M. A. HUSSAINI (PhD)

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1


ASSESSMENT OF SLM ENABLING ENVIRONMENT: BARRIER ANALYSES OF
INSTITUTIONS, STAKEHOLDERS, INCENTIVES, POLICI
ES AND TECHNICAL
IMPLEMENTATION





FADAMA III PREPARATION (GEF COMPONENT)



BY



M. A. H
USSAINI (
Ph
D)



NATIONAL FADAMA
COORDINATION
OFFICE

FEDERAL
MINITRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

NAFISAH PLAZA, OFF CONSTITUTION ROAD, CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT, PMB 620,
ABUJA.




A
UGUST

2009





2


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

5

1.1

Brief Methodology

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

7

1.2

Country overview

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

7

2.0 DIAG
NOSIS AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS

................................
................................
................................
........

9

2.1

Review of Policies, Strategic Frameworks, Budget and Implementation Mechanisms

...

9

2.1.1

Assessment of SLM Enabling Environment

................................
................................
..............

9

2.1.2

Nigeria’s Environmental Problems

................................
................................
...........................

10

2.1.3

Environment related policies and activities in Nigeria
................................
.....................

10

2.1.4

Land Degradation in Nigeria

................................
................................
................................
........

16

2.1.6

Policies related to Agricultural development in Nigeria

................................
..................

22

2.1.7

Support by Donors and International Development assistance

................................
...

22

3.0 RESPONSES TO DATE

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

30

3.1 Best
-
fit Practices/ Technological Packages (
SLM Techniques)

................................
.....................

30

3.1.1

Mulching

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

30

3.1.2

Cover cr
opping

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

30

3.1.3

Improved fallow

................................
................................
................................
................................

30

3.1.4

Agro
-
forestry (Alley cropping)

................................
................................
................................
...

30

3.1.5

Intercropping/strip cropping

................................
................................
................................
......

31

3.1.6

Minimum and No till

................................
................................
................................
........................

31

3.1.7

Contour ploughing

................................
................................
................................
...........................

32

3.1.8

Ridging/Ridge tying
................................
................................
................................
.........................

32

3.
1.9

Composting

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

32

3.1.10

Liming

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

32

3.1.11

Salinity control

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

33

3.1.12

Terraces/Contour bunds

................................
................................
................................
...............

33

3.1.13

Waterways

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

33

3.1.14

Structures

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

33

3.2

Lessons learned from past experience of GEF, CDD, and land degradation investment
in Nigeria

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
......

34

3


3.3

On
-
going SLM Activities and Planned Pipelines

................................
................................
............

35

3.3.1

Socio
-
Economic Approach

................................
................................
................................
............

35

3.3.2

Conservation and Management of Natural Resources

................................
......................

36

3.4

Extension Approaches and Advisory Services: An Overview

................................
..................

39

3
.5

Barriers and bottlenecks to SLM adoption at all levels from community up to State and
Federal. These barriers include:

................................
................................
................................
........................

41

3.5.1

Policy and Institutional Barriers

................................
................................
................................

41

3.5.2

Economic/ Financial Barriers

................................
................................
................................
.....

42

3.5.3

Social/ Cultural Barriers

................................
................................
................................
................

42

3.5.4

Technological and Knowledge Barriers

................................
................................
..................

43

3.6

Response Options and Recommendations

................................
................................
......................

45

3.6.1

Investment line 1:
Promoting rural land use in Local Government areas of Nigeria
through

Community
-
based Land Use Planning

................................
................................
.......................

4
5

3.6.2

Investment line 2: Support a comprehensive study on causes and effects of land
degradation

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

46

3.6.3

Investment line 3: Support to Universities, Research Institutes and other SLM
Partners

47

3.6.4

Investment line 4: Enforcement of legislation to protect natural resources

...........

47

3.6.5

Investment line 5: Assisting poor households to use alternative and efficient
sources of energy (fuel efficient stoves, etc)

................................
................................
............................

47

3.
6.6

Investment line 6: Introduction of PES in form of promoting tree for subsidized
fertilizer

47

3.6.7

Investment line 7: Promot
ion of best
-
fit practices for natural resource
conservation and management.

................................
................................
................................
.....................

47

3.6.8

Investment line 8: Capacity building
for
policy makers at national and state levels.

48

3.6.9

Investment line 9: Capacity building for state Environmental Officers

.....................

48

3.6.10

Investment line 10:
Community m
obilization

................................
................................
......

48

3.6.11

Investment line 11: Promotion of diversified income generating activities for
increased livelihood

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

48

3.6.12

Investment line 12: Tracking tool for enabling environment

................................
........

48

3.7

Strategies for Implementation

................................
................................
................................
..............

52

3.7.1

Institutional Coordination

................................
................................
................................
............

52

4


3.7.2

Legal Framework

................................
................................
................................
..............................

52

3.7.3

Enforcement

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

52

3.7.4

Monitoring and Evaluation

................................
................................
................................
...........

52

3.7.5

Funding mechanism

................................
................................
................................
........................

52

3.8

Criteria for Assessing Commitment to SLM Programmes

................................
.........................

53

3.8.1

Political Support

................................
................................
................................
................................

53

3.8.
2

Program Resources

................................
................................
................................
..........................

53

3.8.3

Strength of Institutional Reforms

................................
................................
..............................

53

3.8.4

Governance

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

53

3.8.5

Capacity Building for Up
-
Scaling SLM

................................
................................
......................

53

3.9

Key Performance Indicators for Tracking Progress
(Adopted and modified from SIP 1
-
2
Kenya Report on SLM in Sub
-
Saharan Africa, 2006)

................................
................................
....................

54

4.0

REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
................................
....................

56


5


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Nigeria
is
the most populous country in Africa which is
located in the West African sub
-
region
whose
population figure of 88.5 million people in 1991 jumped to 140.4 million in 2006.
It has
a total area of 923,770 km
2

out of which land area was 910,770 km
2

while water area was 13,000
km
2
. Its total land boundaries measure 4047 km length.

It
is multi
-
ethnic and multi
-

religious with
over 250 different languages living side by side. Its diversity implies different ways of doing things
and different responses to innovations and possibly sustainability since cultures, values and attitudes
are likely to d
iffer.


Nigeria is endowed with both human and natural resources that can serve as catalyst for
rapid development. However, it has remained among the poorest with majority of its people living
below the poverty level.

It
is among the sub
-
Saharan countries
that have suffered severe destruction
of their natural ecosystems and would continue to worsen if appropriate policies and actions are not
put in place. This implies that the root causes of these problems need to be identified and critically
examined so th
at pragmatic solutions are offered.

T
he critical environment problems facing Nigeria
include

Sheet erosion
,

Gully erosion
,
Coastal and Marine erosion
,
Flooding
,
Drought and
Desertification
,
Oil Pollution from spills, Urban Decay and Squatter Settlements
,
I
ndustrial Pollution
and Waste
,
Mu
nicipal Solid Waste, Concrete Jungles/cities, Loss of Fauna and Flora and
Climatic Change/Ozone Layer Depletion.

In Nigeria, human
-
induced soil degradation is a common phenomenon. Its severity is
light for 37.5% of the area

(342,917 km
2
), moderate for 4.3% (39,440 km
2
), high for 26.3%
(240,495 km
2
), and very high for 27.9% (255,167 km
2
). Soil erosion is the most widespread
type of soil degradation in the country and has been recognized for a long time as a serious
problem. I
n 1989, 693,000 km
2

were already characterized by runoff
-
induced soil loss in the
south and 231,000 km
2

were degraded, mainly by wind erosion, in the north. Sheet erosion
dominates all over the country, whereas rill and gully erosion are common in the
eastern
part and along rivers in northern Nigeria
.
Nigeria has the world’s highest deforestation rate
of

p
rimary

forests

and Africa's highest rate of total forest loss.
From
2000 to 2005 the
country lost 55.7% of its
primary

forests,

an annual rate of 11.1
%. The forest cover is now
less than a third of what it was

in the 1960s
.

Nigeria records desertification as the most pressing land degradation problem in
northern parts. Desertification
affects about 397,222 Km
2
, representing about 5
0

to 75% of the
land mass of the Northern States of the country.

Similarly, it was projected in 2004 that it affect
ed

about 43 million people occupying about two
-
fifth of Nige
ria’s total land mass of 923,770
Km
2
.

Nigeria is
also
losing 3
,
510km
2

of rangeland
and crop land to desertification each year. And while
Nigeria’s human population grew from 33 million in 1950 to 132 million in 2005, its livestock
population grew from roughly 6 million to 66 million. The forage needs of Nigeria’s livestock
population exc
eed the sustainable yield of Nigeria’s grasslands.

Similarly, l
and degradation has serious effects on water bodies such as lakes and rivers which are
gradually silted

and drying off
. For example, t
he Lake Chad was at a time the fourth largest fresh
water
body in Africa supplying water to more than 10 million people in 1960s within an area of more
than 26,000 km
2

but
had shrunk to 1,500 km
2

by 2000.


6


In response to the aforementioned problems Nigerian governments have over the years brought
out strategies
to deal with these realities. They have also signed a number of international treaties
and declarations on the protection of the ecosystem, sometimes receiving support or grants from
international bodies.

Many of these
strategies
have been modified as policy makers become more
aware of the need
to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria, and, in particular, to

s
ecure for
Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well
-
being

and r
estor
ing
,
maintain
ing

and en
hanc
ing

the ecosystems and ecological processes essential for the functioning of
the biosphere.

However, despite all the investments in different sectors (crop, livestock, forestry,
ocean and marine, water resources, wild life, etc) the problems of enviro
nmental degradation have
continued at an alarming rate. This has been the concern of many local and international institutions
such as the GEF (Global Environment Facility) which have over the years invested in many sectors of
the Nigerian environment. The

report gives a detailed account of the past, present and future
investment derives of the nation and some of the lessons learned. It also identified the major
bottlenecks
that have slowed the wide scale adoption or up scaling of the sustainable natural or

land
resources management options. This include the lack of consistency in policies, non
-
coordination
among SLM partners at all levels, problems of poverty at community levels
and ignorance
which
have hindered
the adoption of environment friendly technolo
gies, lack of adequate knowledge

among policy makers
, conflicts in mandate, lack of transparency in governance, non
-
enforcement of
legislations, problems of land tenure, etc.

A number of viable investments have been recommended for inclusion in the Natio
nal Fadama
Development Pro
ject

phase III, which will hopefully enabl
e

the up scaling of SLM.




7


1.0

BACKGROUND


1.1

Brief Methodology

The third phase of t
he National Fadama Development Project (Fadama III) had

been
prepared and it
wa
s expected to become effective by the first quarter of 2009.The GEF
supported component of Fadama III is under preparation. The GEF component will fund ‘Up
Scaling’ of
S
ustainable Land Management (SLM) initiatives in Fadam
a III and the national at
large
. T
his study is one of the studies required to provide input into the Project appraisal
Document (PAD) of the Fadama III GEF Project Component.

The main objective of this activity is to provide a baseline assessment of the enabling
environment for SLM implem
entation in Nigeria, so that the operation can best target its
efforts to scale up SLM using existing Fadama III implementation structures already or soon
to be in place.
A secondary objective for this work is to inform the Government’s planned
multi
-
stak
eholder SLM Investment Framework being developed with TerrAfrica support, and
to provide inputs into planned analytical work on the land use sector.

In carrying out the assignment a

range of states were selected to reflect the six agro
-
ecological zones

id
entified within the country

as follows: Borno


Sahel; Bauchi


Sudan;
Kaduna
-

northern Guinea; Osun


Derived savanna; Imo


Forest; and Cross River


Forest
/Coastal swamp. The
approach used includes

d
esk review of relevant documents from
various
ministries, units and organizations and conduct of extensive consultations with
experts in relevant disciplines

and farmers from various economic interest groups. Thus
,

discussions
were held
with

both

primary and secondary stakeholders

using instruments
wh
ich include the Core

Welfare Indicator Questionnaire

for household information and
Composite Index and Coalition Assessment and Knowledge Management Tool for
institutional perception of current state of SLM in Nigeria. I
nferences w
ere

based on
detailed rev
iew of documents, interviews and analyses of data collected
.

1.2

Country o
verview

Nigeria is located in the West African
s
ub
-
r
egion bordering the North Atlantic Ocean

to the south
, Benin Republic

to the west
,

Cameroon

to the east, Niger Republic
to
the
north
and Chad to the north
-
east
.

It has a t
otal

area

of
923,770 km
2

out of which l
and area

was

910,770 km
2

while water
area

was

13,000 km
2
. Its total land boundaries measure

4047 km

length
.


8



The c
limate

varies from

equatorial in south, tropical in centre

and

arid in north. Rainfall

amount was 500

1800mm

annually, unimodal in the north and bimodal to the south

(Table 1)
. The
t
emperature

ranges from a

m
inimum
of
20
0
C


25
0
C

to a m
aximum
of
28
0
C
-
32
0
C.

The t
errain

g
enerally varies

with rugged hills, undulating slopes, gullies, water
-
logged areas, flat and

undulating
land surfaces. Specifically, it is characterized by southern lowlands merging into central

h
ills and
plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in the Nort
h

(
Adeyinka
et

al
, 2005
)
.

It has several natural
resources among which are

f
orests,
c
rude
o
il,
n
atural
gas and s
olid

m
inerals
. It had a population
figure of 88.5 million people in 1991 which jumped to 140.4 million in 2006 (
Federal Republic of
Nigeria,
200
7
)
.

Nigeria is multi
-
ethnic and multi
-

religious with over 250 different languages living
side by side. Its diversity implies different ways of doing things and different responses to
innovations and possibly sustainability since cultures, values and attit
udes are likely to differ.








9


Table 1:
Agro
-
ecological Zones of Nigeria with some Climatic Characteristics


Natural Resources Institute (1995), Renewable Resource Profile of Nigeria, Chatham, U.K

2.0
DIAGNOSI S AND
PROBLEM

ANALYSIS


2
.
1

Review of
Policies, Strategic Frameworks, Budget and Implementation
Mechanisms

2
.1
.1

Assessment of SLM Enabling Environment

The third phase of the NFDP evolved from the experience of NFDP II with a view to
protecting the environment and hence the use of SLM
approaches. SLM, Sustainable Land
Management, is a new concept developed for successful implementation of the NFDP III. The
concept uses SIP (Stakeholder Investment Program) approach which is an innovative program aimed
at improving income and reducing pov
erty among Nigerians and consequently achieves a
sustainable land use d
uring NFDP III Implementation. T
o implement this programme
,

it is important
to first recap policies, institutions, technologies and knowledge management systems so that
the
pro
gramme

ca
n fish out the barriers that have hindered the successful implementation of an
effective SLM in past programmes.



10


2
.1
.2

Nigeria’s Environmental Problems

Nigeria is among the sub
-
Saharan countries that have suffered severe destruction of their
natural
ecosystems and would continue to worsen if appropriate policies and actions are not put in
place. This implies that the root causes of these problems need to be identified and critically
examined so that pragmatic solutions are offered. A number of studies

have been carried out in the
past by both local and international agencies and various governments

and non
-
governmental
bodies
have implemented different policy approaches with varying successes and experiences. But
what is important is the realization th
at a lot needs to be done at individual household, community,
local, state and national

levels
.

Nigeria being the most populous country in Africa is endowed with both human and natural
resources that can serve as a catalyst for rapid development. However,

it has remained among the
poorest with majority of its people living below the poverty level. This is largely associated with the
problems of lack of good governance and political instability which have hindered the harnessing of
its enormous potentials.

Majority of Ni
gerians may continue to be poor

if the current trend
continues. This is likely since most of its people live in rural areas where livelihood is dependent on
the exploitation of limited and dwindling natural resources, hence the need for more effective
strategies.
Adeyinka
et

al

(2005)

h
ad
summarized the critical environment problems facing
Nigeria
which include:

(a) Sheet erosion

(b) Gully erosion

(c) Coastal and Marine erosion and land
subsidence occur particularly in the coastal areas

(d) Flooding occurs throughout Nigeria in three
mai
n forms; coastal flooding, ri
ver flooding and urban flooding
(e) Drought and Desertification

(f) Oil
Pollution from spills, oil well blow
-
outs, oil ballast discharges and improper disposal of drilling mud
from petroleum prospecting have resulted in problem
s such as: the loss of the aesthetic values of
natural beaches due to unsightly oil slicks; damage to marine wildlife, modification of the ecosystem
through species elimination and the delay in biota (fauna and flora) succession; an
d decrease in
fishery re
sources
(g) Urban

Decay and Squatter Settlements
(h)

Industrial Pollution and Waste
(i)
Municipal Solid Waste

(j) Concrete Jungles/cities

(k) Loss of Fauna and Flora
(l) Climatic
Change/Ozone Layer Depletion
.

Nigeria also has had to contend with global
environmental issues such as climatic change or
global warming due to the increasing concentrations of atmospheric warming or green house gases
(GHG), especially carbon dioxide (CO
2
) whose concentrations have increased from 280 parts per
million (PPM) in t
he 1800s to about 380 parts per million (PPM) now.

In response to the aforementioned problems Nigerian governments have over the years
brought out strategies in form of decrees or edicts to deal with these realities. They have also signed
a number of inte
rnational trea
ti
es and declarations
on the protection of the ecosystem, sometimes
receiving support or grants from international bodies.

2
.1
.3

Environment related policies and activities in Nigeria

According to Ivbijaro (2006) a society is ecologically su
stainable when it conserves ecological

life
-
support system; conserves biological diversity; ensures that the uses of renewable resources are
sustainable, and minimizes the depletion of non
-
renewable resources; and keeps within the carrying
capacity of supp
orting ecosystems. It was therefore not surprising when in 1982, the government of
Nigeria established
a
fund purposely for the amelioration of ecological problems anywhere in the
country by an Act cited as the Allocation of Revenue Act, CAP 16, which was equal to 1% of the
federation account. By 1987, the government further strengthened the law when a Perman
ent
Commission on Ecological Problems Fund was created and in 1992 the value of the fund was
11


upgraded to 2%.
This led to the Federal Government’s interventions from 1999 where about 248
projects at a total cost of
N
70, 576,982,061 were executed with a vie
w to controlling land
degradation problems (FMOE, 2007). The EF has four sub committees (Erosion/Flood,
Desert/Drought, General Environmental Pollution and Oil Spillage and Industrial Pollution) and
involves eight participating ministries all under coordin
ation of NCEP.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA
, 1988
)

Prior to 1988, Nigeria had no concrete policy on the protection and preservation of the
environment.
With the passing into law, decree 58 of 1988, the Federal Environmental Protection
Agen
cy (FEPA) was established. It
s

main
functions are: p
rotection and development of the
environment, and environmental technology including initiation of policy in relation to
environmental research and technology
; advising the federal government on national environmental
policies and priorities and on specific and technological activities affecting the environment.


National Policy on Environment

(1989)

The coming into being of FEPA and its operations opened th
e minds of policy makers to
appreciate the relevance of environmental laws for any meaningful
progress
.
Consequently, the
national policy on environment was signed into law in 1989.
The goals of the national policy on
environment are to achieve sustainable

development in Nigeria, and, in particular, to
: (a)
Secure for
Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well
-
being

(b)
Conserve and use
the environment and natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations

(c)
Res
tore,
maintain and enhance

the ecosystems and ecological processes essential for the functioning of the
biosphere; and
(d
)
Preserve biological diversity and the principal of optimum sustainable yield in the
use of living natural resources and ecosystems.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Amendment Act
, 1992


The national policy on environment was an improvement over FEPA which was silent on
natural resources conservation and management (
Ivbijaro, 2006) and the integration of the Nigerian
envir
onment into national development. It mainly focused on the aspect of environmental pollution
and management. Therefore the federal government amended the decree in 1992, enlarging the
responsibility of FEPA to include conservation of natural resources and
consequently, the National
Resources Conservation Act was repealed.
Even at this point FEPA did not sufficiently address the
integration of environment into the nation’s development agenda.

1999 Amendment of FEPA and the Creation of Ministry of Environment


With the increasing awareness of the importance of a healthy environment as the bedrock
of any sustainable development, governments of Nigeria have taken a number of steps for
improvements.
Th
ese

include the establishment of an Environmental Statistics Office in 1992 under
th
e Federal Office of Statistics;
Data and Information Management Unit under FEPA in 1993/1996
supported by the World Bank Environmental Management Project
;

and National Data Ba
nk Unit on
Environmental Statistics in the National Planning Commission in 1996 which was later transferred to
the Federal Office of Statistics (
Adeyinka
et

al
,

2005
). By 1999 the FEPA Act was amended to include
the protection and development of the Niger
ian environment
, biodiversity conservation, and the
sustainable development of Nigeria’s natural resources. Consequently, a full
-
fledged Federal
Ministry of Environment was created in June 1999.


12




National Environmental Standards and Regulatory
Enforcement Agency Act (2007)
:

This Agency is charged with the responsibility of enforcement of laws, guidelines, policies
and standards on environmental matters. Other functions also include environmental audit,
establishment of data bank on regulatory an
d enforcement mechanisms and provision of
environment education.

Other Federal Government initiatives on the environment

i
-

World Bank Report (1995)
:

entitled “Defining an Environmental Development Strategy for
the Niger Delta” which examines the major obstac
les to sustainable development in the
Niger Delta and prop
osed strategic options for over
coming them

ii
-

Vision 2010 Report (1997)
:

emphasized the integration of environmental management into
economic policies planning and decision making

iii
-

MDGs: In the year 200
0, members of the UN adopted the Millennium Declaration as a
renewed commitment to human development. Among the eight goals, two are critical to the
environmental health i.e MDG 1 and MDG 7, which refer to eradicating extreme poverty and
hunger and ensure
environmental sustainability, respectively. Nigerian government has
evolved policies towards the achievements of these goals.

iv
-

NEEDS (2005)
:

propose
d

to address waste production and disposal, deforestation,
conservation of unique habitats
,

pollution and ot
her problems by establishing regulatory
agency to enforce environmental laws, monitor industry compliance, conduct environmental
audit, impact assessment and set standards

v
-

National Forest Policy (2006)
:
The policy was developed through a broad based multi
-
stakeholders discussion in all geo
-
political zones through bottom
-
up approach. The new
Forest policy thrust was i) greater community and civil society participation in forestry
development ii) involvemen
t of communal forest owners in management decisions iii)
participatory and benefit sharing arrangements in the management of natural forests iv)
tree tenurial rights on private holdings and v) private sector participation and investment in
forestry develop
ment. The main objectives of the new National Forest Policy was i) to
achieve sustainable forest management ii) to ensure sustainable increases in the economic,
social and environmental benefits from the forests for the present and future generation
and i
ii) to increase forest cover from the present 10% to 25% of the total land areas of the
country. However, in spite of this declaration, the Nigerian forests continue to be depleted
due to lack of enlightenment and enforcement.

vi
-

Federal Government Policy on

Biodiversity
:
The Federal Government policy goal on biological
diversity which takes into consideration the relevant provision of the Convention on
Biological Diversity, is geared towards conservation of this vital resources, the sustainable
utilization o
f its components and the equitable sharing of benefits derived therein. Towards
achieving this goal, priority programmes of expansion of the network of National Parks and
Reserves as well as the compilation of flora and fauna of Nigeria are being pursued i
n
addition to the development of a National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological Diversity.

vii
-

Action Plan on Water Pollution Control:
In an attempt to pursue sustainable use of the
nation’s coastal water and the adjacent land, the Government put in place

an Action Plan on
water pollution control and biological diversity conservation in the Niger Delta area of the
country. Internationally, collaborative efforts are made with the West African sub
-
region
13


under the Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem (GOGLM
E) Project aimed at monitoring
coastal water in terms of pollution and biological diversity conservation. Apart from this
project, measurements of some meteorological parameters over the Atlantic Ocean
bordering the country are being taken by relevant agen
cies
.

viii
-

The Federal Ministry of Environment has identified about 80 Desk
officers
located in the
Ministry's Technical Departments/Parastatals/Field Offices and State Environment
Ministries/Agencies nationwide. It is intended that these Officers will facilita
te the collection
and dissemination of environment data/information nationwide. These Officers will also
work in collaboration with the Field Officers of the Federal Office of Statistics in respective
States

(Adeyinka
et

al
, 2005)
.

Table
2
: Capacity Assess
ment of Land Related Institutions

Institutions

Existing SLM
Capacities

Weakness
es

Strengths

Capacity
building needs

Federal
Ministry of
Agriculture and
Water
Resouces
.

It is the host
Ministry for the
National SLM
committee.


Low level of
government
funding.

SLM may not get
the desired
priority since
several other
programmes are
being
implemented at
the same time.

The Ministry
has appreciable
Database on
the Nation’s
land resources.


Training of
policy makers
and
professionals
on best
approaches to
pr
omote SLM
.


Federal
Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development
.

It is the host
Ministry for
Departments of
Forestry; Erosion,
Flood control and
Coastal zone mgt;
Pollution control;
Environmental
assessment; and
Drought and
Desertification
.

I
nadequate
Database
remains a major
constraint on
policy
formulation and
project planning
in natural
resources
conservation.

Insufficient
budgetary
allocation and
untimely release
of the funds.

Grossly deficient
The
Ministry
has competent
and skillful
personnel to
implement the
programme.

The programme
is part of Mr
President’s 7
-
point Agenda.

The Ministry
has well
articulated

environmental
laws.

Training of
policy makers
and
professionals
on best
approaches to
promote SLM
.


14


in the area of
Extension/Field
workers
.


NEPAD

A member of the
Nigeria SLM
Committee.

Involved in
facilitation and
coordination as
NEPAD was in the
vanguard of
conceptualization
of SLM under
TerrAfrica
Initiative.

Lack of adequate
support from
Federal, States,
Local
Governments

and
Communities.

Acceptance by
International
Partners to
support the
scaling up of
SLM in Sub
-
Saharan Africa.

Improvement
on their
existing
investment
plans for the
country
through better
understanding
of how the
country
operates.

State Ministries
of Env
ironment,
Agriculture,
Local
Governments,
ADPs/Fadama
Projects
.

Responsible for
the management
of forest and land
resources
including grazing
reserves, dams,
etc.

Government
funding is not
adequate.

Lack the
necessary
support to
enforce a
friendly use of
t
he
environment
.

They have the
statutory
mandate to
control the use
of the land
resources.

Policy makers
need to be
aware of the
trend in the
extent of LD.

Funding should
be increased.

Technical
officers and
other field staff
should be
trained on how
to
translate
SLM packages
to
communities.

Agricultural
Research
Institute
(NARIS). About
18 in number
with a national
mandate for
Four of the NARIS
deal with forestry
and tree crops, 3
with livestock, 2
with fisheries, 6
with arable crops
a
nd one each
Low level of
government
funding. For
example, their
budget
altogether was
US$18 million
Employed more
than 1,000
researchers.


Their funding
needs to be
increased.

Should be
supported to
share
knowledge
15


enterprise
specific
research while
5 of them have
tasks of linking
extension with
ADPS at Zonal
levels for
transferring
new
tech
nologies to
farmers.

The NARIS are
administered
through DAS
and
Coordinated by
the newly
formed
Agricultural
Research
Council of
Nigeria (ARCN)
.

with extension
processing and
storage
.


(1990) which
was 0.12% of
agricultural GDP
as opposed to
the
recommended
2% for
developing
countries The
situation i
s not
different now.


through media
like websites,
publications,
etc.


Faculty of
Agriculture
from Nigerian
University also
undertake
some
researches that
are SLM related


They have the
mandate of
carrying out
research and
extension
activities. They
have large body
of manpower.


Inadequate
funding to carry
out researches.
They have an ad
-
hoc participation
arrangement in
researches due
to
mean
institutional
links between
NARIS and
Universities.


They have well
trained
scientific
manpower
worth
harvesting for
collaborative
research
efforts
.

Strengthen
institutional
links and
mechanisms to
develop long
term research
thrusts.



International

Agricultural
Research
Centres (IARCs):

These are
Various soil and
water
conservation
techniques, Agro
-
forestry and other
Lack of basic
facilities like
electricity an
d
water pose
operational
They have
generated array
of technologies
most of which
have been
Provision of
social
infrastructure

and security
.

16


supported by
CGIAR. These
organizations
include IITA,
ICRISAT, ILRI,
etc
.

SLM practices.

constraints to
these
organizations.

There is also
inadequate and
uncertain
funding from
donors side by
side lack of well
articulated
formal
mechanisms for
coordination in
the country.



successfully
adopted by
farmers.


2
.1
.4

Land Degradation in Nigeria


According to FAO
(
1991) land degradation is defined as the loss of resilience of land,
that is, the loss of the ability of the land under a particular form of land use to withstand, or
recover from shock or stress by itself without external assistance. Land can be defined i
n a
general sense as involving all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below the
terrestrial surface, including those of the near
-
surface climate, the soil and terrain forms,
the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes, and

swamps), near
-
surface
layers and associated groundwater and hydro
-
geological reserve, the plant and animal
populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human
activity. They all suffer from one from of degradation or a
nother though to varying degrees
in Nigeria. The most commonly noticed and whose impact is easily reflected on production
is the soil degradation.
In Nigeria, human
-
induced soil degradation is a common
phenomenon (Junge
et

al
, 2008). Its severity is light
for 37.5% of the area (342,917 km
2
),
moderate for 4.3% (39,440 km
2
), high for 26.3% (240,495 km
2
), and very high for 27.9%
(255,167 km
2
) (FAO, 2005). Soil erosion is the most widespread type of soil degradation in
the country and has been recognized for a
long time a
s a serious problem
. In 1989, 693,000
km
2

were already characterized by runoff
-
induced soil loss in the south and 231,000 km
2

were degraded, mainly by wind erosion, in the north. Sheet erosion dominates all over the
country, whereas rill and
gully erosion are common in the eastern part and along rivers in
northern Nigeria (Ologe 1988; Igbozurike

et

al
.,

1989).

Land degradation has been a major global issue during the 20
th

century and will
remain high on the international agenda in the 21
st

cen
tury because of its adverse impact on
17


agronomic productivity, the environment, and its effect on food security and the quality of
life (Eswaran,
et

al
., 2001). The mechanisms that initiate land degradation include physical,
chemical, and biological process
es (Lal, 1994). Important among physical processes are a
decline in soil structure leading to crusting, compaction, erosion, desertification,
anaerobism, environmental pollution and unsustainable use of natural resources. Significant
chemical processes inc
lude acidification, leaching, salinisation, decrease in cation retention
capacity and fertility depletion. Biological processes include reduction in total and biomass
carbon, and decline in biodiversity (comprising concerns related to eutrophication of sur
face
water, contamination of groundwater, and emissions of trace gases (CO
2
, CH
4
, N
2
O, NO
2
)
from terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere). Soil structure is the most important
property that affects all the three degradation processes (Eswaran,
et

al
., 2001).


Despite Nigeria’s huge resources it has remained politically and ecologically very
fragile. Increasing desertification and sahelisation threatens the feeding of the people.
Natural resources decrease in the north of Nigeria and sea level at her tropical s
outhern
coast is rising. In the long run this may lead to internal migration and conflicts over the
shrinking reso
urces (fertile soil and water).
Figure 1 shows the different types and causes of
land degradation in Nigeria (FAO, 1991). Among the different
types of land degradation,
there are four major underlying causes, which are land pressure, drought, soil and
government policies.

18




Figure 1:
Causes of Land Degradation in Nigeria




















Land Degradation


Gully erosion

Rangeland
degradation

Declining soil
fertility

Soil alkalinity and
salinity

Wetland

degradation

Soil physical
deterioration

Coastal erosion

Deforestation

Flooding/siltatio
n

Wind erosion

Sheet erosion

Poor
road
desig

Inadequ
ate
drainag

Cult.
on
steep
slopes

badly
aligned
footpat
hs

Overstock
ing

Bush
burning

Destructi
on of
tree
cover

Destruction of
catchment
vegetation

Destruct
of
urban
drainage

Inadequa
te
coastal
protect

Clearing for
agriculture

Exploit
timber and
fire wood

Bush
burning

Inadequa
te on
-
farm
conserva
tion

overgrazi
ng

Destruction
of tree
cover

Shortene
d bush
fallow

inadequate
supply of
fertilizers

impoverished
soils

Inappropriate
irrigation

Cultivation
practices

Inadeq
uate
farm
conserva
tion

over
-
exposure

o rain
splash


soil
capping
and
compact
i

overgrazi
ng

Clearing and
drainage for
agriculture

Dam
construction

Irrigation
devpt

Vegetation
destruction

inadequate
coastal
protection

Inappropriate
cultivation
practices

Depletion of organic matter
during cultivation

Destruct
of tree
cover

Destruct
of veg

cover

Inadequate
on
-
farm
conservat

Increasin
g aridity

Intensive
cultivation

19




Impact of Land Degradation in Nigeria

Crops

Erosion, flood, drought and desertification are resultant effects of land degradation, which
confer a
negative effect on crop production by rendering previously cultivated land non productive.
This further reduces the availability of cropping lands thereby compelling the growing population to
step
-
up the usage of land including marginal land and consequent
ly aggravating the land
degradation problem.

Also
Fallow periods throughout the country experienced a reduction ranging
from 40 to 60% due to high cost of bush clearing for agricultural purposes and due in part to
population pressures on the land.

Drought

and desertification

Nigeria records desertification as the most pressing land degradation problem in northern
parts. Evidently, gradual shift in vegetation from grasses, bushes and occasional trees to grass and
bushes and in the final stages expansion of
desertification like

sand
dunes
is true manifestation of
this menace impacting negatively on environment, economic and social endeavors of humans.
Desertification affects about 397,222 Km
2
, representing about 5
0

to 75% of the land mass of the
Northern Stat
es of the country. These states have about 35 million people accounting for about 35%
of the country’s land area (FMOE, 2002). Similarly, it was projected in 2004 that it affect
ed

about 43
million people occupying about two
-
fifth of Nigeria’s total land ma
ss of 923,77
0
Km
2
. This
phenomenon is said to be aggravated by population pressure, over stocking of animals and over
exploitation of marginal lands among human induced factors in addition to climatic factors.

Livestock, Rangeland and Grazing Reserve

Land d
egradation makes the green pasture to shrink and
is
further heightened by the
encroaching croplands. This accounts for increasing pressure on natural rangeland resulting to
overstocking, overgrazing and consequently to environmental degradation and its att
ending farmer
-
pastoralist conflict.

Nigeria is losing 3
,
510km
2

of rangeland and crop land to desertification each
year. And while Nigeria’s human population grew from 33 million in 1950 to 132 million in 2005, its
livestock population grew from rou
ghly 6
million to 66 million (a

1
0

fold increase). The forage needs
of Nigeria’s livestock population exceed the sustainable yield of Nigeria’s grasslands.

Forestry, Wildlife and Natural Resource

Over the years, Nigeria has experienced incessant land degradation

activities such as bush
burning, overgrazing, local wood cutting and commercial timber logging. These activities affected
about 50 to 75% of the land mass of the Northern States of the country, representing 397,222
square kilometers and about 43 million p
eople occupying about two
-
fifth of Nigeria’s total landmass
of
9
23,77
0

square kilometers were affected based on 2004 projection (FMOE, 2007). Evidently,
Nigeria was one time covered with about 92,000 ha (a quarter of Nigeria’s land) in forest, but only
abo
ut half now remain (NPC, 2005). Similarly, this phenomenon further accounts for extinction
among important wildlife species in most of Nigeria’s game reserves.

With increasing deforestation,
wildlife habitats are destroyed because the animals are exposed t
o increased threats from hunters
and hunger, as plant resources decline. Otegbeye and Otegbeye (2002) reported that honey
production has declined in some farming communities in Katsina state due to the disappearance of
forest tree species. Famuyide
et

al

(
2000) reported that in the Okomu forest reserve in Edo state
about 12.2% of the rural community depend on mushroom and snails as food while over 34.4% of
them consume forest fruits as part of their habit.

20


Water Resources

Lack of comprehensive plan for fr
esh water resource management accounts for water shortage,
pollution and the corresponding crises on human health and viability of the ecosystem. Water is a
very important resource of socio
-
economic development of most especially people of the Nigeria’s
dr
y land.

The Lake Chad was at a time the fourth largest fresh water body in Africa supplying water
to more than 10 million people in 1960s within an area of more than 26,000 km
2

but
had shrunk to
1,500 km
2

by 2000. Additionally, the diminishing fish population in the lake has accelerated
overgrazing
of animals in the bush and this has endangered their existence.

Energy

Literature reveals that over 70% of Nigerian population depends on fuel

wood

used for dom
estic
and cottage industry purposes. Fetching firewood
is
mostly the responsibility of women and young
children in Nigeria. This phenomenon affects child
-
rearing responsibility and denies children
opportunity
of
acqui
ring

education. More so, predominant us
age of inefficient cooking methods
further aggravate
s

the land degradation problem
by
increasing the fuel wood consumption far above
the replenishing rate.

Table
3
: Consumption of Fuelwood and other Primary Fuel Alternatives (1998)

Fuel type

Consumption
(t
ones/yr)

Consumption in
energy units (toe)

% consumption of
energy (energy
content)

Annual
consumption per
capita (kg/capital)

Fuelwood

43,300,000

16,454
*10
6

92.2

461.18

Household
kerosene

1,266,370

1,304*10
6

7.3

13.49

LPG

66,046

0.07*10
6

0.4

0.70

Coal

18,100


0.1

0.19

Source: Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN); toe = tones oil equivalent

Socio
-
Economic

Poverty

In Nigeria about 70% of the population had income of less than 1$ a day in 1999 which has
worsen since then (National Planning Commission
, 2005). Land degradation results in rapid draw
down of natural forests which leads to wood scarcity and increase in price (Otegbeye and Onyeanusi,
2006). It is very clear that there is a vicious cycle of land degradation and decrease in quality of life
or

poverty. The group most hit by environmental degradation is the very poor,
who are

likely to do
more harm to the environment in their desperate attempt to survive. Unfortunately, as the
environment degrades, the poor becomes more vulnerable and the cycle
goes on and so on.
However, despite various efforts by governments this destruction has continued unabated. In some
communities, defaulters could use any means to fell down trees including the use of ‘Juju’
(witchcraft) against forest guards. What needs to

be done is to address the root causes of these
problems and make alternative sources of energy affordable and available. Other means of
21


livelihood should also be explored. It is only when these are done that the authority has the ground
to enforce the law
s.

Income

Land degradation reduces

sharply the opportunity derivable from natural resources particularly
for wealth creation and employment generation. In Nigeria, for example, the forestry sub
-
sector
provides a plethora of income opportunities for rural poor. However, the income generatin
g
opportunity seizes to exist with the incessant land degradation practices. It was estimated that over
70% of Nigerians live in rural areas and almost all households use fuel wood as energy
source,

placing the demand to about 43.3 million tons per year or

92.2% of cooking fuel in the country
(Energy Commission of Nigeria,
1998
).

Climate Change

It was observed from global temperature that on average, the earth has warmed up
substantially over the 20
th

century with large regional variation. Statis
tically an
alyzed data revealed
arise in global average temperature by 0.5
o
C over the past
100 years (Ivbijaro, 2006). In N
igeria,
evidence of climate change could be manifested on the
rise in sea level, changes in hydrology, shift
in the distribution of ecological s
ystems a
nd ranges of agricultural crops which c
onsequently,
exacerbate coastal erosion as well as salt water intrusion into coastal aquifer and other attending
crises.


2
.1
.5

Land Administration in Nigeria

Nigeria is endowed with vast amount of land whose distribution per capita varies from one
part of the country to another. In the northern part of the country land is relatively ‘abundant’
compared to the south, in particular, the south east where people li
ve in densely populated
communities.
This is why the pattern of land acquisition and control differ
s

across the country. Yet
,

land is the most important resource for any meaningful agricultural development. And because it is
scarce
,

it is pertinent
that it
s usage be done

in a sustainable way so that future generations could
have a land to live on.
However, sustainability is strongly correlated with ownership. Thus, the issue
of land tenure systems becomes paramount. Before 1978
,

there was no common law
a
cro
ss the
country. This could be why Gefu (
2003
)

and Imoudu (
2003
) reported several problems associated
with land tenure in Nigeria to include directly and indirectly related tenure problems which
include:
s
carcity of agricultural
land,
p
roblems of ownership
,

f
ragmentation of holding
,
i
n
-
alienation of land
,
p
roblems of
land
succession
,
a
bsentee ownership
,

l
and
insecurity/upheaval

and
g
ender biased
traditional tenure system
.

In an attempt by Federal government to remove the
above mentioned
barriers
it
promulgated the Land Use Act in 1978.

However, many observers believe that this act has
attempted to bring land under government control but
with limited success as a result of:
l
ack of
emphasis on land use suitability for SLM, d
ifficulty in implementing t
he terms of the act in situation
where ignorance prevails

and cumbersome procedure culturally contravening the c
ustomary tenure
arrangements
. Additionally, the Act was introduced without proper statistics about land categories
and their corresponding owner
ship structure.



22



Other L
and Related Policies in Nigeria
:

N
ational
A
gricultural
L
and
D
evelopment
A
uthority (NALDA)

The implementation of land development policy in the country was largely the responsibility
of a National Agricultural Land Development
Authority (NALDA) established in 1991. NALDA’s
mandate covered provision of strategic support for land development and the promotion of the
optimum utilization of the nation’s rural land resources. However, NALDA proved to be ineffective
and was subsequent
ly scrapped (Manyong et al., 200
5
).

2
.1
.6

Policies related to Agricultural development in Nigeria

Several programmes have been initiated and implemented in Nigeria with varying degree of
success. They were perceived with different agenda and objectives. T
he

most recent is
The New

Agricultural policy for Nigeria

which
dwells more on economic aspect of agriculture with little
mention of the policies that affect land. The NEEDS document identified land tenure as a constraint
that inhibits the acquisition of l
and for mechanized farming but emphasize
s

increase in crop
production by increasing arable land by 10% every year and protection of prime agricultural land as
its main policy thrust, instead of devising a means by which would

be farmers will have access an
d
right to use land.

Finally,
these government policies

have not elicited any change in the traditional land tenure
system. None of the strategies specified have been implemented and the problems associated with
gaining access to farm land still continue for farmers and would

be farmers
.

The Government has
als
o evolved through relevant agencies
such as the Special Program of Food Security (SPFS)
sound
planning and management of land resources in the country. Various programmes including soil
s
urvey, land evaluation, fertiliz
er testing, fertility management and
soil conservation are being
pursued with adequate consideration to their environmental implications.

Budget Implementation

The implementation of
these programmes
in the country is
being funded largely through the
national budget and, more specifically, t
he ecological fund which is 2% of the Federation's Account.
International partner agencies also provide some financial assistance.
These initiatives h
a
ve
also
been intensified through capacity building and institutional strengthening, promotion of public
e
ducation, awareness and training and establishment of data management and information centres

(Nigeria Country
Profile, 1997
)
.

In spite of the remarkable progress made, there are still substantial constraints to the
effective implementation of
these
programmes
. These include uncoordinated policies and legal
instruments, weak data base, inadequate enforcement, institutional conflicts, inadequate and
untimely funding, and lack of public awareness.

However, these issues are aggressively addressed in
Mr

President’s 7
-
point Agend
a which was launched in 2007.


2
.1
.7

Support by Donors and International Development assistance

The GEF, World Bank, UNDP, USAID, CIDA, DFID
, UNICEF, UNEP, UNESCO,

UNIDO,

FAO
,

ILO

and EU have continued to provide support to the G
overnment of
N
igeria

both at the local, state

and
federal levels to address key environmental issues of national and global importance particularly in
biodiversity conservation,

climate change, desertification and trans
-
boundary issues. Specific
projects i
nclude:

23



Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Programme
-
LEEMP
:

LEEMP is a 5
-
year funded programme obtained from International Development Association
(IDA) of the World Bank and the
G
lobal
E
nvironment Facility (GEF). LEEMP became effective in
Nigeria in 2004 with a credit amounting to US
$70
million
(
IDA)
and $8
.5

million GEF grant.

This
program is operational in nine states. It is designed to strengthen environmental management
capacity at f
ederal, state, local and community levels. It is also providing support in protected area
and biodiversity management in four protected areas and

their support zones. Funding has
increased to

$100 million through the

World Bank
to
cover the nine states whi
le the $8.5 million
grant from GEF is for the protected areas.

Major achieveme
nts include completion of about

1
,
194
micro
projects

on public goods
amounting to over
N
1 billion. More so, over 317
c
ommunity
formulated Community Development Plans (CDPs) have
been approved while over 540 CDPs were
reviewed by World Bank and estimated to cost about US$ 27 million.

F
adama

II Project
:

This is a World Bank funded project ($100 million IDA Credit), with $6.91 million co
-
financing
from the African Development bank
(ADB), a GEF grant of $10.03 million and $1.42 million

counterpart funding

from Nigerian Government
. The project
wa
s aimed at improving the incomes of
about 2.3 million rural households whose livelihoods depend directly or indirectly on low
-
lying
alluvial
flood plain (Fadama) resources in 18 of Nigeria’s 36 states. The GEF component of the
project is to enhance the productivity of fadama areas and the livelihood system they support
through sustainable land use and water management.

Integrated Management of
Natural
Resources in the Trans
-
Boundary
:

This UNEP/GEF/IBRD/UNCCD initiated project is aimed at enhancing biodiversity and
protection of shared natural resources in the cross
-
border area of Nigeria and Niger Republic. A
study was commissioned for the compi
lation of a state of the environment report of the trans
-
boundary area, for the implementation of the project.

Canada
-
Nigeria Climate Change Capacity Development Project

(CIDA)
:

The Project was initiated in January 2001 and completed in May 2004 with the g
oal of
strengthening Nigerian capacity to participate in global efforts to combat climate change. The
project focused on capacity building initiatives that assessed the risks evolving from climate change,
determined options for managing the risks, and stre
ngthened institutional capacities to ensure
implementation of recommended measures. To achieve these objectives, a strong public and
political awareness campaign was implemented. The project is into a second phase of
implementation with Nigerian (NEST) and

Canadian (GCSI
-
Global Chan
ge Strategies International Inc
)
NGO partners.

Cross River Environment
al Capacity Development Project
:

The project brings together four

Canadian environmental NGOs and two private companies
to partner with five Nigerian NGOs in
the area to strengthen the capacity of environmental NGOs
which in turn are instruments to support communities and community
-
based organizations in the
buffer zones surrounding protected areas in the state.


24


The European Union (EU)
:

The European Union (EU)

is funding projects worth about $8.3 million in the Niger Delta
region under its Micro
-
Projects Program. The EU interventions mainly cover the construction of
simple water and sanitation systems, small
-
scale village transport, school buildings, health
cen
tres

and income generation.

USAI
D/Nigeria

Program
:

Specific support to environmental objectives in the USAID/Nigeria portfolio is managed by
SO12
:

I
mproved Livelihoods in Selected Areas. Broad areas of focus for the SO include transfer and
adoption of
suitable production technologies; strengthening research and development capacities;
increased availability of production inputs, including fertilizers, agrochemicals, improved seeds and
planting materials; and, institutional and human capacity building. I
n particular, the SO’s Cassava
Enterprise Development Program (CEDP) and Maximizing Agricultural Revenue and Key Enterprises
in Targeted Sites (MARKETS) promote the use of improved management practices such as agro
-
forestry and other soil conservation meas
ures. The Sustainable Practices in Agriculture for Critical
Environments (SPACE) program addresses major threats to biodiversity and natural forest within
Cross River State, focusing primarily on the largest intact expanse of lowland rainforest remaining i
n
Nigeria.

The project is concerned with both direct threats, such as conversion of forests to agricultural
uses and unsustainable harvesting

of non
-
timber forest products, and indirect threats
(
institutional
and management conditions
)
. SPACE works at the
community

level to strengthen forest
management institutions and relationships to improve conservation and management of Cross River

forest resources. SPACE also helps farmers improve agricultural and agro
-
forestry practices, to
increase crop yields and

pr
omote a diversity of useful native species on existing agricultural lands
and forests.

The SO’s policy activities focus on the creation of an enabling environment to deal with
policy and regulatory issues related to

agriculture and natural resource managem
ent through
support of public and private sector dialogue; identification of trade

opportunities, issues and
constraints; development of a supportive and enabling policy and regulatory environment for
reform;

and support for development of effective laws a
nd regulations in the agriculture and
environmental sectors.



Nigeria
-
Niger Trans
-
boundar
y Ecosystem Management Project
:

The project was mandated to:

i)

Develop and harmonize joint policies on trans
-
boundary land and water management

ii)

Establish a sound databas
e and monitoring system

iii)

Develop improved marketing facilities and opportunities; and

iv)

Develop joint policy framework and management plans for SLM in Nigeria and Niger




Integrated Ecosystem Management Project
:

The main objective of this project is to
sustainably manage national resources in the trans
-
boudary areas in eight states (Borno, Jigawa, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara). The project
was funded by government of Nigeria and Niger and GEF provides US $10 million.


25




Green Wall Sahara Nigeri
a Programme (GWSP)
:

The project was proposed in Libya by ex
-
president of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo in 2005 and
launched in December, 2006. It was adopted by
CEN
-
SAD
and AU. The main goal is to combat land
degradation and desertification in the affected co
untries for SLM.

Its major achievement is the establishment of National Steering Committee. Its main activities
include baseline studies, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and production of a
comprehensive project document. The project has tripartite f
unding arrangement, with the 11
frontline participating states contributing 10% of their Ecological Fund share, 5% of Federal
Government’s Ecological fund share and mobilizing funds from organized private sector and locally
and/or internationally donor com
munity partners.


26


Table
4
: Policy Diagnostic Relevant to Environmental Issues

Policies

Recommended
Reforms

Relevant for
Ecosystem or Zone

Relevant to SLM

Stakeholder to
be mobilized

Recommendation
for inclusion

Re
-
orientation of Social
Services


Nigerian National
Volunteer Service Bill
(HB
41
), 2003
.




Reduced land
degradation
activities
/
practice
s

by youth
.




Economic
empo
wer
ment

of youth and
their
involvement in
agriculture.




Ministry of
Women Affairs
and Youth
Development
.







Forest/Forestry





HB
22

Shelter Belt
Project Bill 2003
.



National Forestry
Bill
.





Micro climate
modification and
reduced wind
erosion
.



Sustainable
management of
forest resources
.




Decreased wind
velocity and
lagging among
crops
.



Equitable
distribution of
benefits with
local
communities
.





Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development
.



Ministry of
Agriculture and
Water
Resources
.







Prices




HB
24

Guarantee
Minimum Price for
farmers authority
bill 2003
.



Reduced land
degradation
practices by
increasing
affordability to the


Incentive to
adoption of
improved
farming


Ministry of
Agriculture and
Water
Resources
.



Provision of
ade
quate storage
facilities to
minimize post
harvest loses and
27




Use of exchange
rate policy
.



Subsidy for
agricultural inputs.


use of
environmentally
friendly energy
sources
.


systems
.




add value to the
farmer product
for a better
market price
.




Budget Allocation




HB
25

Agriculture Bill,
2003
.




Increased
allocation to
agriculture and
other SLM related
sub
-
sectors for
reducing
environmental
degradation
.



Agricultural
development
and food
security.





SLM related sub
-
sectors to get their
budgetary
allocation directly
from source.




Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)




Revision of EIA
Decree
.




Increased
responsiveness to
contemporary
issues in
environmental
management.




Mitigation
measures to
particularly
vulnerable
groups.




Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development
.




Transparency in
execution of SLM
projects be
increased.




Land




Land property rights
and land

use
planning



Land
-
use decree
(1978)



Ensure orderly and
environmentally
-
friendly location of
business districts/
establishment in
agrarian


Easy access to
land and



Land
registration




Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development




Review
of
land use
can help to
simplify and
regularize access
to land for
farming.

28




communities





Dispute Resolution




Rule of law as
enunciated in the
presidential
initiative (7
-
point
agenda)
.




Prevention of
incessant hunting,
fishing, grazing
and other forms of
land
degradation
practices.




Decrease social
conflict in the
use of natural
resources
.






Ease the process
of land
registration.



Implementing
institutional
reforms that
define property
rights.




Environment




Reduce all forms of
environmental
degradation
.




Increase of
activity/ species
diversity of soil
flora and fauna
.




Increased crop
yield
.




Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development



Ministry of
Agriculture and
Water
Resources
.




Requires increase
in budgetary
allocation to
Ministry of
Environment with
a clear mandate to
take the lead in
environmental
protection
.



Drought/Desertification




National
Drought/Desertifica
tion bill



Proactive
management of
drought



Increased crop
yield



Early warning


Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban

29



systems
.

Development



Ministry of
Agriculture and
Water
Resources
.




Regulations



National
Environmental
Management Bill
.




Updating the
existing laws
.





Reduced land
degradation
practices
.




Ministry of
Environment,
Housing and
Urban
Development
.



30


3
.0
RESPONSES TO DATE

3
.1
Best
-
fit Practices/ Technological Packages
(
SLM Techniques
)

3
.1.1

Mulching

This practice involves the use of organic or sometimes synthetic materials to cover the soil
surface for a number of benefits which include reduced run
-
off, moisture retention, reduced loss of
soil, regulation of soil temperature, suppression of weeds, etc
. In Nigeria
different types of material
such as residues from the previous crop, brought
-
in mulch including grass, perennial shrubs,
farmyard manure, compost, byproducts of agro
-
based industries, or inorganic materials and
synthetic products can be used
for mulching (Lal
,

1990).

3
.1.2

Cover cropping

Some types of crops especially members of the legume family which usually grow fast and
prostrate have been found to be very useful in improving the soil quality. Examples include
P.
phaseoloides, M. pruriens,

Centrosema pubescens, Stylosanthes guianensis,
and
Phaseolus
aconitifolius
or the grasses
Pennisetum purpureum, Brachiaria ruziziensis,
and
Paspalum notatum

(Lal 1995a). Their dense canopy prevents rain drops from detaching soil particles and this keeps
soil
loss to tolerable limits, so cover crops play an important role in soil conservation (
Okigbo and Lal
,

1977; Lal
, 1978
; Ahaneku 1985).

3
.1.3

Improved fallow

Fallowing is still a common practice in some parts of Nigeria although the rapid population
inc
rease has led to the reduction in the years of fallow never the less where it is practiced a lot of
advantage can be derived when inter
-
sown with some beneficial crops.
Juo and Lal (1977) showed
that fallows with Guinea grass (
Panicum maximum
) provide much

organic matter to the soil. Shrubs
of woody plants such as pigeon pea (
Cajanus cajan
) are advantageous in improving the physical soil
conditions due to the penetration of their rootlets into deeper soil layers
(
Jaiyeoba
,

2003
;

Salako and
Kirchhof
,
2003)
.



3
.1.4

Agro
-
forestry (Alley cropping)

Agro
-
forestry is a collective name for a land use system in which woody perennials are
integrated with crops and/or animals on the same land management unit (Junge
et

al
, 2008). The
integration can be either in a spa
tial mixture or in a temporal sequence (Rudebjer
et

al
,

2001).
Several studies have been conducted by researchers in various parts of the country on alley cropping
with promising results. Trees or shrubs such as
L. leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium,
and
Senn
a siamea
are planted as contour hedges between strips of cropland with resultant reduction in soil erosion.
The reduction of soil erosion by alley cropping obviously depends on the spacing between the
hedges and the species. The 4
-
m spacing was adequate fo
r erosion control with
L. leucocephala
and
2
-
m spacing for
G. sepium
. The age of the perennials is also important as most species become
effective sediment traps about two to three years after planting (Lal
,

1990). Young (1989) attributed
the potential of
agroforestry as an erosion control measure to its capacity to supply and maintain a
good soil surface cover by the tree canopy and the pruning material. Another potential is the effect
of a runoff barrier when trees are planted across the slope. As the int
ensive rooting by the woody
31


perennials also improve the structure and infiltration rate of the soil, the amount of runoff and
hence soil loss are reduced.

3
.1.5

Intercropping/strip cropping

Intercropping is the system of growing two or more crop species
simultaneously in the same
field during a single crop growing season. For sustainability often the companion crop in the mixture
should be a legume because of its nitrogen fixing ability. In the typical Nigerian farming systems the
legume is shorter and sp
reading (e.g. cowpea) while the other crop is taller (e.g. maize). The dense
ground cover reduces erosion, lowers evaporation and increases water infiltration. The crops should
have different rooting profiles to avoid competition for soil nutrients and moi
sture, and should
mature

at different times
. An improvement over the traditional system is the use of
Strip
intercropping.
This is the growing of two or more crops simultaneously in different strips wide
enough to permit independent cultivation but narrow

enough for the crops to interact
agronomically. This system has advantages over the mixed intercropping common with the farmers.

3
.1.6

Minimum and No till

The increase in population and the changing attitude to agriculture has resulted in increased
intens
ification and mechanization of farming activities. Significant problems arise from the soil
tillage using heavy implements and animal traction which include soil compaction, erosion and
runoff.

Thus, because of the negative consequences of frequent tillage

in many tropical soils, there is
the new concept of reduced tillage i.e. minimum or zero tillage.
Minimum tillage describes a practice
where soil preparation is reduced to the minimum necessary for crop production and where 15% to
25% of residues remain o
n the soil surface (Morgan
,

1995). No
-
till or zero
-
tillage is characterized by
the elimination of all mechanical seed bed preparation except for the opening of a narrow strip or
hole in the ground for seed placement. The surface of the soil is covered by c