An Educated Client is a BAs Best Friend

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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μέρες)

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1

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

An Educated Client is a BAs Best Friend


Middle Tennessee IIBA Chapter

2

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Business Analysts (BAs) are trained in the science
and art of gathering requirements from clients and
stakeholders. However in many cases the clients
and stakeholders have no idea exactly what the BA
is doing. This can make the BAs job much more
difficult. Gathering requirements is much easier for
the BA knows how to ask the right questions and
the client knows how to provide the right answers.
This session will discuss techniques for educating
the clients to make the requirements gathering
process proceed much smoother.

Introduction

3

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc


The client would really rather tell you what she
wants and have you deliver the perfect result


MOST clients are sophisticated enough to know it is
not that simple


MOST clients understand they need to be engaged


MOST clients don’t understand the overall process
for building solutions and where they are involved


MOST clients don’t specifically understand the
requirements gathering process

The Client Perspective

4

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc


What are requirements?


What is my role?


How will you gather requirements?


How will I provide the requirements?


Am I done then? What happens next?

What the Client Needs to Know

5

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

What are Requirements?


Features (Product / non
-
functional)


How it looks, description


Size, color, strength


Look and feel


Performance (speed, capacity, reliability …)


Functions (Process / functional)


How it “functions” or works


How the deliverable interacts with the user


What happens first, second, third


How exceptions are handled

6

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

What are
Not

Requirements?


Opinions


“I think we are spending too much money on this.”


Project
-
related statements


“We should prototype this solution first.”


Assumptions


“The new software release will solve this problem.”


Out of scope


“While we are discussing reports, you should see the new
printer Joe has. We need one like that.”


7

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

What are
Not

Requirements?


Not the right role


“I may just be a user, but I think you should be using
web technology on this project.”


Too vague


“I want people to say ‘Wow’ when they see this.”


Unrealistic (not testable)


“This product needs to be able to run on the moon.”


8

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

What are
Not

Requirements?


Technology decisions


“Let’s use Oracle databases on this project.”


Ask questions to see why the technology is important


“Required” aspects, but not “requirements”


“We’re
required

to complete this project by May 31.”


“We are
required

to use Microsoft technology.”


Company policies and standards


Technical architecture


Constraints

9

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

What is My Role?


Customer / client


Sponsor


Stakeholder


User



It is important for people to provide input
based on their role


The BA must also understand roles

10

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Quick Role
-
Sort

Do these statements make sense?


User


“I can walk you through the process I use today.”


User


“We should use new web technology on this project.”


Stakeholder


“This feature is not worth the cost.”


Sponsor


“Send me the cost of this requirement.”


User


“We need a competitive advantage with this process.”


Sponsor


“I will describe the detailed process to automate.”


Stakeholder


“We need these reports before we go live.”


User


“I know this is a complicated change. It is okay to
extend the project by a week.”

11

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Techniques for Elicitation


One
-
on
-
one interviews


Group interviews


Facilitated sessions


JAD sessions


Questionnaires


Prototypes



Follow people around

How Will You Gather Requirements?


12

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc


Traditional bullet
-
statements


Use cases

How Will I Provide Requirements?


13

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

The “Perfect Requirement”


Concise


Stated in language that is easy to read


Complete


Does not rely on another statement to understand


Consistent


Does not contradict other stated requirements


Unambiguous


Open to only one interpretation

14

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Writing Requirements


May need to use specific legal wording


US Government may require “shall” to clearly denote a
requirement (instead of “should” or “will”)


Do not include design specifications


Avoid vague words


Flexible


Easy
-
to
-
use


Adequate


Minimum, maximum


Nice




15

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Writing Requirements


Example


Poor
-

“The system shall deal with user’s request for
information efficiently”


Better


“The system shall process each user’s request for
account balance information within one second for 99%
of all requests.”


Example


Poor
-

“The system shall facilitate priority requests
reaching the intended recipient quickly.”


Better


“The system shall receive requests for priority
routing, determine the shortest routing path, and deliver
the information to the intended recipient within five
seconds.”


16

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Use Cases


Define features and functions


Defined in terms of scenarios


“A user does an action and something happens”


Can be on note cards, spreadsheet, word
processor, tool, etc.

17

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc


“A student meets with his or her counselor.
Together they go over a list of all classes and
options. When they agree on a class, the student
can register online.”


“Some classes are only for honors students. These
must be marked as such, and only students who are
designated as being in the honors college can
register for them.”


“After a student has registered for his or her initial
classes, he/she has the option of changing his/her
mind. He or she can just log back onto the
registration system with his/her university id and
password to add, change and delete classes”

Use Case Examples

18

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc


Elicitation



You ask questions, I talk, you listen


Validation



You analyze, you ask follow
-
up
questions, I clarify


Specification


You document, you ask follow
-
up
questions


Verification



We all agree

Am I Done? What Happens Next?

19

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Elicitation


Elicit the requirements (using techniques described
earlier)


Put your findings in writing


Send back to the person for review
(Client)


Does not signify approval of requirements, only
that you represented interviewee input correctly


20

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Validation


… where the “analysis” starts


Consolidate the requirements


Rationalize the requirements
(Client)


Model the requirements
(Client)


21

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Specification


Prioritize the requirements
(Client)


Ensure traceability


Ensure testability


Create Business Requirements Report

22

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Verification


Conduct requirements review
(Client)


Obtain sponsor signoff on requirements
(Client)

23

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

How to Get an Educated Client?


Scheduling


Set expectations with clients and their manager


Make sure client has time to work on the project


Make sure client knows how many hours are
needed and when


Gain agreement with clients and managers


Coordinate all with project manager

24

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

How to Get an Educated Client?


Awareness


Basic overview for all, 1
-
2 hours


Training


Requirements gathering for super
-
users, one
-
day


Role
-
play requirements gathering interview


Clients practice asking questions


Clients practice answering questions


Practice writing traditional requirements


Practice writing use
-
cases

25

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

How to Get an Educated Client?


Modeling


Get client training so they can interpret


Accountability


Ask to sign all final requirements / use cases


Don’t sign if don’t understand / agree


Scope change


Make sure they understand the process for
changing requirements

26

LifecycleStep Project Lifecycle Process™

LC40.10C

Copyright
©
2003
-
2009 TenStep, Inc

Questions??