, if I who, when I was ordered by the
generals whom you chose to command me at Potidaea and Amphipolis and Delium, remained
where the
y placed me, like any other man, facing death; if, I say, now, when, as I conceive and
imagine, God orders me to fulfil
l

the philosopher's mission of searching into myself and other
men, I were to desert my post through fear of death, or any other fear; th
at would indeed be
strange, and I might justly be arraigned in court for denying the existence of the gods, if I
disobeyed the oracle
because I was afraid of death. …


(Socrates is found guilty by the jury and condemned to death)


There are many reasons wh
y I am not grieved, O men of Athens, at the vote of condemnation. I
expected it, and am only surprised that the votes are so nearly equal; for I had thought that the
majority against me would have been far larger



And so he proposes death as the penalty.
And what shall I propose on my part, O men of Athens?
Clearly that which is my due. And what is that which I ought to pay or to receive? What shall be
done to the man who has never had the wit to be idle during his whole life; but has been careless
of what

the many care about
-

wealth, and family interests, and military offices, and speaking in
the assembly, and magistracies, and plots, and parties. Reflecting that I was really too honest a
man to follow in this way and live, I did not go where I could do n
o good to you or to myself; but
where I could do the greatest good privately to everyone of you, thither I went, and sought to
persuade every man among you that he must look to himself, and seek virtue and wisdom before
he looks to his private interests, a
nd look to the state before he looks to the interests of the state;
and that this should be the order which he observes in all his actions. What shall be done to such
a one?


Someone will say: Yes, Socrates, but cannot you hold your tongue, and then you m
ay go into a
foreign city, and no one will interfere with you? Now I have great difficulty in making you
understand my answer to this. For if I tell you that this would be a disobedience to a divine
command, and therefore that I cannot hold my tongue, you
will not believe that I am serious; and
if I say again that the greatest good of man is daily to converse about virtue, and all that
concerning which you hear me examining myself and others, and that the life which is
unexamined is not worth living
-

that
you are still less likely to believe.


Wherefore, O judges, be of good cheer about death, and know this of a truth
-

that no evil can
happen to a good man, either in life or after death. He and his are not neglected by the gods; nor
has my own approaching

end happened by mere chance. But I see clearly that to die and be
released was better for me; and therefore the oracle gave no sign. For which reason also, I am not
angry with my accusers, or my condemners; they have done me no harm, although neither of
t
hem meant to do me any good; and for this I may gently blame them.

Still I have a favor to ask of them. When my sons are grown up, I would ask you, O my friends,
to punish them; and I would have you trouble them, as I have troubled you, if they seem to ca
re
about riches, or anything, more than about virtue; or if they pretend to be something when they
are really nothing,
-

then reprove them, as I have reproved you, for not caring about that for
which they ought to care, and thinking that they are something

when they are really nothing. And
if you do this, I and my sons will have received justice at your hands.

The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways
-

I to die, and you to live. Which is better
God only knows.

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The Allegory of the Cave



[
Socrates
] And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or
unenlightened:
--
Behold! human beings living in a underground cave, which has a mouth open
towards the light and reaching all along the cave; here they have been from t
heir childhood, and
have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being
prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing
at a distance, and between the fire and the
prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you
look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of
them, over which they show the puppets.

[
Glaucon
] I see.

[
Socrates
] And do you see, I said, men pass
ing along the wall carrying all sorts of vessels, and
statues and figures of animals made of wood and stone and various materials, which appear over
the wall? Some of them are talking, others silent.

[
Glaucon
] You have shown me a strange image, and they ar
e strange prisoners.

[
Socrates
] Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the shadows of one
another, which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave?

[
Glaucon
] True, he said; how could they see anything but the shadows if

they were never
allowed to move their heads?

[
Socrates
] And of the objects which are being carried in like manner they would only see the
shadows?

[
Glaucon
] Yes, he said.

[
Socrates
] And if they were able to converse with one another, would they not sup
pose that they
were naming what was actually before them?

[
Glaucon
] Very true.

[
Socrates
] And suppose further that the prison had an echo which came from the other side,
would they not be sure to fancy when one of the passers
-
by spoke that the voice whic
h they
heard came from the passing shadow?

[
Glaucon
] No question, he replied.

[
Socrates
] To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images.

[
Glaucon
] That is certain.

[
Socrates
] And now look again, and see what will na
turally follow if the prisoners are released
and disabused of their error. At first, when any of them is liberated and compelled suddenly to
stand up and turn his neck round and walk and look towards the light, he will suffer sharp pains;
the glare will di
stress him, and he will be unable to see the realities of which in his former state
he had seen the shadows; and then conceive some one saying to him, that what he saw before
was an illusion, but that now, when he is approaching nearer to being and his eye

is turned
towards more real existence, he has a clearer vision,
-
what will be his reply? And you may
further imagine that his instructor is pointing to the objects as they pass and requiring him to
name them,
-
will he not be perplexed? Will he not fancy t
hat the shadows which he formerly saw
are truer than the objects which are now shown to him?

[
Glaucon
] Far truer.

[
Socrates
] And if he is compelled to look straight at the light, will he not have a pain in his eyes
which will make him turn away to take a
nd take in the objects of vision which he can see, and
which he will conceive to be in reality clearer than the things which are now being shown to
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him?

[
Glaucon
] True, he now.

[
Socrates
] And suppose once more, that he is reluctantly dragged up a steep a
nd rugged ascent,
and held fast until he 's forced into the presence of the sun himself, is he not likely to be pained
and irritated? When he approaches the light his eyes will be dazzled, and he will not be able to
see anything at all of what are now call
ed realities.

[
Glaucon
] Not all in a moment, he said.

[
Socrates
] He will require to grow accustomed to the sight of the upper world. And first he will
see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water, and then the
objects
themselves; then he will gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and the spangled
heaven; and he will see the sky and the stars by night better than the sun or the light of the sun by
day?

[
Glaucon
] Certainly.

[
Socrates
] Last of he will be able to
see the sun, and not mere reflections of him in the water, but
he will see him in his own proper place, and not in another; and he will contemplate him as he is.

[
Glaucon
] Certainly.

[
Socrates
] He will then proceed to argue that this is he who gives the
season and the years, and
is the guardian of all that is in the visible world, and in a certain way the cause of all things
which he and his fellows have been accustomed to behold?

[
Glaucon
] Clearly, he said, he would first see the sun and then reason abo
ut him.

[
Socrates
] And when he remembered his old habitation, and the wisdom of the cave and his
fellow
-
prisoners, do you not suppose that he would felicitate himself on the change, and pity
them?

[
Glaucon
] Certainly, he would.

[
Socrates
] And if they we
re in the habit of conferring honors among themselves on those who
were quickest to observe the passing shadows and to remark which of them went before, and
which followed after, and which were together; and who were therefore best able to draw
conclusions

as to the future, do you think that he would care for such honors and glories, or envy
the possessors of them? Would he not say with Homer,
Better to be the poor servant of a poor
master,
and to endure anything, rather than think as they do and live after

their manner?

[
Glaucon
] Yes, he said, I think that he would rather suffer anything than entertain these false
notions and live in this miserable manner.

[
Socrates
] Imagine once more, I said, such an one coming suddenly out of the sun to be replaced
in h
is old situation; would he not be certain to have his eyes full of darkness?

[
Glaucon
] To be sure, he said.

[
Socrates
] And if there were a contest, and he had to compete in measuring the shadows with the
prisoners who had never moved out of the cave, whi
le his sight was still weak, and before his
eyes had become steady (and the time which would be needed to acquire this new habit of sight
might be very considerable) would he not be ridiculous? Men would say of him that up he went
and down he came without
his eyes; and that it was better not even to think of ascending; and if
any one tried to loose another and lead him up to the light, let them only catch the offender, and
they would put him to death.

[
Glaucon
] No question, he said.

[
Socrates
] This entire

allegory, I said, you may now append, dear Glaucon, to the previous
argument; the prison
-
house is the world of sight, the light of the fire is the sun, and you will not
misapprehend me if you interpret the journey upwards to be the ascent of the soul into

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intellectual world according to my poor belief, which, at your desire, I have expressed whether
rightly or wrongly God knows. But, whether true or false, my opinion is that in the world of