CANTERBURY CHRIST CHURCH UNIVERSITY BROADSTAIRS CAMPUS Development leave project, Michaelmas Term 2010: Engaging the creative sector: networking, knowledge and strategic planning

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1

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CANTERBURY CHRIST CHURCH UNIVERSITY

BROADSTAIRS CAMPUS


Development leave project, Michaelmas Term 2010:

Engaging the creative sector: networking
, knowledge

and strategic planning


Paul Cherry, Teaching Fellow, Business Management (PC)

James Dean, Senior

Lecturer, Music (JD)

Dr Andrew Gower, Broadstairs Campus Director (AG)

Dr Karen Shepherdson, Princip
al

Lecturer, Media (KS)


1.

Introduction


Over the previous university planning period (2006
-
10) the University’s
Broadstairs Campus has grown successfully a distinctive portfolio of
undergraduate provision in the
creative ind
u
s
tries

-

notably in the areas of
Commercial Music, Digital Design (web
design, graphic design, video and
motion graphics), Music Technology and Photography


as well as Business
Management incorporating Music Industry Management. The successful
outcomes of this development include buoyant student recruitment, high
quality cr
eative outputs (e.g. music recordings and media exhibitions) and a
positive momentum for further development
encompassing the

academic
portfolio, research projects and knowledge exchange.

The over
arching purpose
of this project
is to

add impetus and focus

for the next stage of the Campus’
development to 2015

in the area of the creative industries
.


This development leave project is an important part of the process of defining
the

confident, exciting and clearly articulated offer
of the Broadstairs Campus
:
an offer that will be

made all the more distinctive and productive through a
well
-
established working
partnership with
the creative industries.



2.

Development leave project aims



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2

~


The two main aims of the de
velopment leave project were
to expand the
range
of industry contac
ts relevant to the Media and Music

provision at the Campus

and
develop a structured knowledge of the creat
ive sector in the UK and
beyond
. The enhanced knowledge, understanding and
contacts

gained through
the project will inform an
d enhance strategic planning in the next phase of the
Campus’ development
,

boost
ing

the Campus’ capacity to engage productively
with the creative industries, and to gain a growing reputation in this regard.


The project
engage
d

in the

study of the c
reative industries (focusing on the
commercial management of
Media

and
Music
) through research and meetings
with key contacts

and representatives from relevant professional bodies
. Given
the global extent of the creative industr
ies the opportunity to visi
t

Singapore
provide
d

val
uable international perspective

within the increasingly globalised
creative industries. The development opportunities in Singapore are particularly
notable as the Singaporean Government is
currently
investing significantly in
the c
reative sector: it has ambitious plans as set out within the Singapore Media
Fusion Plan (2009)
1

for Singapore to become
a ‘global media city as Asia's
leading media marketplace and financing hub’.


In addition the Project aimed to engage with models of
creative business
development and practice in the Swedish HE sector. In particular how the
Swedish Higher Education institutions incubate their undergraduates’ creative
business ideas and provide an environment where entrepreneurial practice and
employabi
lity become fully embedded within their Programme delivery.


3

Networking within the creative sector

3.1

UK

The following m
eetings
with contacts from the
UK creative sector
were held
during the
Michaelmas Term

2010
:





Julian Wall, Director of International Even
ts and Independent Member
Services, BPI

(British Recorded Music Industry)
2



AG and JD
;




1

http://www.smf.sg/Pages/SingaporeMediaFusion.aspx


2

http://www.bpi.co.uk/


~
3

~




Remi Harris, Director of Operations, UK Music
3

-

AG and JD
;



Vick Bain, Chief Operating Officer, British Association of Songwriters,
Composers and Authors

(BASCA)
4



AG and JD
;



Darren Henley, Managing Director, Classic FM
5

-

AG
;



Nicola Slade, music industry journalist and writer
6

-

AG and JD;



Pete Wilson, Station Manager, Academy FM
7



AG and JD
;



Howard Jones, solo singer/songwriter with notable chart success
8
,
member of
FAC (Featured Artists Coalition)
9

-

JD;



David Neal, Director of Marketing Communications, Soundcraft Studer,
Professional Division
10

-

JD;



Samantha Cordell, Marketing & Events Coordinator, Soundcraft Studer;
Professional Division
11

-

JD;



James Shea
rs, Freelance Sound Engineer
12

-

JD;



Jack Wallington
,
Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB UK)
13



PC;




Kate Burnett, Institute of Direct Marketing (IDM)


PC
14
;



Emma Richards
,
Intellectual Property Office (IPO)



PC
15
;



Joanne Milnoe
,
Design and Artists
Copyright Society (DACS)
16



PC;




3

http://www.ukmusic.org/


4

http://www.basca.org.uk/


5

http://www.clas
sicfm.co.uk/


6

And sessional lecturer, BA (Hons) Music Industry Management.
http://www.musicweek.com/story.asp?sectioncode=1&storycode=1040359


7

http://www.academyfmthanet.com/


8

http://www.howardjones.com


9

http://www.featuredartistscoalition.com/


10

http://www.harman.com


11

http://www.harman.com


12

And sessional lectur
er, BA (Hons) Commercial Music and BA (Hons)
Music Production

(CH)

13

http://www.iabuk.net/en/1/home.html


14

http://www.theidm.com/


15

http://www.ipo.gov.uk/


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4

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Kelvyn Gardner, Licensing Industry Merchandising Association (LIMA)
17



PC;



Jonny Dawson
, Music Manager’s Forum (MMF)
18



PC;



Tracy Kemp
,
Performing Rights Society (PRS)
19



PC;



Jenny Goodwin
,
Music Publishers Association (MPA
)
20



PC;



Colin Edwardson
,
Public Performance Limited (PPL)
21



PC;



Ella Leonard Association of Photographers UK
22

-

KS;



Richard Maxted Assessor for the Association of Photographers UK
23

-

KS;



Kate Gordon Design Skills Council Coordinator, Design Council, UK
24

-

KS;



Luke Savage Development Manager for Skillset South
25

-

KS;



John Kippen Chairman of Association of Photography in Higher
Education
26

-

KS;



Juliette Buss Education Consultant for the Brighton Photo Biennial
27

-

KS;



Mark Dumbrell Director of Margate Photof
est



KS


I
n addition
,

KS
visited

the

Brighton Biennial including the Fabrica Exhibition and
also the

De La Warr Pavilion including the Myth, Manners and Memory
Exhibition
28
.

AG and JD also travelled to Glasgow to meet with colleagues from
the University of Strathclyde engaged in an innovative Knowledge Transfer
Project

(KTP)

focused on the creative industries
and specifically audience






16

http://www.dacs.org.uk/


17

http://www.licensing.org/


18

http://www.themmf.net/


19

http://www.prsformusic.com/


20

http://www.mpaonline.org.uk/


21

www.ppluk.com


22

http://home.the
-
aop.org/

23

Ibid

24

http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/

25

http://www.skillset.org/

26

http://www.aphe.ac.uk/

27

http://www.bpb.org.uk/

28

http://www.dlwp.com/

~
5

~


engagement with the Glasgow Concert Hall
s
29
.

The Principal Investigator for
this KTP is Mark Sheridan
30
, Senior Lecturer in Music and the Creative Industries
at the University of Strathclyde, and the partnership
objective is to

develop a
strategy and capability to record, produce, archive and bro
adcast a range of
events and concerts
staged at the Concert Halls
on the internet and other digital
media.

3.2

Singapore

3.2.1

Singapore
Visits, meetings and networking


The following visits and meetings took place
in

Singapore from 21
st

October to
29
th

October 2010:


Cultural experiences
(points of reference for subsequent meetings)
:

i.

Performance: ‘Matah Ati’
31



classical Javanese music and dance
performed at the Esplanade Theatre
32
;

ii.

Exhibition: National Museum of Singapore
33
;

iii.

Exhibition: Singapore Art Mu
seum
34
.


Education (progression partnerships for international recruitment)

i.

First Media Design School

(independent training provider)
35



Programmes: Diplomas in New Media and in Visual
Communication;



Contacts: Mark Phooi, Principal (who is a member of Design
Council Singapore); Shane Cheok, Assistant Head of New Media.


ii.

Republic Polytechnic
, School of Technology for the Arts
36




29

http://www.glasgowconcerthalls.com/

and
http://info.ktponline.org.uk/action/details/partnership.aspx?id=7212


30

http://www.strath.ac.uk/humanities/courses/music/staff/sheridanmarkmr/


31

http://www.pestaraya.com/201
0/theater_matah_ati.html

32

http://www.esplanade.com/index.jsp


33

http://www.nationalmuseum.sg/nms/nms_html/index.asp


34

http://www.singaporeartmuseum.sg/


35

http://www.firstmedia.edu.sg/


36

http://www.rp.sg/schoolscentres/sta.asp


~
6

~




Programmes: Diplomas in Sonic Arts, New Media, Design for
Interactivity and in Game Design;



Contacts: Rodney Wong, Assistant Director
(International
Relations), Dexton Wong, Office of International Relations;
Andrew Wong, Programme Chair, Diploma in Sonic Arts; Chong
Li
-
Chuan, Programme Chair, Diploma in Design for Interactivity;
Edward Wong, Programme Chair, Diploma in Game Design.



iii.

Nanyang Polytechnic
, School of Interactive and Digital Media
37



Programmes: Diplomas in Digital Visual Effects, Digital Media
Design, Motion Graphics and Broadcast Design, Digital
Entertainment Technology and in Games Development;



Contacts: Daniel Tan Kim Kh
oon, Director and Albert Lim Song
Lian, Deputy Director, Games and Digital Entertainment
Technology.

iv.

Nanyang Polytechnic
, School of Design
38



Programme: Diploma in Visual Communication;



Contacts: Soon Tats Fah, Deputy Director (Industrial Design) and
Tan Khe
e Soon, Manager (Visual Communication).

v.

Singapore Polytechnic
, School of Digital Media and Infocomm
Technology
39



Programmes: Diplomas in
Digital Animation
,
Digital Media (DDM)
,
Music

and Audio Technology (DMAT)

and in
Visual Effects and
Motion Graphics (DVEMG)



Contacts: Dr Tan Check Meng, Manager, Diploma in Music and
Audio Technology; Ahmad Al
-
Mahir Bin Abu Bakar, Ma
nager,
Diploma in Digital Animation; Christopher Tan, Lecturer;
Christian James, Lecturer; Michael Spicer, Lecturer and Iswan
Sudaryo, Lecturer.





37

http://www.nyp.edu.sg/sidm/sidm_courses.html


38

http://www.nyp.edu.sg/SDN/sdn.html


39

http://www.sp.edu.sg/wps/portal/vp
-
spws/!ut/p/c1/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_hQD1NXIzdTEwP_EC9TA0__YFdLJ9cAo
-
AgY_2CbEdFAGL4fro!/?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT
=


~
7

~


3.2.2

Singapore
Knowledge exchange

Meetings with:



B
e
n
s
o
n

P
uah, Chief Executive
Officer of Singapore’s
National Arts
Council
(NAC) with Grace Ng,
Assistant Director,
Planning and Policy
(Training and Development), NAC [see figure 1 below]
40
;



Ching
-
Lee Goh, Director, Culture Link
41

and Artistic Director of
Singapore Arts Festival
42

2000
-
2009;



Hugh Mason: Director, JFDI Asia
43
, creative industries business
advisor
44
;



Eden Britt (CCCU alumnus 1991
-
1994), Head of Resourcing,
Consumer Banking, Human Resources, Standard Chartered Bank
(located in Singapore)
45
;



Suryahti Abdul Latiff, Head of International Relations, Singapore
Media
Development Authority (MDA)
46

[see figure 2 below]



Fiona Soh, Deputy Director, Corporate Communications and
Public Affairs, The Esplanade Theatres Co. Ltd, Esplanade
Theatres on the Bay
47
.




40

http://www.nac.gov.sg/


41

http://www.culturelink.com.sg/


42

http://www.culturelink.com.sg/


43

http://jfdi.asia/


44

http://www.pembridge.net/hugh
-
mason.html


45

http://sg.linkedin.com/in/edenbritt


46

http://www.mda.gov.sg/Pages/Home.aspx


~
8

~












Figure1 (above): AM and AG with Benson Puah, CEO of the
S
ingapore National Arts
Council, 25
th

October 2010.


Figure 2 (right): AM and AG with Suryahti Abdul Latiff, Head of International
Relations, Media
Development Authority Singapore, 27
th

October 2010.



3.3

Sweden

Knowledge Exchange


Jönköping University is one
of the leading Swedish Universities in both
undergraduate business development and international exchange (students and
staff). It was planned that K.J.Shepherdson would travel to Jönköping


a
University she had previously visited


but due to flight canc
ellations this did
not prove possible. However, meetings (via SKYPE) and discussions with the
following contacts did take place:




Mattias Karlson President of Pixondu (Sweden’s largest online creative
/ online educational provider)
48
;



Fredrik Göransson Busi
ness Developer, Deputy Director of the Science
Park
Jönköping University
49
;



Ulf Linman School of Education and Communication, Jönköping
University
50
.







47

http://www.esplanade.com/corporate_information/index.jsp


48

http://www.moderskeppet.se/distans/uppdrag/

49

http://hj.se/en/business
--
society/science
-
park
-
Jönköping.html

50

http://www.university
-
directory.eu/Sweden/School
-
of
-
Education
-
and
-
Communication
--
Joenkoeping
-
University.html

~
9

~






4.

Knowledge of the creative sector

4.1

T
he

creative industries

concept’


The Creative Industries Mapping
Document 2002

(CIMD)

produced by the UK
Government’s Department for Culture Media and Sport defined the creative
industries as those which “have their origin in individual creativity, skill and
talent, and which have a potential for wealth and job creation

through the
generation and exploitation of intellectual property” (page 5).
The thirteen
creative industries identified by the CIMD are
advertising, architecture, art and
antiques, computer games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video,
music,
performing arts, publishing, software, TV and radio.
As noted by
Lazzeretti (2007)
,

the creative industries mark the “natural evolution of the
cultural industry, matching the structural change due to the establishment of
new technologies and new products
in the sphere of the entertainment industry”
(page 178).


In defining the creative economy it is important to acknowledge that t
he
common denominator between the thirteen industries is that “to a greater or
lesser extent”
each area of economic activity

u
ses “
copyright in their business
model. Indeed some American commentators refer to the ‘copyrightable’ rather
than the creative industries” (Work Foundatio
n
, page 98).

The industries also
share other factors including that they are based on the creative
skills of
individuals working in collaboration with managers and specialists in a diversity
of technologies. “Creative individuals tend to work in fluid teams on a project
basis with other knowledge workers and manufacturers. They depend on the
commercia
lisation of creativity and the protection of intellectual property rights.
The application of creativity takes place in a changing economic and cultural
environment, within which the creative industries need to be flexible

and
responsive” (
Atton
et al
.
, page 6).









~
10

~


The most recent statistics available from the DCMS (published in February
2010
51
) indicate that the
creative industries contributed 6.2% of the UK’s Gross
Value Added in 2007, with exports of services by the creative industries totaling
£16.6 b
illion in 2007 and equaling 4.5% of all goods and services exported.
There were an estimated 157,400 businesses in the creative industries on the
Inter
-
Departmental Business Register (IDBR) in 2008, which represents 7.3% of
all companies on the IDBR. Sof
tware, computer games and electronic publishing
made the biggest contribution to GVA of the creative industries, at 2.9% in
2007. Across these three areas of production there were 75,000 firms,
contributing 33% of creative exports, with growth between 199
7 and 2007 of
9%. That growth is expected to continue at over 4% per annum over the next
five years, with British creative industries competing in a worldwide market
worth 7% of global GDP
52
.


The Sector Skills Council for the Creative and Cultural Skills
in the UK
(CCSkills)
is similarly positive a
bout the international market
.
Whilst acknowledging the
challenge of making international comparison, the CCSkills collates a range of
statistics
53

that indicate

at the European Union level the creative sector is
playing an increasingly important role
,

with overall growth of the sector’s value
added to GDP being 19.7% in 1999
-
2003, some 12.3% higher than the growth
of the economy as a whole (page 40). With refere
nce to a

United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) report from 2008
,

CCSkills
re
ports that since the 1990s
the world’s creative economy has grown with an
annual rate in the OECD countries which is more than twice that of the service
indus
tries overall
,

and more than four times that of manufacturing. In the UK
this growth has apparently been unprecedented with the creative industries
having grown by 4% per annum compared to 3% for the rest of the economy.


As noted by Flew (2004), the succ
essful performance of the international
creative
economy has given prominence to the “creative industries concept”
which is “associated with innovation, risk
-
taking, new businesses and start
-
ups,
intangible assets, and creative applications of new technolo
gies” (page 344).
This concept continues to be
highly
influential
in shaping national strategies for



51

http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=11136366


52

http://www.bis.gov.uk/Policies/business
-
sectors/publishing


53

http://www.ccskills.org.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=IB2WWiTx73M%3D&tabid=138


~
11

~


the development of the creative industries in countries such as the UK, Canada,
New Zealand, Taiwan and Singapore.
Flew develop
s

the creative industries
concept

in saying that: “I
t is related to the rise of the knowledge economy, and
to the growing importance of innovation, research and development, investment
in ICTs and education and training as the principal drivers for growth in 21
st

century economies.

Such developments draw attention to the relationship
between creativity and innovation, with the latter understood as the
development of new products, services, organizational forms, and business
processes. The link between creativity and the knowledge
economy is perhaps
seen most clearly in the development of ICT software. The development of new
forms of computer software involves creativity in its production, generates new
forms of intellectual property, and conveys symbolic meaning
54

to its users”
(page 345).


Studi
es that

map the creative i
ndustries in the South East reveal the
complexities of quantifying the contribution of the
se

industries to the regional
economy
55
. The key messages from the most

recent
and detailed
report
produced

by Experian (2010)
are that the creative industries continue to
perform strongly in the South East. On Experian’s estimate there are 56,069
creative businesses in the region
(mostly SMEs with less than ten employees)
e
mploying some 265,646 employees
-

ma
ny on a freelance basis. The
businesses are distributed across the Sound East, but there are notable clusters
of activity around Brighton and Hove and the M4 corridor (South
Buckinghamshire and South Oxfordshire). The report indicates that the South
East

creative industries are proving resilient to the current recession although
its impact is clear with insolvency rates for the creative sector having risen
above the region’s average
,
and
with advertising and publishing having
particularly high insolvency
rates. Nevertheless, the report suggests (page i)



54

Symbolic meaning: ideas, experiences or images, the value of which is dependent on
the end
user (viewer, audience, reader, consumer) decoding and finding value within these meanings;
the value of ‘symbolic goods’ is therefore dependent upon the user’s perception as much as on
the creation of original content, and that value may or may no
t translate into financial return
(Bilton and Leary, 2002 page 50 quoted by Flew, 2005, page 345).

55

e.g. David Powell Associates (2002), Creative and Cultural Industries


An Economic Impact
Study for South East England; Fleming, T. (2004) An Audit of the

Creative Industries in Medway
and also Ancer Spa (2006) The Strategic Framework and Action Plan for Development of the
Creative Industries in South England.

~
12

~


that recovery will begin in the third quarter of 2010 encouraged by the
continued growth of crafts, design and fashion and the partial recovery of
publishing.


The Experian report
also
identifies software, games and electronic publishing as
creative sub
-
sectors
of the South East
which are of national (
and international)
significance. These sub
-
sectors account for
an estimated 21% of creative
industri
es employment in the South East, with

an avera
ge of 13 employees per
business
-

which therefore represents some of the bigger companies in the
creative industries.
Looking into the future, the summary of the report is that
“i
n terms of GVA output, software, computer games and electronic pub
lishing
will drive region
al recovery and future growth” (page ii).


4.2

The
development of the
creative
industries

in Singapore


As noted in the
first Renaissance City Report (2000, page 31)
56
, the innovation
-
driven economy is defined by “our ability to absorb,

process and synthesize
knowledge through constant value innovation.” Specific focus is placed on
creativity as moving to the centre of Singapore’s economic life “as a critical
component of a nation’s ability to remain competitive. Economic prosperity fo
r
advanced, developed nations will depend not so much on the ability to make
things, but more on the ability to generate ideas that can then be sold to the
world.”


The third edition of the Renaissance City Plan published in 2008 reflects that “At
the turn

of the 21
st

century, unprecedented advances in information and
communication technologies and the rise of the economic giants of China and
India starkly transformed the global landscape. Singapore reached a watershed


it needed to make the leap from an
industrial to an innovation
-
driven
economy, and to change its image from utilitarian workplace to a vibrant place
for work
-
live
-
and
-
play. Arts


with their ability to enhance creativity and add
buzz


received new attention for their economic role” (MICA,

page 8). This



56

The
Renaissance City Report: Culture and the Arts in Renaissance Singapore

(2000) is quoted
by O
oi Can Seng (2006) in
Bounded Creativity and the Push for the Creative Economy in
Singapore
, page 2.

~
13

~


statement provides the broad context for the National Arts Council’s vision for
Singapore to be
a “distinctive global city for the arts” (NAC, page 1).


To realise this vision, the National Arts Council continues to take an active
approa
ch to public policy and planning which invests in physical resources
57

and
artistic talent in order to grow audiences and engagement in the arts. Central
to this strategy is the now internationally recognised Esplanade Theatres and
Arts Centre which was op
ened in 2002 at a cost of S$600m. The National Arts
Council is currently en
gaged in a strategic review of arts and c
ulture, the
emphasi
s of which, according to the Chief Executive Officer, Benson Puah, will
be to encourage a stronger reflection
of the div
erse

cultural heritage of
Singapore. Particular emphasis will be placed on stimulating arts activity which
ref
lects, for example,
Malay, Chinese
, Japanese

and Indian traditions, with the
aspiration that, for example, the Singapore Chinese Orchestra will b
e as
internationally recognised as its Singapore Symphony Orchestra
. The mix

of
east
ern

and west
ern traditions expressed artistically within Singapore’s
international,
contemporary

society
is considered the
especially
distinctive
feature of this ‘global c
ity’.


According to Ooi (2006, page 7) the Singaporean authorities “see close linkages
between the arts and culture, design and media sectors. The arts and cultural
sector is considered the artistic core of the creative economy, and is essential to
ensuring the
overall economic performance of the various creative industries.”
As a key part of its strategy for the continued development of the creative
industries, Singapore has embarked upon an ambitious plan to grow
substantially its digital media sector.


The
Singapore Media Fusion Plan (SMFP, 2009) acknowledges the convergence
of digital information sources
(including music, publishing and broadcast
media)
and is seeking to
ensure
that
a

business, technology and legal (IPR)
environment is established which ena
bles
creativity
to flourish
in the creation of
innovative multi
-
platform content for a global market of consumers.


As stated



57

Such as the
Arts Housing S
cheme which provides ar
tists and arts groups with spaces at
subsidised rentals for training, practice, per forming and
administration (NAC, page 6).

~
14

~


by the Chairman of the Media Development Authority
58
, Dr Tan Chin Nam,
“Creativity has become a vital ingredient for success in a
highly globalised world
where even knowledge and capabilities may not be sufficient to ensure
differentiated leadership in various fields. The ability to fuse different
disciplines


arts, business and technology


is generating important
innovations that
are changing the world as we know it. The media sector, itself a
creativity driven industry, has seen its fair share of upheavals and disruptive
changes in recent years. Technological advancements and widespread adoption
have changed the way we produce, di
stribute and consume media.

With media
becoming more interactive, participative and immersive, we see new
possibilities to embed media into our everyday life, not only to inform, educate
and entertain, but to build new customer relationships and communiti
es” (page
4).


The broadest possible view is taken
in the use of the term ‘media’ within the
Singapore Media Fusion Plan, incorporating the entertainment industry which is
reported to have ”
immense growth potential. According

to
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC
)
59
, the

global media and entertainment market

was worth US$1.6 trillion in 2007, and

is forecast to grow to US$2.2 trillion by

2012 with a compounded annual growth

rate (CAGR) of 6.6%.


Within this
growth potential Interactive D
ig
ital M
edia

(IDM)

features

particu
larly strongly,
and through Singapore’s
National Research Foundation, S$500 million
has been
invested
o
ver four

years (2006
-
10) to fund
strat
egic research and development
in

support
of a
long
-
term

vision of becoming a global

IDM capital

(SFMP, page

8)
.


By 2006 significant progress had been achieved in the growth of Singapore’s
media sector with it contributing
S$19.5 billion revenue to the

economy and

employing 54,700 workers.

The compounded annual growth rate

(CAGR) of the
media sector from 1996

to 2006 was 8.0%, higher than 5.4%

for the overall



58

The Media Development Authority (MDA) was created in 2003 to co
-
ordinate the

development of the media sector in Singapore.

59

PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2008
-
2012. PwC’s report
covers the f
ollowing sectors: Internet Access (Wired and Mobile), Television,

Recorded Music,
Filmed Entertainment, Video Games, Publishing, Radio/Out
-
of
-
Home Advertising, Theme Parks
& Amusement Parks, C
asinos & Other Regulated Gaming
and Sports.

~
15

~


economy
60
.
The Media Development Authority expects that the
media

and
entertainment markets

in the Asia Pacific region
are set to perform even

better

in the future

with

China and India

leading the boom
” (
SMFP, page 17)
. Media

spending in Asia Pacific is

expected to average 8.8%

annual growth, increasing
from

US$333.1 billion in 2007 to

US$508.3 billion in 2012
61
.


T
he main aims of the Singapore Media Fusion Plan are to create a diverse and
vibrant media ‘ecosystem’ in which Singaporeans will participate
actively
as
creators and consumers. The
IDM

R&
D is intended to

help position Singapore
on the

leading edge of digi
tal media
and making a growing contribution in the

emerging market for multi
-
platform digital content creation. The Plan indicates
development su
pport for Singaporean SMEs and
o
n a larger scale,


SMFP will
nurture greater representation at

all parts of th
e media value chain


from

financing and producing to post
-
production

and distribution.

Leading media
companies

and talents will be drawn to Singapore to

set up base here, to open
up new business

opportuni
ties, leveraging growth in Asia” (SMFP, page 22).


5

Findings, outcomes and actions points

5.1

Outcomes and action points from the visit to Singapore
(AG)


5.1.1

To establish progression partnerships with Republic Polytechnic, Nanyang

Polytechnic and Singapore Polytechnic. The partnerships would enable students
who complete successfully a three
-
year Singaporean diploma in Music or Media
to progress to the second year of a directly related degree programme in
Creative Music Technology
or from the Digital Design suite at the Broadstairs
Campus;


5.1.2

Subject to approval of the progression partnerships arrange a series of trial
Canterbury Christ Church University
applicant information and recruitment
events at each partner institution in

Singapo
re, for student entry in Septem
ber
2011 or 2012. The events would include university and programme
presentations as well as student interviews, and could be held on consecutive
days at each institution in March 2011. (Direct recruitment of this s
ort is



60

Source of data:
Department of Statistics, November 2008.

61

PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2008
-
2012.

~
16

~


conducted by Australian and British competitor universities, and was felt by the
Singaporean polytechnic/college staff to be the most effective approach to
encourage progression to Higher Education overseas);


5.1.3

To propose to Singapore Polytec
hnic and to Nanyang Polytechnic a short
residential ‘Digital Design School’ study experience (e.g. ten days) at the
Broadstairs Campus for final year diploma students using Northwood Court
Halls of Residence for accommodation. (The Singaporean polytechnic

students
benefit from a subsidy of up to 50% for the cost of an overseas educational
visit);


5.1.4

To explore the possibility of a study opportunity for up to six Canterbury Christ
Church students of Digital Design and/or Creative Music Technology to
par
ticipate in a practical, industry
-
focused study experience at Nanyang
Polytechnic. The students would become members of a project team
contributing to a production project (video games related) with one of Nanyang
Polytechnic’s industrial partners (e.g. S
ony
62
, Lucas Films
63

or Double
Negative
64
);


5.1.5

To encourage and provide guidance to the School of Interactive and Digital
Media at Nanyang Polytechnic in devising a diploma programme in Creative
Music Technology. Music Technology is a new area of intere
st for Nanyang as it
would enable students to develop the knowledge and skills to originate audio
content to accompany interactive media and video g
ames produced within the
school. Canterbury Christ Church’s guidance in establishing a programme
would act
to strengthen potential progression from a Nanyang Polytechnic
Diploma in Music Technology to the BA (Hons) in Creative Music Technology at
the University’s Broadstairs Campus;





62

http://www.nyp.edu.sg/aboutNYP/PublicationsFiles/releases2010/gameResCts/gameResCts.ht
ml


63

http://www.lucasfilm.com/divisions/animation/


64

http://www.infocommsingapore.sg/games/index.php/eng/Company/Double
-
Negative
-
Singapore
-
Pte.
-
Ltd


~
17

~


5.1.6

To investigate possible ways that the University might contribute to the

Media
Development Agency’s priority to develop expertise in the creation of original
multi
-
platform digital content. A potential proposition is a bespoke programme
of intensive, professional training focused on ‘creative design thinking’. The
training w
ould be devised and delivered by the University in collaboration with a
network of industry partners (already directly or indirectly connected to the
Digital Design suite at the Broadstairs Campus) including Squint Opera
65
,
Framestore
66
, The Mill
67

and D & AD
68
. The training would enable participants
to develop original approaches to creative production (e.g. visual effects, sound
design, visual communication) and also provide advice on accelerated business
development for SMEs in the creative sector.



5.2

Outcomes and action points from
the contacts made in the UK (KS
,

PC
,

JD
)


5.2.1


Subject to approval (and successful assessment in December 2010) for the
University to become affiliated with the AOP. Institutional membership with the
AOP signifies the impo
rtance CCCU places upon preparing undergraduates for
professional practice and work readiness. AOP supports HE institutions in
staying current in the delivery of professional practice content and brings
support and opportunities for both undergraduates and

new graduates
principally in the form of networking, professional advice and exhibiting
opportunities.


5.2.2

To investigate possible ways that the University might contribute to the Margate
Photofest. This nascent visual event, with salient advisory su
pport by CCCU
specialist staff, could potentially and readily develop a national / international
reputation. Using the Brighton Biennial as a model, the development of
Photofest could offer (a) excellent exhibiting opportunities for graduating



65

http:
//www.squintopera.com/


66

http://www.framestore
-
cfc.com/


67

http://www.the
-
mill.com/


68

http://www.dandad.org/


~
18

~


students; (b
) a creative showcase for the University and (c) internships and
curating experience for undergraduates.


5.2.3

To explore accreditation of the planned BA (Hons) in Digital Marketing by the

Institute of Direct Marketing (IDM)
. The IDM

is Europe's leading

body for the
professional development of direct, data and digital marketing and has trained
more than 55,000 marketers across open and in
-
company programmes in
twenty
-
eight countries. The IDM also provides education resources for
universities and colleges.
Accreditation of a module within the BA (Hons) in
Digital Marketing would act to reinforce the sector
-
relevance of the programme,
with the potential for students at level 6 to also gain (
though examination) the
‘Certificate in Direct and Digital Marketing Principles’ awarded by IDM.


5.2.4

For second year Commercial Music, Music Production and Creative Music
Technology students to become members of Public Performance Limited
(PPLUK),
London
. The PPL

issues licenses to users of sound recordings. Joining
PPL is free and helps ensure that performers receive their share of the revenues
collected.


In 2008 licence fee income was £127.6 million which after operating
expenses meant £110.3 mi
llion was available for distribution to performers and
record companies.

5.2.5

For a representative of the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) to give an
introductory lecture
covering
patents, trade marks, designs and copyright

to
level 4 Media and Music st
udents at the Campus.

5.2.6


For the University to

become an academic supporter of BASCA (British Academy of
Songwriters, Composers and Authors)

69
.
BASCA is a community of approximately
two thousand

songwriters and composers well known for
staging
annually

‘The Ivors’
and the ‘British Composer Awards’, and are the
recognised independent professional
association representing music writers
working in all
musical
genres, from
songwriting, through media, to contemporary classical.

BASCA “
exists to supp
ort and
protect the artistic, professional, commercial and copyright interests of songwriters,
lyricists and composers of all genres of music and to celebrate and encourage
exce
llence in British music writing”
.
Becoming a
n academic

supporter would allow



69

www.basca.org.uk


~
19

~


t
he University and the students a
number of benefits, including
networking
opportuni
ties, seminars and lectures,
web
-
links
on the BASCA website to the
University website, up
-
to
-
date industry news,
an
internship opportunity for one
student per year

and

a red
uced student membership for £35 per year.



5.2.7

To investigate ways
in which
the University

might contribute
to the

national
songwriting conference SONGFEST
70
. This

new event, coordinated by BASCA
(and supporte
d by the PRS, PRS foundation, Musician’s
Union (MU), Music
Publishers Association (MPA)
71

and Arts Council England) aims

to provide
networking
opportunities and

information for

students who are interested to

carve a career out of

songwriting”.

Establishing a formal c
onnection with
SONGFEST
would

provide
excellent
networking

and learning
opportunities for
graduating st
udents, and could

provide
a showcase for
talent from
the
Commercial Music programme.


5.2.8

To develop further the University’s
relationship with Soundcraft UK
. A
n initial
meeting
resulted in

an agreement from Soundcraft for student tours of the
ir

factory
includ
ing product demonstrations;
an agreeme
nt from Soundcraft to provide an
annual
product prize for a ‘Soundcraft student of the year award’ to a student
studying Live Sound
and

an agreement that the Music department could use the
Soundcraft logo on publicity materials.



5.2.9

In co
-
ordination with the University’s Employability
and Careers
Services t
o introduce
an annual
creative industries
careers day
at the Broadstairs Campus
. Such a day

would include seminars from some of the industry bodies
mentioned above as well
as
presentations from gradu
ates now working in industry
.


5.2.10

To develop
Commercial Music
students


knowledge of performing in the live sector
of the music in
dustry
. As Soundcraft (see 5.2.8 above) has a
n installation at the O2
Indigo students could visit this venue for a live sound demonstration. In addition



70

http://www.songfest.org.uk/


71

http://www.mpaonline.org.uk/


~
20

~


links with local music festivals could be strengthened, building on such initiatives as
the HEVY musi
c festival
72

which is co
-
ordinated by a Commercial Music graduate.
The opportunities for live performance on radio should also be developed in
collaboration with Academy FM in Thanet as well as Canterbury Student Radio
(CSR)
73
.



5.2.11 To use the audience

engagement initiatives at the Glasgow Concert Halls as a case
study from which to draw enhancements relevant to the development of Horizons
caf
é
/bar as an evening music venue.

Exploring the use of live video within the
venue as well as pre
-
performance, live performance and post
-
performance
documentary footage distributed
on the Internet
via social networks
will
have value
in enhancing the reputation of the venue and engaging a

wider audience


particularly
amongst students but also with the general

public. The production of
video content
arising from events staged in Horizons
could be integrated within
undergraduate studies in Media and Music.


5.2.12 To draw useful parallels
between the Knowledge Transfer Project at the Glasgow
Concert Halls (led by the University of Strathclyde’s Department of Creative and
Aesthetic Studies) and the continuing development of the Quarterhouse Theatre in
Fokestone
74
. The
outcomes of the Glaswe
gian KTP for increased income streams,
reputation and audience engagement are relevant to the strategic relationship
between Canterbury Christ Church and the Creative Foundation
75

at the
Quarterhouse.



5.3

Findings
of
particular
interest and relevance

for stra
tegic planning


The following five findings are those selected as particularly relevant
aspects to
focus upon
in
the next stage of the Campus’ development to 2015 in the area
of the creative industries
.




72

http://festival.hevy.co.uk/


73

http://www.csrfm.com/


74

http://www.quarterhouse.co.uk/


75

http://www.creativefoundation.org.uk/



~
21

~



5.3.1

Technological i
nnovations
within the

creative
sector


The Singapore Media Fusion Plan suggests that on a fundamental level, digital
media will “transform all activities by improving efficiency or creating
opportunities for new systems or business models” and that there will be a
“pervasive overlay of
digital media that will augment our real world
environments in the future to come. Beyond conventional definitions of media,
digital media will be “embedded” everywhere, enabling innovation and welfare
gains in domains such as education, healthcare, defenc
e, industrial design and
more” (page 16).


The fusion of conventional media


encompassing music, publishing (online and
in print), gaming, film, video, television and radio
-

designed for multi
-
platform
delivery e.g. computer or mobile device)
leads to
a blurring of

distinctions
between IT, media and telecommunications
. This is now a mainstream
phenomena, being evident in the varied forms of output of the BBC and Classic
FM, with traditional radio and television programming broadcast across digital
net
works (satellite television, DAB and online
76

with the consumer experience
augmented through content developed for distribution on the web and via
applications for mobile devices
77
.


The convergence o
f
“digital content production and distribution in an era o
f
globalisation and digital networked infrastructures” (Flew, page 357)
through
multi
-
platform delivery
,

with copyright as the common denominator
, creates a
particular synergy between

areas of study

such as Commercial M
usic,
Music
Technology,
Music Production, Music Industry Management,
Digital Imaging,
Digital D
esign

and Digital Marketing
-

areas of study
within the “copyright
industries
” (Howkins, page xii).
In future
research and
curriculum planning
this

synergetic relationship should be

w
orked through
in order to ensure continuing
industry relevance
and the production of innovative, original content which
takes advantage of the technological advancements in digital technology
. In the



76

BBC’s ‘iPlayer’ or Classic FM’s ‘Listen Again’.

77

Such as the BBC’s iPhone/iPad app:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology
-
10738882
, or
Classic FM’s iPho
ne/iPad app:
http://www.classicfm.co.uk/on
-
air/ways
-
of
-
listening/listen
-
your
-
iphone/


~
22

~


delivery of the current portfolio of programmes the exi
sting links and
collaborations between the departments of Media and of Music at the
Broadstairs Campus should be strengthened thro
ugh practical ‘live projects’
to

take advantage
of the

interlinking

produ
ction chain of digital content

which
benefits from a
diversity of creative input.


“The model promoted by universities
which have been at the forefront of supporting the creative economy embeds
research


often in the form of live projects


into all levels of undergraduate
and taught postgraduate study. Fo
r these universities the linkage of teaching
and research provides an essential basis for professional employment” (
Atton
et
al
.
page 25).


5.3
.2

Copyright


As stated in Creative Britain (DCMS, 2008), “Intellectual Property

rights are the
catalysts which help turn creative activity into creative products and
services
...w
e need new business models which recognise changes in technology


and their democratisation of content


yet capture the value provided by
content producers

and
distributors” (page 49).
As the creative industries are
those that

create copyright

or related works as their primary product”
(Howkins, page xii) and given the technologic
al innovations outlined in 5.2.1

above, the coverage of copyright for the var
ious forms of digital content should
be reviewed and refocused in the Media and Music undergraduate programmes
in order to ensure that students have the practical, working knowledge of
copyright to enable them to understand how to ‘capture the value’ of th
e
content they produce.

There is also scope for the protection and management
of Intellectual Property across the creative industries to become a specialised
area of business management studied at postgraduate level.


The
central importance of
copyright
and ownership
of creative work

was particularly
pertinent

in the area of music publishing
.
A
practical
suggestion that came from
the
meeting

with Remi Harris (UK Music) was that
Level 5 Commercial Music, Music
Production and Creative Music Technology
students
are introduced
to
the
PRS and
PPL
and are given the

option to jo
in as members. The purpose of membership
would be
to encourage the student’s awareness of copyright ownership and the
ways in which to positively exploit that ownership for commercia
l benefit. The
~
23

~


inclusion of a module such as
‘Intellectual Property and Copyright in Music’

would
also be useful in this regard.





5.3.3

Computer Games sector


The expected growth of the games sector is evident locally (Experian, 2010),
nationally (DCMS, 2008
) and inter
nationally (SMFP, 2009). As stated by the
Work Foundation (page 109) “
Design, advertising and software are the three
creative industries most directly plugged into the growth of intangibles which
has been associated with the growth in the knowl
edge economy.
” The
Broadstairs Campus now has substantial undergraduate provision in the area of
design (including Web Design and Graphic Design); the new BA (Hons) in Digital
Marketing now in planning for launch in 2012 will provide
at least part
-
coverag
e of advertising, but the area of software, and particularly games
software is an area which could be more
substantially

developed as a specialism


potentially as a collaboration between the departments of Computing, Media
and Music.


5.3.4

Music Publishing


The MPA (Music Publishers Association) website provides the following definition:


A good publisher seeks out great music and great composers and songwriters;
supports composers and songwriters in the creative process; promotes their
catalogues across a
variety of platforms; manages the business exploitation of the
catalogues (including the registration of works and the collection and onward
payment of all due royalties); and generally seeks to protect and enhance the value
of their works with passion and

professional commitment.



Undergraduates on the Commercial Music, Music Production and Creative Music
Technology programmes would benefit from direct and practical engagement

with
music p
ublishing
. At the Broadstairs Campus this could
enabled through th
e
~
24

~


creation of

‘production music’ or

‘library

music’
which
would be distributed digitally
through
the in
-
house record label C3U

Records
, seeking synchronisation licensing for
selected tracks
.
Such
an initiative

would
raise the profile of the

music
created
within

modules such as Music in the Media, Film Music Studies, Songwriting, Electronic
Music
,

and would also provide case study examples for further development within
business
-
focussed modules such as Music Publishing and Digital Music Management.
In thi
s context there is scope to develop
coverage of Music in the Media from level 5
through to level
6

in order to explore synchronisation licensing in greater depth.
Once a catalogue of production music had been established by students the
University
could
c
onsider joining the MPA in order to gain maximum exposure
through the
music directory available on the
MPA website
78
.


5.3.5

Networking
and the ‘creative cluster’


“The creative industries


even more than other industries


are about the
transfer and exchange of uncodifiable ambiguous information that depends on
a high level of trust and shared context” (Work Foundation, page 148). The
‘power of proximity’
and face
-
to
-
face contact

through which to develop trust
and to give priority and interpretation for particular initiatives and ideas
has
come through very strongly

within the pr
oject:


the benefit
that personal contact

brings

is of course
implicit in the outcomes
detailed in this
project report.
The
point was particularly well made by Julian Wall of t
he BPI
who stressed that as
much as five years development work was saved by musicians being able to
network in person with representatives from the Japanese music in
dustry on a
recent BPI trade mission.
A number of contributors, and particularly those from
the Music Industry, emphasised the need for graduates to develop their
networking

and negotiation

skills in order to be able to be confident, clear,
positive,
prof
essional
and persuasive
in their written and verbal communication.




The re
-
emphasis of

face
-
to
-
face
communication

therefore suggests that the
ways in which students are
assisted

in developing

and demonstrating

their

interpersonal

networking and negotiation
skills
be reviewed across the
undergraduate programmes

as a key part of the student employability agenda
,



78

http://www.mpaonline.org.u
k/directory


~
25

~


with participative activities developed in collaboration with the University’s
Student Employability Service.

“Creativity
demands a distinctive combination of
deep subject
-
specific understanding and sophisticated cognitive and
interpersonal skills” (Work Foundation, page 129).


Active links to industry through the academic departments and programmes
remain vital to ensure the

work
-
relevance of the study undertaken by students
and to create new opportunities for
research and
knowledge transfer. Whilst
the Departments of Media and Music already benefit from a wide range of
industry contacts, not least through the
substantial nu
mber of

sessional
lecturers who contribute to the programmes, there still remains scope to
strengthen

and
formalise
creative
industry pa
rtnerships. The creation of a
creative industries

steering group

with local/regional representatives from
music,
digita
l
design, interactive media and photography should be considered

collaboratively
by the two departments

in orde
r to inform their work and
stimulate

the creative industries

in

Thanet

and East Kent
.

Similarly,
opportunities for institutional membership of i
ndustry bodies should be
considered, including, for example, the Media Department’s institutional
membership application to AOP and the Music Department

becoming an
ins
titutional member of the BPI as well as

an academic supporter of the British
Academy of
Songwriters,
Composers and Authors.


The importance of physical networks extends to
the relationships and

‘social

capital

79

developed with local partners within an ‘academic hub’ (DCMS, page
27)
. The hub is proposed as a
collabo
ration which is

created between higher
education, further education and schools in order to encourage the highest
quality creative work to be produced and to encourage

the widest possible

involvement and engagement in the arts. “An awareness of, and a taste for,
creativ
e offerings depends upon prior education and experience...stimulating
creativity in areas where the current appetite is low may be highly productive”
(Work Foundation, page 127).

Within Thanet
an academic hub could be
established between the Broadstairs C
ampus, Thanet College and local
progression partnership schools

that focus particularly on Media, Music and



79

defined loosely as the “goodwill that is engendered by the fabric of social relations and that
can be mobilised to facilitate action” (Work Foundation, page 143).

~
26

~


Business
such as St. George’s Church of England Foundation School and
H
artsdown Technology College.
A collaborative approach to the development of
curriculum content, a sharing of industry contacts and staff exchange are three
ways in which an academic hub might give extra momentum to the
development o
f the creative sector in Thanet and the interlinked work (in
Performing Arts and Visual Arts) at the

University Centre Folkestone.


5.3.6

Creative environment


Nanyang Polytechnic p
lace particular emphasis on achieving a
learning
environment
which is conducive for group project work

within the creative
industries. The informality of two computer rooms purposed to the creation of
interactive digital media with a variety of spaces within each lab for group
discussion and practical demonstration
-

as well as the display
on noticeboards

and around workstations
of work in progress
-

gave a clear impressio
n of
‘creativity at work’. The more informal setting appeared to be particularly
beneficial for

active group work focused on problem solving. The Polytechnic
was also very effective in displaying the best student work on a range of TV
screens and monitors around the
department

which gave
a
distinct impression
of achievement to visitors
,

and which i
s presumably affirming to students who
see their work displayed.



Jönköping University, Sweden places similar emphasis on providing additional
creative and meeting space for students beyond the typical lecture / seminar /
studio space. Jönköping
’s ‘Scien
ce Park’



which in fact is a building of modest
size
-

provided
this sort of
additional facility for all Jönköping undergraduates.
From the second year of study students are encouraged (those on creative
modules were indeed expected) to utilise space and
make use of the
University’s (small) Business Development team of staff. The Science Park thus
overtly orientates towards: the incubation of creative ideas, which might then
develop into applied business models and, once established, viable business
growth
. To facilitate this further, simple strategies such as having directories
located in each ‘incubating’ room readily leads the undergraduate to
appropriate expertise within the University.


~
27

~


Whilst visiting Jönköping,
Karen Shepherdson

was able, for exampl
e, to see an
undergraduate meeting a potential client in an environment which connoted a
professional exchange; see a cluster of undergraduates discussing with an ‘in
-
house’ expert the feasibility of creating a creative cluster and met with a recent
gradua
te who now leases additional space from Jönköping University for his
successful online company. Success feeds back into the institution through
formal agreements to provide current undergraduate internships and work
experience opportunities.


The visit to

both Nanyang Polytechnic and Jönköping University promoted a
need

to review the learning spaces provided
at Broadstairs

for creative work to
see if there are simple
, cost
-
effective

adjustments which might be made to
achieve a more overtly ‘creative enviro
nment’ appropriate for project teams
working
practical, computer
-
based development activities.

It would also be
advantageous to
more visibly celebrate the work completed by creative students
on campus,
considering

how to display

more student work, such as

images,
interactive media and recorded music, in key areas such as the Campus foyer,
the first floor Media corridor of the Carey Building and within the Allen Building.


5.4

Summary of findings


In summary, the following five findings deserve further
consideration in order to
enhance the Broadstairs Campus’ distinctive focus within the creative industries:


i.

To reflect on

the
‘digital convergence’ of content creation and
distribution

within
the emerging ‘digital economy’ through research,
teaching and l
onger
-
term
curriculum design
80
;


ii.

To develop a more focused and practical coverage of IPR and copyright


as relevant for creative practice
-

across the undergrad
uate media and
music programmes;





80

Such as

a further development of the level 6 ‘Digital Music Management’ module within the
Commercial Music programme, as well as potential

undergraduate or postgraduate studies in


Digital Media Management
’ as a collaboration between the Departments of Media and
Music.

~
28

~


iii.

To consider how best to develop a specialism in computer games

design

as well as a more clearly defined focus upon visual FX
;


iv.

To explore a
n increased theoretical and
practical engagement in music
publishing through the
production of licensed library music distributed
by C3U Records;


v.

To refocus on
enabling undergrad
uates to develop and demonstrate
practical ne
tworking and negotiati
on skills, and to develop
creative
industry

network
s

both locally and nationally, and where possible
internationally;


vi.

To enhance the creative environment at the Broadstairs Campus in order
to encourage
and
facilitate

group
project
work and
in order to
celebrate
student success.


6

Selected Reading


Atton, C., McCleery, A, Mabweazara, H. and Ward, S. (2008)
Creative Futures:

Building the Creative Economy through Universities
.
Edinburgh: Centre for
Creative and Cultural Industries Research, Napier University on behalf of
Million+


Barnett, S. et al, (2009)
Beyond the Lens
, Association of Photographers


Creative &

Cultural Skills (2009)
Creative Blueprint South East
-

A regional plan
for the creative and cultural industries
. London: Creative & Cultural Skills


Department of Culture, Media and Sport (2001)
Creative Industries Mapping
Document 2001
, 2
nd

ed. London: D
CMS


Department of Culture, Media and Sport (2002)
Creative Industries Fact File
.
London: DCMS


~
29

~


Department of Culture, Media and Sport (2008)
Creative Britain: New talents for
the creative economy
. London: DCMS


Experian (2009)
The Impact of the downturn
on the creative industries
.
Guildford: SEEDA


Experian (2010)
Mapping the Creative Industries in the South East
. Guildford:
SEEDA


Fleming, T. (2008) Targeting creativity through the intermediary: regional and
local approaches in the UK and beyond IN D.Bar
rowclough and Z. Kosul
-
Wright
(eds.)
Creative Industries and Developing Countries


voice, choice and
economic growth
. pages 275
-
304 London: Routledge


Flew, T. (2004) Creative Economy IN J.Hartley (ed.)
Creative Industries
. pages
344
-
374 Oxford: Blackwel
l Publishing


Hesmondhalgh, D. (2007) Explaining the cultural industries IN
Explaining the
Cultural Industries

(2
nd

ed.) pages 80


102 London: Sage Publications Ltd


Hesmondhalgh, D. (2007) New Media, Digitalisation and Convergence IN
Explaining the Cultu
ral Industries

(2
nd

ed.) pages 240


269 London: Sage
Publications Ltd


Hesmondhalgh, D. (2009) The digitisation of music IN A.Pratt and P.Jefcutt
(eds.)
Creativity, Innovation and the Cultural Economy
. pages 57
-
73 London:
Routledge


Howkins, J. (2007)
The Creative Economy

(2
nd

ed.) London: Penguin Books


Hunter
-
Tilney, L. (2010) ‘The Music industry’s new business model’ FT.com
(10/9/2010) from
www.ft.com
, accessed 11/11/2010


~
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~


Johnson, L. (2009) Singapore: post
-
colonial city of cultural heritage and
performance IN
Cultural Capitals


Revaluating the Arts, Remaking Urban Space
.
pages 155
-
189. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Company


Kusek, G. and Leonhard, G (2005) The Future

of Music: Manifesto for the Digital
Music Revolution, Boston USA, Berklee Press


Landry, C. (2004) London as a creative city IN J.Hartley (ed.)
Creative Industries
.
pages 233
-
243 Oxford: Blackwell Publishing


Lazzeretti, L. (2007) Culture, creativity and
local economic development:
evidence from creative industries in Florence IN P.Cooke and D.Schwartz (eds.)
Creative Regions: Technology, Culture and Knowledge Entrepreneurship
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169
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196 London: Routledge


Lewitschnik, L. (ed.) (2009
) The Monocle Singa
pore Survey
. Singapore National
Survey


Media Development Authority (2009)
Singapore Media Fusion Plan
. Singapore:
Media Development Authority


Missingham, A. (2006)
Status Quo..? An exploration of the status of composers,
performers and songwriters in the

UK

s creative economy,
A consultative report
commissioned

by The Musician

s Union and The British Academy of Composers
and Songwriters


Ministry of Informatio
n, Communications and the Arts (MICA),
Singapore (2008)
Renaissance City Plan III
. Singapore:
National Arts Council


National Arts Council, Singapore (2006)

The Power of the Arts
. Singapore:
National Arts Council


Ooi, C
-
S. (2006) Bounded creativity and the push for the creative economy in
Singapore IN
Proceedings of the 16
th

Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies
~
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~


Association of Australia

[online]. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School.
Available from:

http://coombs
.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/ASAA/biennial
-
conference/2006/Ooi
-
Can
-
Seng
-
ASAA2006.pdf

[accessed 1.11.2010]


Page, W and Carey, C (2009)
Adding up the UK music industry for 2008
, PRS for
Music Economic Insight, Issue 15


Page, W and Carey, C (2010)
Moving Digital

Britain forward, without leaving Creative
Britain behind
, PRS for Music Economic Insight, Issue 19


Page, W and Carey, C (2010)
Adding up the UK music industry for 2009
, PRS for
Music Economic Insight, Issue 20


Parker, N (2004) Music Business, London UK,

Sweet & Maxwell


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Reeves, M. (2002)
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re
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. London: Arts Council England


Sands, J. and Worthington, D. (eds) (2007)
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Level Skills for Higher Value
,
Design Council

Sands, J. and Worthington, D. (eds) (2008)
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Working in the
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~


Techno
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C.
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71 Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan


UK Music (2010)
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accessed 17/10/2010


Universities UK (2010)
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.

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research links in
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Whitsett, T (2000) Music Publishing, Michigan USA, MixBooks


Wikstr
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Work Foundation (2007)
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