Chapter 2 Organizational and Business Context

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Copyright 2006
-

John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Chapter 2

Organizational and Business
Context

HCI: Developing Effective Organizational Information
Systems

Dov Te’eni

Jane Carey

Ping Zhang

Copyright 2006
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John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Chapter 2 sets the stage by giving the
context of HCI

6

Af f ective

Engineering

9

Organizational

Tasks

4

Phy sical

Engineering

7

Ev aluation

8

Principles &

Guidelines

11

Methodology

12

Relationship, Collaboration,

& Organization

10

Componential

Design

3

Interactiv e

Technologies

5

Cognitiv e

Engineering

Context

Foundation

Application

Additional Context

1

Introduction

2

Org &

Business

Context

13

Social &

Global Issues

14

Changing Needs of IT

Dev elopment & Use

Learning Objectives


Understand the difference between the levels
of individual, work group, and organization.


Define and discuss individual
-
level systems.


Defin
e and discuss work group

level systems.


Define and discuss organizational
-
level
systems.


Define and discuss inter
-
organizational
-
level
systems.

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Why study HCI?


To help make IS users more productive,


To help IS professionals develop more
usable and successful systems,


To enhance organizational effectiveness,


To provide researchers with cohesive and
cumulative knowledge for theory building,
and,


To apply this theoretical knowledge to
enhance real information systems.

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Organization of this chapter


This chapter sets the stage for the study of human

computer interaction (HCI) in organizations.


The levels of interaction (task, syntax, semantics, and
lexical) help to organize the different sections of this
chapter.


Tasks are categorized as structured, semi
-
structured,
or unstructured.


We introduce the various levels of systems which are
individual, work group, organizational, and inter
-
organizational.


HCI as a means for overcoming human limitations.

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Individual Level Systems

Customers
Self Service
Ordering systems
Recruits
Resume self
-
service
Benefits enrollment
Office Support Staff
Document preparation systems
Data entry systems
Customer service systems
Knowledge Workers
Computer Assisted Design and
Manufacturing systems
Systems development environments
Middle Managers
Decision Support Systems
Executives
Decision Support Systems
Executive Support Systems
Office Support Staff
Document preparation systems
Data entry systems
Customer service systems
Knowledge Workers
Computer Assisted Design and
Manufacturing systems
Systems development environments
Middle Managers
Decision Support Systems
Executives
Decision Support Systems
Executive Support Systems
External
Systems Internal Systems
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Individual Level Systems:

Office Automation Systems


Office Automation Systems
: Systems
designed to automate and support the work
of white
-
collar support staff members.
Interface consistency is critical to the success
of these systems.

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Individual Level Systems:


Document Preparation Systems


Document Preparation Systems
: Office
Automation systems that are designed to
support document preparation such as word
processors, presentation software,
publication software, and others.


Examples: word processors, spreadsheets,
presentation and desktop publishing
software.

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Document Preparation Systems (Multi
-
layer Model


task, semantic, syntactic,
lexical)


Tasks


Create useful, meaningful, and aesthetically pleasing
documents


Easy and accurate input


Management and output of unstructured data and some
structured data such as tables


Semantics and Syntactical


Documents or Files (open, save, print)


Blocks of text (cut, paste, copy, move, find)


Objects (pictures, tables, charts)


Tools (spell check, Thesaurus)


Lexical


Menus


Dialog boxes


Message boxes


Icons




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Document Preparation Systems

Figure 2.2 Screen shot of File Menu and text in Microsoft
®

Word
®


Figure 2.3 Screen shot of Edit Menu in Microsoft
®

Word

®

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Individual Level Systems:

Data Entry Systems


Data Entry Systems
: Systems used to
support the manual processes of data entry.
These systems are generally proprietary and
developed in
-
house specifically to accomplish
data entry tasks.

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Data Entry Systems (TSSL)


Task:


to support entry of data


to give the user control


to eliminate redundant entries


support natural navigation of the screens


Semantic:


save,


open,


update,


delete,


create, and


append.


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Syntactical:



Form fields:


Labels,


Text
-
boxes,


Check boxes,


List boxes,


Combo boxes,


Command buttons, etc
.


Lexical:


Short
-
cut keys


Tab keys


Mouse clicks


Interfaces that are easy to read and easy to learn.


Data Entry Systems (TSSL)

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Data Entry Systems

Figure 2.5 Screen Shot from a Self
-
serve Internet Order Form


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Individual Level Systems:


Customer Account Management Systems


Customer Account Management Systems
:
These systems support the management of
customer accounts. They may be purchased
as part of an “off
-
the
-
shelf” system.

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Task:


transfer funds,


make payments,


check balances,


apply for new accounts, etc.


Semantic:


Login


Retrieval of accounts


Payments


Transfers


Syntactical:


Submitting a parameter (like an account number)


Retrieving information


Lexical:


Mouse clicks


Keystrokes


List selection

Customer Account Management
Systems (TSSL)

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Individual Level Systems:

Decision Support Systems


Decision Support Systems
: Single
-
user
systems designed to support decision making.
DSS components include: database, model
-
base and user interface. The user interface
is critical to the success of a DSS.

Decision Support Systems (TSSL)


Tasks:


Sales forecasting,


Resource allocation,


Scheduling,


Routing,


Cost minimization,


Profit maximization, etc.


Semantic:


Problem definition,


Data selection,


Model selection,


Execution.


Syntactical:


Tables


Mathematical functions


Lexical:


Input
-

Q&A


Output
-

graphical format


Help

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Decision Support Systems

Figure 2.8 Sales Forecasting

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Individual Level Systems:

Executive Support Systems


Executive Support Systems
: Strategic
systems designed to support executives.
These systems give executives the capability
of viewing data from an aggregate level and
they allow “drill down” to the more detailed
level of data to help executives understand
the nature of the aggregate level of data.

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Executive Support Systems (TSSL)


Tasks: monitor the critical success factors


Semantic:


information retrieval


Find


Open


Extract


Summarize etc.


Syntactical:


SQL (Structured Query Language)


Predefined reports


Lexical:


Natural language interface


Query
-
by
-
Example

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Executive Support Systems

Figure 2.9 An ESS Interface

Task Nature

User Type

System

Organizational Concern

Interface Focus

Routine,
repetitive,

Highly
structured

Office support staff

Document

Preparation

Technology Acceptance

User Productivity

User Satisfaction

Document

Data entry staff or

Customer self
-
entry via
Internet forms

Data Entry

User Productivity

User Satisfaction

Flow

Trust

Technology acceptance

Data entry form

Customer service
representative
s or

Customer self
-
service via
Internet

Customer
Account
Managem
ent

Technology acceptance

Trust

Motivation to use

Account

Intermittent,

Semi
-

or
unstructur
ed

Upper or middle
-
level
managers

Decision
Support
Systems

Technology acceptance

Trust

Motivation to use

Graphs and charts

Executive
Support
Systems

Technology acceptance

Trust

Motivation to use

Graphs Charts

Visualization

Table 2.1 Summary Table for Individual User Level

in the Organizational Context


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Work Group Level Systems


Work Group Level
: Groups of people who
work together such as departments and
project teams.

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Work Group Level Systems:


Project Management Systems (PMS)


Project Management Systems
: Systems
designed to support the management of
projects. These systems include
mechanisms for decomposing large tasks into
smaller, more manageable subtasks. They
also include modules that help to manage
resources including time, labor, and money.

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Tasks:


Manage


Time,


Cost,


Resources, etc.


Semantic:


Activities,


Durations,


Dependencies,


Work break down structures.


Syntactical:


Rules


Cells


Lexical:


Similar to a spreadsheet.

Work Group Level Systems:


Project Management Systems (TSSL)

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Work Group Level Systems:


Project Management Systems

Figure 2.10 GANTT CHART and Work Breakdown Structure


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Work Group Level Systems:

Work Flow Management Systems



Work Flow Systems
: Systems that are
designed to manage the flow of work. These
systems include routing information (the path
that work follows from person
-
to
-
person or
department
-
to
-
department). Other
components of work flow systems include
version control and work specification.

Work Group Level Systems:

Work Flow Management Systems (TSSL)


Tasks:


Discrete activities


Computer operations


Rules


Semantic:


Workflow type definition


Activity


Transition conditions


Invoked application


Syntactical:


Symbols


Terms


Lexical:


Selection (drag and drop)


Build diagrams

Work Group Level Systems:

Work Flow Management Systems

Figure 2.13 Work flow diagram chart.


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Work Group Level Systems:

Group Support Systems (GSS)


Group Support Systems
: Systems designed
to support group processes including:
decision making, communication, meetings,
document control, calendaring, and others.

Work Group Level Systems:

Group Support Systems (GSS) Summary Table

Tasks


Duration


User type


Technical
staff

System


Work Flow
Systems

Organizational
Concern

Shared
Workspace


Interface
Focus

Tasks

Flow diagrams

Project
Management

Ad hoc

User reps

Project
Management
Systems

Group
Satisfaction,

Coordination,

Leadership,

Motivation

Work
Breakdown
Structures

Gantt charts

PERT charts


Managerial

Strategic
Decision
Making

On
-
going


Managers

Group
Support
Systems

Coordination,

Anonymity,

Leadership

Graphs

Charts

Organization

Charts


Table 2.2 Summary Table of Work Group Level in the Organizational Context


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Organizational Level Systems


Organizational Level
: These systems are
designed to support the entire organizational
entity and include communications, personnel
management, and organizational learning.

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Organizational Level Systems:

Communication Systems


Enterprise Communication Systems
:
Systems designed to support enterprise
-
level
communications including email systems and
conferencing systems
.

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Organizational Level Systems:

Communication Systems


Task:


Messaging


Threaded discussions


Chatting


Asynchronous communication


Calendar
-
related functions


Semantic:


Send


Open


Reply


Organize


Delete, etc.


Syntactical:


time and/or date related


Lexical:


Mouse
-
clicks


Keystrokes

Organizational Level Systems:

Communication Systems

Figure 2.15 Screen for Outlook Calendar.

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Organizational Level Systems:

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Systems
: Systems designed to support all
the functions and activities of an organization
including marketing, production management,
order fulfillment, accounting, personnel
management, and financial management.

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Customer relationship management (CRM)
systems enable organizations to better serve
their customers via software in contrast to
customer service systems (mentioned
above). The term
CRM

can be used to
describe either the software itself or the
whole business strategy.

Organizational Level Systems:


Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

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CRM

Figure 2.16 Customer recommendations from e’Gourmet.



User Type

System

Organizational
Considerations

Interface
Focus

Communication

All levels
and types
of users

E
-
mail
systems

and document
management
systems

Communication
effectiveness

Anthony’s pyramid

E
-
mails
Documents

Calendars

Personnel
management

Intranet
human
resource

portal

Locus of control

Forms

Announcements

Policies

Organizational
learning

E
-
training

Organizational learning

Training

modules

Functional
systems

ERP

Organizational
effectiveness and
efficiency

Reports and
data retrieval

Extra
-
organizational

CRM

Revenue generation and
customer service

Customer
service

Table 2.3 Summary of Organizational Levels

in the Organizational Context

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Inter
-
organizational Systems


Inter
-
organizational systems are those
systems that link companies with external
organizations (not individual customers).
Usually this link is a B2B (business
-
to
-
business) link between suppliers and
business customers.

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Supply Chain Management Systems

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Summary


This chapter is structured around four levels
of information systems: the individual, the
work group, the entire organization, and the
inter
-
organizational level.


At each level, various systems that support
the level are presented along with the four
levels of HCI (task, semantic, syntactic, and
lexical).