MUSIC, DEVOTIONS, AND MASHRIQU'L-ADHKAR

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11 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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STUDIE
S

IN

BABI

AN
D

BAHA'I

HISTORY

VOLUM
E

FOUR

MUSIC,
DEVOTIONS,

AND
MASHRIQU'L
-
ADHKAR


R.

JACKSO
N ARMSTRONG
-
INGRAM,

PH.D.

KALIMAT

PRESS

LO
S

ANGELES






































This is a rough OCR generated from the
complete PDF at

bahai
-
library.com/armstrong
-
ingram_music_devotions_mashriqul
-
adhkar

It is not proofread or spellchecked

and is missing all images
and sheet music.





















Copyrigh
t
©

198
7

b
y

R.

Jackson

Armstrong
-
Ingram

Al
l

Rights

Reserved

Firs
t

Edition

Manufacture
d
i
n

the

United

o
f

America

Librar
y

of

Congres
s

Cataloging
-
in
-
Publication

Data

(Revise
d

for

vol
.

4)

St udi e
s

i
n

Bab
f

an
d

Baha
f

history.

Include
s

bibliographie
s

an
d

indexes.

Contents
:

[ 1
]

[n
o

titl
e
]
-
v
.

2
.

Fro
m

Iran

east

an
d

wes
t

I

edite
d

b
y

Jua
n

R
.

Col
e

an
d

Mooja
n

Momen-

[e
t
c.
]
-
v
.

4
.

Mus i c
,

devot i ons
,

an
d

Mashriq
u
'l
-
Adhkar

I

R.

Jackson

Armstrong
-
Ingram.

1
.

Baha'
i

Fait
h
-
H
istory
.

2
.

Babism
-
History.

I
.

Momen
,

Moojan
.

II
.

Armstrong
-
Ingram
,

R
.

Jackson.

BP
3
30.
S
7
8

1
9
82

297
'

.89

83
-
22

ISB
N

0
-
9
3
3770
-

1
6
-
2

(v
.

1)


T
o

Karen


CONTENTS

PREFACE

IX

INTRODUCTION

Xl

1

3

PAR
T

ONE
:

The

Devotiona
l

Heritage

Chapte
r

One:

Fro
m

the

East

(i)

Easter
n

Bah
a
'
f

Devotiona
l

Practice

(ii)

The

Mashriqu
'
l
-
Adhka
r

i
n

the

Easter
n

Bah
a
'
f

Community

(iii)

Easter
n

Chan
t

an
d
Wester
n

Baha'fs

Chapte
r

T
w
o
:

Earl
y

Devotion
s

an
d

th
e

Music
o
f

Louis
e

Waite

(i)

Early

Bah
a
'
f

Devotion
s

i
n

Chicago

(ii)

Louis
e

Waite

(iii)

B
a
ha
i

H
y
mn
s
o
f

Peac
e

an
d

Pr
a
ise

Chapte
r

Three
:

Bah
a
'
f

Hymnod
y

i
n

Communit
y

Life

(i)

The

Absorptio
n

o
f

Waite

'
s

Hymn
s

into

Ba
h
a'
f

Communit
y

Life

(i i )

Othe
r

Bah
a
'
f

Hymnodists

Chapte
r

Four
:

Opposi ti o
n

t
o

the

Us
e

o
f

Hymns

(i)

Earl
y

Objections

(ii)

Th
e

En
d

o
f

th
e

Er
a

o
f

Bah
a
'
f

Hymnody

27

6
1


87

vii


PART

Two:

Th
e

Building

Chapte
r

Five
:

Th
e

Choic
e

o
f

a

Site

an
d

the

Developmen
t

o
f

Nationa
l

Organization

(i)

The

Choic
e

o
f

a

Site

(ii)

The

Baha
i

Templ
e
Unity

Chapte
r

Six
:

Th
e

Bourgeoi
s

Design

(i )

Th
e

Choic
e

o
f

the

Design

(i i )

Th
e

Developmen
t

o
f

the

Design

(i i i )

Further

Comment
s

o
n

th
e

Development

o
f

the

Design

(i v)

Th
e

Legitimatio
n

o
f

th
e

Design

(v)

Oppositio
n

t
o

the

Design

(vi
)

Th
e

Implementatio
n

o
f

th
e

Design

1

1
9

121

175

PAR
T

THREE
:

The

Pract ice

Chapte
r

S
e
ven:

Chora
l

Son
g

an
d

Sermonizing

i
n

Wilmette

(i )

Th
e

Vahi
d

Chora
l

Society

(i i )

Earl
y

Use
s

o
f

Foundatio
n

Hall

(i ii )

Development
s

i
n

th
e

193
0
s

( i v)

"
H
igh

Churc
h
"

Bah
a
'
i

Practice

Chapte
r

Eig
h
t
:

The

Mashriq
u
'l
-
Adhka
r

i
n

Use

(i )

Th
e

Auditoriu
m

Dedications

(i i )

Post
-
1
9
5
3

Practice

Chapte
r

N
i
ne
:

Scriptur
e

an
d

Culture

i
n

the

Developmen
t

o
f

Wester
n

Bah
a
'i

Devot i ona
l

Pr act i ce


MUSICA
L

EXAMPLES

237

239

275

31
1


343

361

381

NOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY


PREFACE

Thi
s

wor
k

draws

o
n

researc
h

don
e

ove
r

the

las
t

several

years
,

mostl
y

sinc
e

1
9
8
2

.

Th
e

use

o
f

tha
t

research

her
e

is

highl
y

selective
,

an
d

muc
h

material

o
f

interes
t

tha
t

spac
e

does

no
t

permi
t

t
o

b
e

discusse
d

her
e

wil
l

b
e

presente
d

el
s
ewher
e
.

A
s

i
s

the

case

with

al
l

wh
o

do

extende
d

research

at

the

Na-

tional

Bah
a
'
i

Archiv
e
s
,

I

a
m

indebte
d

t
o

the

archivist
,

Roger

Dahl
,

for

hi
s

assistanc
e

i
n

locatin
g

pertinen
t

materials
.

I

am

als
o

oblige
d

t
o

Richar
d

Hollinge
r

fo
r

supplyin
g

copie
s

o
f

some

correspondenc
e

fro
m

the

archive
s

o
f

th
e

Spiritua
l

Assembly

o
f

Lo
s
Angel
e
s.

I

wis
h

t
o

thank

al
l

thos
e

Bah
a
'
i
s

wh
o

share
d

thei
r

experi-

ence
s

o
f

devotiona
l

activit
y

wit
h

me
.

I

ow
e

especia
l

thanks

t
o

Rick

Hill

an
d

Shery

McDonnel
l

Rak

fo
r

many

stimulating

discussion
s

an
d

fo
r

thei
r

participatio
n

i
n

recital
s

o
f

musi
c

by

earl
y

Nort
h

America
n

Bah
a
'
f
s
.
.

I

am

deepl
y

indebte
d

t
o

the

late

Ghazzal

Towfiq

wh
o

as-

siste
d

m
e

with

the

i
d
entificatio
n

o
f

Arabic

an
d

Persia
n

texts

an
d

i
n

annotating

their

Englis
h

translations
.

I

wil
l

always

remembe
r

the

conscientiou
s

enthusias
m

sh
e

brought

t
o

our

search.

Naturally
,

thes
e

acknowledgement
s

notwithstanding
-
a
s

is

th
e

cas
e

wit
h

an
y

scholarl
y

work
-
the

conclusion
s

presented

her
e

ar
e

solel
y

m
y

ow
n

an
d

shoul
d

no
t

b
e

taken
t
o

represent

the

view
s

o
f

an
y

othe
r

individua
l

Bah
a
'
i

o
r

Bah
a
'
i

instit
u
tio
n
.

ix


x

Pre
f
ace

The

preparatio
n

o
f

thi
s

wor
k

fo
r

publicatio
n

wa
s

assisted

by

a

grant
-
in
-
ai
d

towar
d

my

ongoin
g

researc
h

an
d

writing

from

the

Victory

Foundation
.

Suc
h

suppor
t

by

independent

foundation
s

i
s

vita
l

t
o

the

developmen
t

o
f

any

ne
w

fiel
d

of

scholarl
y

endeavo
r

an
d

I

a
m

gratefu
l

for

the

Victor
y

Founda-

tio
n'
s

assistanc
e
wit
h

m
y

wor
k

a
s
par
t

o
f

thei
r
encourage-

men
t

o
f

vigorou
s

growth

i
n

Bah
a
'
I

studies.

A
s

wit
h

al
l

o
f

my

writing
,

mer
e
mentio
n

canno
t

d
o

justic
e

to

the

extent

t
o

whic
h

the

forbearanc
e

an
d

suppor
t

o
f

my

wife

an
d

family

hav
e

contributed

to

thi
s

work.

Fo
r

the

record
,

I

wil
l

not
e

her
e

the

difference
s

betwee
n

my

doctoral

thesi
s

an
d

the

presen
t

work.

Both

the

introduction

an
d

firs
t

chapte
r

hav
e

bee
n

shortene
d

fo
r

the

publishe
d

ver-

sio
n
,

with

the

omitte
d

materia
l

mostl
y

intende
d

fo
r

us
e

else-

wher
e
.

Th
e

remainde
r

o
f

bot
h

version
s

i
s

substantiall
y

the

sam
e
,

excep
t

for

largel
y

trivia
l

difference
s

cause
d

by

the

differen
t

requirement
s

of

the

tw
o

mode
s

o
f

presentation.

Beyon
d

the

architectura
l

illustration
s

use
d

t
o

suppor
t

the

arguments

i
n

Chapte
r

Six
,

this

publishe
d

versio
n

include
s

a

number

of

perio
d

photograph
s

tha
t

I

hope

wil
l

add

t
o

the

tan-

gibility

o
f

m
y

discussio
n

of

events

over

the

last

nine

decades.

O
f

th
e

archit
e
ctura
l

illustrat
i
o
ns
,

th
e

on
e

o
f

th
e

Bourgeoi
s

in-

terior

desig
n

of

1
9
2
0
,

whic
h

i
s

use
d

i
n

th
e

thesis

wa
s

no
t

avail-

abl
e

for

us
e

her
e
.

A

Bourgeoi
s

sketc
h

o
f

the

interio
r

from

the

late
r

1
9
20
s

has

bee
n

substitut
e
d
.

As

with

the

developmen
t

of

the

exterio
r

design
,

thi
s

late
r

interio
r

sketc
h

demonstrates

eve
n

mor
e

forcibl
y
th
e

us
e

o
f

d
e
rivative

materia
l

a
s

discussed

i
n

the

tex
t

tha
n

doe
s

the

unavailabl
e

on
e

from

1
9
20.

R
.

Jackso
n

Armstrong
-
Ingram

August

1987


INTRODUCTION

Befor
e

it
s

introductio
n

to

Nort
h

America

the

Bah
a
'
f

Faith

wa
s
,

i
n

a

broad

se
n
se
,

a

Mi ddl
e

Eastern

rel i gi on
.

It
s

adher-

ent
s

extende
d

from

Egyp
t

acros
s

the

Ottoma
n
an
d

Persian

Empire
s

t
o

India
,

an
d

the

hos
t

societie
s

an
d

culture
s

for

most

Bah
a
'
f

communitie
s

wer
e

Islamic
.

This

wa
s

generall
y

tru
e

at

th
e

leve
l

o
f

dail
y

interactio
n

eve
n

i
n

place
s

such

a
s

Russian

Turkestan

an
d

norther
n
India
,

where

th
e

ultimate

reign
s
of

contro
l

wer
e

no
t

i
n

Musli
m

h
a
nd
s
.

Th
e

socia
l

an
d

cultural

en-

vironmen
t

t
o

whic
h

th
e

Baha'
f

Fait
h

wa
s

introduce
d

i:Q

North

America

wa
s
,

o
f

course
,

consi
d
erably

di
f
ferent

from

tha
t

of

the

Middl
e

East.

Yinge
r

suggest
s

that:

A

complet
e

religio
n

.

.

.

i
s

a

socia
l

phenomenon
:

i
t

i
s

shared
,

and

i
t

take
s

o
n

man
y

o
f

it
s

mos
t

significant

aspect
s

onl
y
i
n

th
e

interac-

tio
n

o
f

th
e

grou
p
.

Bot
h

the

feeling
s

fro
m

whic
h

i
t

spring
s

an
d

the

solution
s

i
t

offers

are

social
;

they

aris
e

from

th
e

fact

tha
t

ma
n

i
s

a

group
-
living

animal.

1

An
d

Jones

obser
v
es:



.

.

i
f

alternation

o
r

conversio
n

'i
s

t
o

b
e

manifeste
d

i
t

become
s

so

a
s

th
e

articulated

an
d

ordere
d

arrangemen
t

of

majo
r

constituents

o
r

role
s

i
n

an

interactiona
l

setting
.

T
o

change

a
n

id
e
ntity

i
s

to

xi


xii.

I
n
t
r
oduction

chang
e

the

manne
r

i
n

which

on
e

see
s

oneself
,

on
e

'
s

reference

grou
p
,

an
d

role
-
set
.

Th
e

'facts
'

i
n

th
e

cultura
l

milieu
-
mores,

folkw
a
y
s
,

status
-
sy
s
tem
s
,

sanctio
n

mechanisms
-
als
o

chang
e
.



.

.

The belief

systems

t
o

which

ind
i
viduals

ar
e

converte
d

d
o

not

exis
t

i
n

som
e

d,isembodie
d

stat
e

but

are

tangible

i
n

som
e

organ-

isatio
n

o
r

group

which

are

a
n

integra
l

part

o
f

th
e

larger

social

syste
m
.2

Obvi ousl y
,

for

t hos
e

at t ract e
d

t
o

th
e

Bah
a
'
i

Faith

i
n

North

America
,

Middl
e

Eastern

Islami
c

societie
s

wer
e

no
t

'

'
the

larger

socia
l

sys
t
em
"

i
n

whic
h

the
y

liv
ed
,
an
d

the

"
mo
r
es,

folkway
s
,

status
-
s
y
stem
s
"

an
d

"s
a
nctio
n

mechanisms
"

that

ha
d

develope
d

i
n

Bah
a
'
i

communitie
s

within

such

social

sys-

tems

wer
e
no
t

wholl
y

transferable

t
o

the
Nort
h

America
n

so-

cia
l

context
.

Also
,

th
e

immediat
e

"referenc
e

group
"

and

'
'
r
ole
-
se
t
'
'

fo
r

thes
e

earl
y

Nort
h

America
n

Baha'i
s

wer
e

being

create
d

b
y

themselve
s

a
s

the
y

identifie
d

wit
h

th
e

Bah
a'i

Faith
.

Through

the

processe
s

o
f

thei
r

interactio
n

the
y

created

thei
r

own

"
s
ocia
l

phenomenon
"

by

initiatin
g

a

North

Ameri-

ca
n

Ba
h
a'
i

community.

Yinger
,

i
n

broadenin
g

hi
s

conceptio
n

o
f

a

"complet
e

reli-

gi
o
n
,

'
'

summarize
s

Joachi
m

Wac
h

as

holdin
g

that:

.

.

.



al
l

religions
,


espit
e

their

wid
e

variat
i
o
n
s
,

are

characterized

b
y

three

universa
l

expressions
:

th
e

theoretical
,

a

syste
m

o
f

belief;

the

practical
,

a

syste
m

o
f

worship;

an
d

the

sociological
,

a

system

o
f

socia
l

relationsh
i
p
s
.

Unti
l

al
l

o
f

thes
e

are

found
,

on
e

may

have

religiou
s

tendencies
,

religiou
s

elements
,

but

no
t

a

full

religion
.

3

When
th
e

first

four

North

American
s

became

Baha'i
s

in

1
8
94
,

they

did

s
o

unde
r

the

influenc
e

of

a

Syrian

Ba
h
a'
i

who

ha
d

come

t
o

Chicago

an
d

who

himsel
f knew

comparatively

lit-

tl
e

o
f

the

Bah
a
'
i

Fait
h
'
s

theoretical
,

practical
,

o
r

sociological

systems
.

I
n

the

followin
g

years

thos
e

who

becam
e

Bah
a
'
i


en-

tere
d

a

communit
y

that

ma
y

b
e

characterize
d

a
s

bein
g

i
n

a


I
n
t
r
oduction

xn1

limina
l

situation
-
bestridin
g

a

culturall
y

Christia
n

pas
t

an
d

a
prospectiv
e

Bah
a
'
f

futur
e
-
an
d
:

I
n

this

interim

o
f

"l
i
minalit
y
,
"

the

possibi
l
it
y

exists

o
f

standing

asid
e

no
t

onl
y

from

on
e'
s

ow
n

socia
l

positio
n

but

fro
m

all

social

position
s

an
d

o
f

formulatin
g

a

pote
ntially

unlimite
d

serie
s

o
f

alter-

native

socia
l

arrang
e
ments
.
4

The

Nort
h

America
n

Ba
h
a'
f

communi t
y

ha
d

t
o

gradually

negotiat
e

thi
s

"p
o
tentiall
y

unlimite
d

s
e
r
i
es
"

i
n

relatio
n

t
o

its

growin
g

exposure

t
o

an
d

appreciatio
n

o
f

the

theoretica
l

sys-

tem

o
f

belie
f

that

i
t

ha
d

potentiall
y

espouse
d

i
n

acceptin
g

a
ne
w

faith, and

from

th
e

proces
s

derive

not

onl
y

socia
l

but

also

practica
l

and

ideationa
l

alternative

arran
g
ements
.

Bot
h

the

proces
s

o
f

exposure

an
d

the

proces
s

o
f

negotiatio
n

operated

throug
h

th
e

activitie
s

of

particula
r

individual
s

an
d

groups

(whethe
r

officia
l

admi
n
istrativ
e

o
r

a
d

hoc
)

withi
n

the

larger

Bah
a
'
f

community
.

Thi
s

l
e
d

t
o

th
e

developmen
t

of

value
s

and

norm
s

spe
c
ificall
y

associate
d

wit
h

the

Bah
a
'
f

communit
y

by

it
s

member
s

an
d

see
n

b
y

the
m

t
o

differentiat
e

i
t

fro
m

other
communalitie
s

withi
n

Nort
h

America
n

society.

Yet
,

as

Cohe
n

asserts:

Norm
s

an
d

values

d
o

no
t

exis
t

o
n

thei
r

ow
n

but

ar
e

everywhere

couched

i
n

symbolic

formations.

They

ar
e

develope
d

and

main-

tained

within

the

psyche

o
f

th
e

individual

through

continual

sym-

boli
c

activi
t
i
es
.

Often

i
t

i
s

th
e

objectiv
e

symbol
s

tha
t

generat
e

the

subjective

experienc
e

o
f

obligatio
n

an
d

no
t

th
e

othe
r

way

round.

A
s

our

subjectiv
e
lif
e

i
s

shifting
,

vagu
e

an
d

chaotic
,

w
e

are

only
to
o

happy

t
o

b
e

assiste
d

b
y

th
e

objectiv
e

symbolic

formulations

provide
d

t
o

u
s

b
y

"expert
s
,
"

leaders
,

teachers

or
,

generally
,

the

culture

under

which

we

live.

Symbol
s

ar
e

es
sentially

objective
forms.

The
y

may

b
e

originally

the

spontaneou
s

creation

o
f

indi-

vidual
s

goin
g

through

specifi
c

subjectiv
e

experiences
,

but

they

attain

an

objective

existenc
e

whe
n

they

ar
e

accepte
d

b
y

others

in


xiv

I
n
t
r
oduction

the

course

of

socia
l

interactio
n

.

.

.

subjectiv
e

an
d

individua
l

now

become
s

objectiv
e

an
d

collectiv
e
.

They

develo
p

a

reality

o
f

their

own
,

becom
e

obligator
y
an
d

begi
n

t
o

exercis
e

constrain
t

on

the

individua
l
.
5

Th
e

aim

o
f

this

study

i
s

t
o

investigate

som
e

o
f

the

symbolic

formation
s

that

aros
e

i
n

the

proces
s

o
f

the

developmen
t

o
f

a

North

America
n

Bah
a
'
f

community
,

an
d

ho
w

those

symbolic

formation
s

exercise
d

constrain
t

o
n

the

individual
s

an
d

groups

engage
d

i
n

that

process
.

The

focu
s

of

the

symbol
s

t
o

b
e

dis-

cusse
d

i
s

th
e

Mashriq
u
'
l
-
Adhka
r

at

Wilmette
,

Illino
i
s
.


The

concep
t

o
f

the

Mashriq
u
'
l
-
Adhkar

(literally
,

th
e

Dawn
-

-

-

ing
-
Plac
e

o
f

the

Mention
,

o
r

Remembrance
,

o
f

Go
d
;

"
H
ouse
o
f

Worsh
i
p
"

o
r
"Templ
e
"

ar
e

use
d

a
s

Englis
h

equivalents)
i
n

the

Bah
a
'
f

Faith

i
s

fairly

br
o
ad
.

I
t

may

refe
r

t
o
:

(a
)

a

build-

ing
,

fulf
i
llin
g

specifi
c

architectural

requirements
,

that

i
s

re-

serve
d

solel
y

for

devotion
s

(unlik
e

a

church
,

for

example
,

it

may

no
t

b
e

use
d

for

such

rite
s

a
s

weddings
,

fun
e
rals
,

o
r

nam-

in
g

children
,

no
r

may

i
t

b
e

use
d

fo
r

sermon
s

o
r

lectures)
;

(b
)

a

building
,

not

fulfilling

the

archite
ctura
l

requi
r
ements
,

that

is

si
m
ilarly

reserve
d

fo
r

devotions
;

(c)

a

room

similarl
y

reserved

for

devotion
s

i
n

a

buildin
g

use
d

primaril
y

for

othe
r

purposes

(fo
r

exam
p
le
,

a

hom
e

o
r

admi
n
istrative

center)
;

(d
)

a

complex
o
f

building
s

which

include
s

eithe
r

a
,

b
,

o
r

c

an
d

a

serie
s

of

"d
e
pendencie
s
,
"

building
s

o
r

part
s

o
f

building
s

caterin
g

to

socia
l

need
s

(suc
h

a
s

a

meetin
g

hall
,

school
,

hospital
,

or-

phanag
e
,

e
t
c.)
;

(e
)

a

devotiona
l

meeting
;

o
r

(f
)

the

"heart
"

of

the

sincer
e

worsh
ip
e
r
.

Within

th
e

curren
t

Nort
h

American

Bah
a
'
f

communit
y

th
e

term

i
s

usually

perceive
d

a
s

applying

t
o

(a
)

an
d

(d
)
,

an
d

mos
t

specificall
y

t
o

the

Mashriq
u
'l
-
Adhkar

a
t

Wilme
tt
e

.

(Ther
e

ar
e

also

Mashriqu
'
l
-
Adhka
r

o
f

class

(a
)

in

Uganda
,

Austra
li
a
,

Germany
,

Panama
,

Samo
a
,

an
d

Indi
a
.

)
6

Th
e

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhkar

a
t

Wilmett
e
i
s

probably

the

most

poten
t

objectiv
e

symbo
l

o
f

Bah
a
'
i

socia
l

an
d

cultura
l

identity


I
n
t
r
oduction

xv

for

Nort
h

America
n

Bah
a
'
f
s
,

an
d

th
e

proces
s

o
f

it
s

erectio
n

is

see
n

as

inextricably

linke
d

t
o

th
e

developmen
t

o
f

th
e

adminis-

trative

institution
s

o
f

the

Bah
a
'
f

Fait
h

i
n

this

continent.

Th
e

centerin
g

o
f

thought
,

devotio
n

an
d

financia
l

offering

upon

th
e

grea
t

idea
l

o
f

the

Mashriq
u
'l
-
A
dhkar

ha
s

bee
n
th
e

formative

t
o

bring

th
e

Baha'i
s

to

maturity

throughout

this

continent
.

..

.

The

building

must

b
e

regarded

a
s

a

symbol

o
f

the

power
o
f

the

teachings

o
f

Bah
a
'
u
'lla
h
.
7


element

.

.

.



Fro
m

1903
,

whe
n

th
e

ide
a

o
f

buildin
g

a

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhkar

i
n

the

Chicag
o

area

wa
s

first

moo
t
ed
,

t
o

19 5 3
,

when

the

bui l d-

in
g

was

substantially

brough
t

t
o

it
s

presen
t

form
,

the

Bah
a
'f

Fait
h

i
n

Nort
h

Americ
a

passe
d

from

bei n
g

a

l oosel
y

kni
t

net-

wor
k

o
f

'
'
cell
s
'
'

adherin
g

t
o

a

'
'
m
oveme
n
t
'

'

t
o

bein
g

a

'
'
r
eligio
n
'
'

with

it
s

ow
n

distinctiv
e

develope
d

institution
s

and

parameter
s

o
f

belie
f

an
d

practic
e

accepte
d

a
s

suc
h

b
y

the

in-

stitution
s

o
f

it
s

hos
t

society
.

Th
e

developmen
t

o
f

th
e

physical
structur
e

o
f

the

Wilmett
e

Mashriq
u
'
l
-
Adhkar

i
s

generally

see
n

a
s

having

bee
n

a

majo
r

motiv
e

forc
e

i
n

thi
s

transition.
Ironically
,

however
,

sinc
e

the

buildin
g

bega
n

to

b
e

use
d

regu-

larl
y

for

devotiona
l

purpose
s

i
n

1
9
5
3
,

ther
e

ha
s

bee
n

dissat-

isfactio
n

wit
h

tha
t

us
e

an
d
,

ind
e
ed
,

man
y

Baha'f
s

no
w

feel
considerabl
e

alienatio
n

fro
m the

us
e

mad
e

o
f

th
e

buildin
g

and

fe
w

atten
d

devotion
s

i
n

i
t

regularly.

Ho
w

i
s

it
,

then
,

that

a

.
buildin
g

whic
h

i
s

a

posit
i
vel
y

viewed
physica
l

symbo
l

o
f

Bah
a
'
f
identit
y

ha
s

develope
d

a

praxis

that

alienate
s

man
y

Bah
a
'

f
s
,

please
s

few

o
f

thos
e

wh
o

d
o

support

it
s

u
s
e
,

an
d

may

b
e

sai
d

t
o

functio
n

fo
r

man
y

a
s

a

negative

symbo
l

o
f

Bah
a
'
f

devotiona
l

practice
,

thu
s

engenderin
g

con-

siderabl
e

ambivalenc
e

toward

th
e

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhka
r

as

a

to-

ta
l

buildin
g

an
d

praxi
s

concept
?

Thi
s

i
s

th
e

questio
n

tha
t

I

will

investigat
e

i
n

the

followin
g

chapter
s

b
y

discussin
g

selected


xvt

I
n
t
r
oduction

aspect
s

o
f

th
e

developmen
t

o
f

th
e

projec
t

an
d

o
f

Baha'
i

devo-

tion
s

i
n

Nort
h

Americ
a

g

nerall
y
.

Hodge
n

suggests

tha
t

"

c
hang
e
,

since

i
t

takes

plac
e

i
n

tim
e
,

ca
n

best

be

studie
d

wit
h

a
n

eye

t
o

the

date
d

record
s

o
f

the

cultural

pa
s
t
,

'

'
8

an
d

i
t

i
s

i
n

thi
s

spirit

that

thi
s

stud
y

ha
s

been

carrie
d

out
.

Th
e

vie
w

o
f

it
s

pas
t

hel
d

b
y

th
e

current

North

American

Ba
h
a'
i

communit
y

i
s

generall
y

highly

form
a
l
i
z
e
d
.


Eve
n

the

"recollections
"

o
f

thos
e

wh
o

wer
e

participant
s

in

th
e

early

day
s

o
f

th
e

community
,

ar
e

ofte
n

formulaic

an
d

not

born
e

ou
t

b
y

th
e

date
d

reco
r
ds
.

A

frequentl
y

occurrin
g

exam-

pl
e

i
s

that

Bah
a
'
i
s

whos
e

memorie
s

supposedl
y

g
o

bac
k

t
o

the

communit
y

before
,

say
,

Worl
d

Wa
r

I

stat
e

flatly
,

"
O
f

cours
e
,


w
e

ha
d

n
o

book
s

i
n
thos
e

day
s
,

"

an
d

thi
s

i
s

widel
y

accepted.

Actually
,

Bah
a
'
i

publishin
g

flourishe
d

quit
e

healthil
y

from

1
9
00.

Obviously
,

the

developmen
t

o
f

such

formulas

i
n

relatio
n

to

the

Mashriqu
'
l
-
Adhka
r

wil
l

b
e

considere
d

i
n

thi
s

study
,

but,

equally

obviously
,

th
e

formula
s

themselve
s

d
o

no
t

for
m

an

ade
q
uate

basi
s

fo
r

a

discussio
n

o
f

the

actua
l

processe
s

o
f

the

developmen
t

o
f

the

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhka
r

an
d

it
s

praxis
.

There-

for
e

,

much

o
f

the

d,iscussio
n

i
s

base
d

o
n

extensiv
e

analysi
s

of

materials
,

bot
h

persona
l

paper
s

an
d

institutiona
l

records
,

in

the

Nationa
l

Bah
a
'
i

Archiv
e
s
,

Wilmette
,

Illinois
;

som
e

mater-

ial
s

from

othe
r

Bah
a
'
i

archiv
e
s
;

an
d

contemporar
y
printed

sources
.

A
s

relevan
t
,

the

discussio
n

als
o

include
s

material

derive
d

from

interview
s

wit
h

selecte
d

individual
s

an
d

m
y

par-

ticipatio
n

sinc
e

February

1
9
8
2

i
n

the

proces
s

o
f

developin
g

a

devotiona
l

practic
e

for

the

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhka
r
.

.

Al
t

quotation
s are

reproduce
d

a
s
i
n

the

original

except

that

obviou
s

typin
g
error
s

hav
e

bee
n

correc
t
ed
.

Apar
t

from

i
n

quo-

tations
,

thi
s

stud
y

use
s

the

syste
m

o
f
transliteratio
n

from

the

Arabi
c

t
o

th
e

Roma
n

alphabet
s

tha
t

has

bee
n

standar
d

Bah
a
'i

usag
e

si nc
e

192
3
.

Th
e

onl
y

exception
s

ar
e

i
n

the

case
s

of

Easter
n

Bah
a
'

i
s

wh
o

reside
d

i
n

the

W
e
st
,

o
r

who

use
d

Ro
-


I
n
t
r
oduction

xvii

manize
d

version
s

o
f

thei
r

n
a
mes
.

The

spelling
s

that

the
y

used

fo
r

thei
r

ow
n

name
s

ar
e

follow
e
d
,

rathe
r

than

correc
t

trans-

literation
s

given.

I
n

citin
g

archival

material
s

i
n

thi
s

study
,

I

hav
e

followe
d

as

closel
y

a
s

possibl
e

th
e

sam
e

convention
s

a
s

fo
r

citin
g

printed

sources
:

usin
g

nam
e

reference
s

t
o

identif
y

the

collection
s

and

shor
t

description
s

t
o

id
e
ntify

Papers
:

True

t
o

Robarts
,

9

the

document
,

e.g
.

(Robarts

Augus
t

1
9
22)
,

o
r

(Chicago

Records
:

Minutes
,
2
8

Jun
e

19
0
8).
9

I
n

th
e

cas
e

o
f

th
e

records

o
f

the

Nationa
l

Spiritua
l

Assembly
,

this

extensiv
e

collectio
n

is
divide
d

int
o

various

subse
r
ies
;

thus
,

citation
s

t
o

thes
e

records

sometime
s

includ
e

a

modifie
r

t
o

the

nam
e

referenc
e

i
f

neces-

sar
y

for

clarity
,

e.g
.

(NS
A

Records
,

Musi
c

Commit
t
ee
:

NSA

t
o

Committee
,

1
8

February

1931)
.

10

Reference
s

t
o

correspondenc
e

fro
m

'Abdu'l
-
Baha
,

Shoghi

Ef
f
endi
,

an
d

the

Universa
l

Hous
e

o
f

Justic
e

ar
e

usually

sol
ely

b
y

recipien
t

an
d

d
a
te
,

an
d

letter
s

s
o

cite
d

may

b
e

assume
d

to

be

i
n

the

general

collection
s

o
f

letters

from

these

successive

head
s

o
f

the

Bah
a
'
i

Fait
h

hel
d

i
n

th
e

Nationa
l

Bah
a
'
i

Ar-

chi
v
es
.

Wher
e

thi
s

i
s

no
t

the

cas
e
,

fulle
r

reference
s

hav
e

been

given.

Collection
s

i
n

the

Nationa
l

Bah
a
'
i

Archive
s

includ
e

many

copie
s

o
f

letters

and

othe
r

documents
,

som
e

direct

carbons

an
d

other
s

that

post
-
dat
e

thei
r

original
.

Unles
s

ther
e

ha
s

been

a

specifi
c

reaso
n

t
o

d
o

s
o
,

n
o

attemp
t
ha
s

bee
n

mad
e

i
n

th
e

ci-

tation
s

t
o

distinguis
h

betwee
n

original
s

an
d

copie
s

where

ther
e

i
s

n
o

prim
a
f
a
ci
e

reaso
n

t
o

doub
t

th
e

genera
l

accurac
y

of

the

copy.

A

fina
l

poin
t

tha
t

mus
t

b
e

mad
e

abou
t

the

us
e

o
f

source
s

in

thi
s

stud
y

i
s

tha
t

quotation
s

fro
m

the

Ba
h
a'
i

writing
s

are

used

a
s

necessar
y

for

the

purpose
s

o
f

elucidatin
g

th
e

action
s

of

thos
e

Bah
a
'

i
s

wh
o

wer
e

expose
d

t
o

thes
e

texts
,

no
t

wit
h

a

view

t
o

providin
g

a
n

adequat
e

analysis

o
f
th
e

actua
l

purport

o
f

them
.

Thus,

al
l

quote
s

from

letter
s

o
f

'Abdu
'
l
-
Bah
a

ar
e

the


xviii

I
n
t
r
oduction

translation
s

receive
d

b
y

the

origina
l

recipients
,

whic
h

may

or

may

no
t

b
e

adequat
e

translation
s

for

purpose
s

o
f

doctrinal

analysi
s

but

ar
e

the

relevan
t

text
s

for

a

consideratio
n

o
f

the

subsequent

act
s

of

the

recipient
s

an
d

thei
r

contempora
r
ie
s
.

Similarly
,

letters

fro
m

Shoghi Effendi

ar
e

quoted

t
o

the

ex-

tent

relevant

t
o

the

discussio
n

of

processe
s

within

the

North

American

Baha'

f

community
,

and

no
t

for

the

purpos
e

o
f

sys-

tematicall
y

considerin
g

hi
s

positio
n

o
n

an
y

particular

issue.

Thi
s

stud
y

doe
s

no
t

attempt

t
o

presen
t

a
n

abstrac
t

"
B
a-

h
a
'f
"

perspectiv
e

o
n

th
e

Mashriqu'l
-
Adhka
r

an
d

it
s

praxis.

Rather
,

i
t

discusse
s

the

particula
r

experienc
e

o
f

the

North

American

Bah
a
'
f

communit
y

i
n

creatin
g

it
s

Mashriq
u
'
l-

Adhkar,

wit
h

it
s

praxis
,

i
n

relatio
n

t
o

that

communit
y
'
s

de-

velopin
g

perception
s

of

th
e
aspect
s

of

th
e

Baha'
i

Faith

to

whic
h

i
t

wa
s

progressivel
y

expose
d

within

it
s

particular

social

an
d

cultural

context.

Ther
e

ha
s

bee
n

littl
e

scholarl
y

stud
y

o
f

the

Bah
a
'
i

commu-

nity
,

an
d

mos
t

o
f

wha
t

has

bee
n

publishe
d

ha
s

usually

concen-

trate
d

o
n

event
s

o
f

half

a

centur
y

an
d

mor
e

ag
o
.

As

a

result,

Bah
a
'
i
s

ar
e

no
t

use
d

t
o

readin
g

seriou
s

analyse
s

o
f

thei
r

his-

tory
,

an
d

especiall
y

no
t

o
f

thei
r

mor
e

recen
t

history
.

I

would

as
k

that

Baha'f
s

wh
o

rea
d

thi
s

wor
k

bea
r

i
n

min
d

that,

although

the

action
s

o
f

Bah
a
'
f
s

shoul
d

b
e

base
d

o
n

the

teach-

ing
s

o
f

the

Faith
,

ther
e

i
s

n
o

necessar
y

connectio
n

between

thos
e

teaching
s

an
d

the

activitie
s

o
f

Bah
a
'
f
s
.

I
t

i
s

u
p

t
o

Ba-

ha'i
s

as

individual
s

an
d

communitie
s

t
o

decid
e

t
o

wha
t

extent

the
y

bas
e

thei
r
live
s

o
n

the

writing
s

o
f

th
e

Faith
.

Th
e

degree

t
o

whic
h

the
y

d
o

s
o

doe
s

no
t

i
n

an
y

way

reflec
t

o
n

th
e

station

o
f

the

writing
s

o
r

thei
r

Au
t
hors
,

but

onl
y

o
n

the

understand-

in
g

o
f

the

Ba
h
a'
i
s
.



PAR
T

ONE:

THE

DEVOTIONA
L

HERITAGE


THE

MASHRIQU'L
-
ADHKAR

IN

'ISHQA.BAD,

RUSSIA.

The

first

Baha'f

House

of

Worship

to

be

constructed.


CHAPTER

ONE:

FROM

TH
E

EAST

Fo
r

the

first

North

American
s

to

com
e

upo
n

the

Bah
a
'f

Fai t h
,

i
t

wa
s

a

ne
w

ide
a
,

bu
t

"
I
dea
s

ar
e

the

gene
s

o
f

cul-
tu
r
e."
1

Whe
n

that

ide
a

wa
s

accepte
d

a
s

par
t

o
f

thei
r

personal

belie
f

systems
,

the
y

too
k

the

first

ste
p

toward

the

develop-

men
t

o
f

a

Nort
h

America
n

Bah
a
'
f

community
,

wit
h

it
s

as-

sociate
d

cultural

practice
s
.

However
,

the

introductio
n

o
f

the

Bah
a
'
f

Faith
t
o

Nort
h

America

was

not

merely

a

one
-
way

process
.

That

introductio
n

was

als
o

the

firs
t

ste
p

i
n

a

process

o
f

change

fo
r

the

Bah
a
'
f

communitie
s

i
n

th
e

Middl
e

East
.

It

goe
s

beyon
d

m
y

presen
t

purpos
e

to

discus
s

this

comprehen-

sively
,

bu
t

i
n

the

areas

o
f

devotiona
l

practic
e

an
d

the

Mashriqu
'
l
-
Adhka
r

there

i
s

muc
h

of

relevance

t
o

the

develop-

ment
s

i
n

the
Nort
h

America
n

cgmmunit
y

t
o

b
e

learne
d

b
y

giv-

in
g

som
e

attentio
n

t
o

the

dono
r

communit
y

o
f

that

ger
m

ide
a
.

T
o

date
,

there

ha
s

bee
n

n
o

comprehensiv
e

study

o
f

the

Eastern

Bah
a
'
f

community
,

bu
t

I

have

attempted

t
o

draw

upon

such

material
s

a
s

are

availabl
e

an
d
,

i
n

particular
,

t
o

con-

side
r

the

degre
e

o
f

exposur
e

that

Wester
n

Bah
a
'
f
s

had

to

Easter
n

practice.

3


4

P
a
r
t

One:

The

Devot
i
ona
l

H
e
ritage

EASTERN

BAHA'f

DEVOTIONA
L

PRACTICE


Whe
n

the

Bah
a
'
i

Fait
h

wa
s

introduce
d

int
o

Nort
h

America

i
n

the

1890s
,

the

Easter
n

Bah
a
'
i

communit
y

ha
d

established

forms

o
f

devotiona
l

son
g

for

us
e

with

the

Persia
n

an
d

Arabic

original
s

o
f

it
s

sacre
d

text

an
d

a
n

associate
d

bod
y

o
f

devo-

tiona
l

poem
s

an
d

songs
.

Thes
e

form
s

o
f

devotiona
l

son
g

are

wha
t

Wester
n

Bah
a
'

i
s

toda
y

refe
r

to

a
s

"

c
hantin
g
.
"

How-
ever
,

thes
e

music
s

wer
e

no
t

ne
w

forms

create
d

for

the

Bah
a
'i

Faith
,

but

wer
e

adopte
d

from

traditiona
l

Islami
c

practices

rangin
g

fro
m

Qurani
c

cantillatio
n

t
o

Suf
i

songs.

Tha
t

the

earl
y

Bab
i

communit
y

followe
d

th
e

established

practice
s

o
f

the

cultur
e

surroundin
g

i
t

i
s

eviden
t

fro
m

such

reference
s

a
s

:Uaj
i

Mirz
a

:Uaydar
-
'Alf'
s

accoun
t

o
f

hi
s

inter-

polatin
g

verse
s

writte
n

by

the

Ba
b

int
o

hi
s

readin
g

o
f

the

Qur-

,
a
n

i
n
mornin
g

devotiona
l

meeting
s

o
f

opponent
s

o
f

the

Faith,

i
n

mid
-
ninetee
n
th
-
cen
t
ur
y

Iran
,

without

thi
s

bein
g

detecte
d
.
2
Also

from

:Uaydar
-
'Al
i

w
e

have

an

account

o
f

Bah
a
'
i
s

engag-

in
g

i
n

devotiona
l

song

that

i
s

presume
d

b
y

non
-
Bah
a
'
i

listen-

er
s

t
o
b
e

Sufi
.

Onc
e
,

whil
e

imprisone
d

becaus
e

o
f

hi
s

religion

i
n

a
n

Egyptia
n

jai
l

i
n

a

clos
e
d
,

dark

cel
l

an
d

i
n

chains,

:Uayd
a
r
-
'
A
l
f

an
d

hi
s

companions:

.

.

.



decide
d

t
o

chan
t

th
e

Tablet

o
f

Naqu
s
,

which

ha
d

bee
n

re-

veale
d

b
y

Baha'u'
llah

for

the

celebratio
n

o
f

the

nigh
t

o
n

whic
h

the

Bah

had

declare
d

Hi
s

mission
.

W
e

were

eigh
t

prisoner
s

an
d

our

voice
s

unite
d

i
n

chantin
g

th
e

verses
.

Whe
n

the

soldier
s

heard

this
,

they

cam
e

i
n

with

a

lamp

for

us
.

The
y

though
t

that

we

were

dervishes

and

that

w
e

were

chantin
g

somethin
g

which

contained

the

mentio
n

o
f

Go
d
.

Thi
s

attracted

thei
r

kindnes
s

toward

us.

Thereafter
,

th
e

soldier
s

kep
t

th
e

doo
r

o
f

ou
r

cel
l

ope
n

during

the

da
y

an
d

unchained

us.

3

The

continue
d

us
e

o
f

Islami
c

forms

o
f

devotiona
l

song

by

Easter
n

Bah
a
'
i
s

i
s

no
t

surprising
.

There

wa
s

continuit
y

i
n

the


From

th
e

E
a
st

5

languages

o
f

devotiona
l

practice
;

there

wer
e

continuitie
s

of

literar
y

form

an
d

style
;

an
d

man
y

prominen
t

early

Babf
s

and

Baha'f
s

wer
e

formerl
y

Musli
m

clerg
y

an
d

theologian
s

trained

i
n

thes
e

son
g

styl
e
s
.

Anothe
r

facto
r

tha
t

wa
s

probabl
y

of

som
e

importanc
e

wa
s

the

lac
k

o
f

physica
l

securit
y

for

the

communit
y

itself
.

Devotiona
l

observance

often

ha
d

to

b
e

cir-

cumspect
,

a
s

.
o
n

a
n

occasio
n

i
n

Rasht

i
n

19
0
8

describe
d

by

Remey:

I
recall

on
e

da
y

whe
n

w
e

ha
d

gath
e
r
e
d
,

ninetee
n

i
n

number
,

in

the

uppe
r

par
t

o
f

a

dwelling
.

Th
e

frien
d

wh
o

chante
d

the

prayers

an
d

holy

verses

used

caution

i
n

modulatin
g

hi
s

voic
e
,

s
o

that

it

migh
t

no
t

carr
y

t
o

th
e

stree
t

below
,

les
t

i
t

might

attrac
t

the

atten-

tio
n

o
f

unfriendl
y

ears
.

4

T
o

attract

attentio
n

t
o

the

fact

that

a

Bah
a
'
f

meetin
g

was

takin
g

place

at
al
l

coul
d

b
e

dangerous

enough
;

to

readily

iden-

tif
y

suc
h

meeting
s

b
y

a

"
Bah
a
'i
"

soun
d

woul
d

hav
e

bee
n

fool-

is
h
.

The

establishe
d

forms

o
f

Islami
c

devotiona
l

song
.

could

b
e

use
d

i
n

Bah
a
'
f

meeting
s

without

eithe
r

theologica
l

o
r

aes-

theti
c

objection
,

an
d
,

quite

sensibly
,

the
y
were
.

But

these

specifi
c

form
s

wer
e

no
t

i
n

themselve
s

par
t

o
f

the

fait
h

they

ser
v
ed
,

an
d

serv
e
,

an
d

ha
d

n
o

essentia
l

connectio
n

with

it;

tha
t

i
s
,

the
y

wer
e

no
t
,

an
d

ar
e

no
t
,

a

require
d

par
t

o
f

it
s

devo-

tiona
l

practice.

As

wel
l

a
s

usin
g

sacre
d

text
,

the

Easter
n

communit
y

in-

clude
d

poetr
y

writte
n

b
y

communit
y

member
s

i
n

thei
r

devo-

tions
.

Accordin
g

t
o

Browne
,

'
'
i
t

woul
d

b
e

eas
y

t
o

compil
e

a

fair
-
size
d

anthology

o
f

Bab
f

[and

Baha'i
]

poe
m
s
.

'

'5

The

sing-

in
g

of

devotiona
l

poetry
,

whethe
r

traditiona
l

poem
s

o
r

recent

one
s

originatin
g

i
n

the

communit
y

itself
,

was

o
f

dee
p

signifi-

canc
e

t
o

Babfs
,

t
o

the

exten
t

that

ther
e

ar
e

recorde
d

instances

o
f

Babfs

i
n

the

throe
s

o
f

the

mos
t

hideou
s

martyrdom
s

ex-

pressin
g

thei
r

willingnes
s

t
o

di
e

for

thei
r

fait
h

b
y

singing.


6

P
a
r
t

One:

Th
e

Devot
i
ona
l

Heri
t
age

This

attachmen
t

t
o

devotiona