Levels of Maturity

horseheadssolidInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

10 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

122 εμφανίσεις

11/10/2013
1
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

Levels of Maturity

Tailoring Programs

to Facilitate Growth in Maturity of Youth

in the Stars and Stripes Program

By Edwin L. Young, PhD




The Natural Systems Institute

11/10/2013
2
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION IX

1.
LESSON 1 HOW LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6 ARE DEALT WITH IN
STARS AND STRIPES

2.
LESSON 2 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM:


PERSONAL MATURITY
FOR
STAFF TO ASPIRE TO

3.
LESSON 3 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM:


INTER
-
PERSONAL
MATURITY
FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO

4.
LESSON 4 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM:


MATURITY IN INTIMATE
RELATIONSHIPS
FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO

5.
LESSON 5 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM:
INTELLECTUAL MATURITY
FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO



6.
LESSON 6 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM:


SOCIETAL MATURITY
FOR
STAFF TO ASPIRE TO

11/10/2013
3
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LESSON 1 LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6

1.
Developmental Ages from Childhood through Late Teens Correspond Roughly to the
Progression through Stripes to Star

2.
Ages and Stages Evolve through Significant Structural Transitions

Over Time, as a
Result of Significant Life Events, in Relationships, through Roles, and within Social
Structures

3.
A Progression of Seven Potential Levels of Maturity

4.
A Person’s Level of Intelligence Limits the Probable Upper Range of Their Level of
Maturity

5.
Some Important Attributes Involved In

The Progression Through Successive Levels Of Maturity

6.
Level 1: Pleasure
-
Pain

7.
Level 2: Power

8.
Level 3: Rules

9.
Level 4: Loyalty

10.
Level 5: Principles

11.
Level 6: Individual Situations

12.
Application of the Concept of Levels of Maturity to the Stars and Stripes Program

13.
Characteristics of Progression through Stripes in Relation to Intelligence and Maturity
Levels

14.
How Age and Life Experiences Are Related to Progression in Stripes

15.
How Changes in the Self Take Place in Adolescents in the Institution

16.
Some Characteristics Typically Acquired During Adolescent Developmental Stages

Compared to Criteria for Progression in Stars and Stripes

17.
The Social Arts Learned in Stars and Stripes Program Features Correspond to the
Progression in Interpersonal and Societal Maturation

18.
Work and Recreational Activities Suited to Each Maturity Level

19.
The Heart and Soul of Stars and Stripes


11/10/2013


4

Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD 9
-
22
-
2002

1. Developmental Ages from Childhood through Late Teens
Correspond Roughly to the Progression through Stripes to Star

STAGES


Early childhood: initiates
enduring incorporation of the
Implicit Other. Play taking of
parent roles. Will competency
expansion through
spontaneous self selected
challenges.


Pre
-
teens: initiates increased
autonomy of will and
competency of skill. With
increased experimentation
comes accelerated mastery and
excitement and challenge and
also possibility of danger.



Early teens: initiates beginning
of emotional and territorial
independence from parents; re
-
orientation to peers;
establishing informal roles and
identities, complementary
relationship scenarios with
close friends.




Late teens and early adulthood:
initiates territorial and
emotional separation from
parents and moves toward an
independent belief system,
values, view of the world, life
style, economic self reliance,
vision of one’s role and destiny
in ever encompassing strata of
the world, and, culminating in
establishing enduring intimate
relationships and parenting.

STRIPES


Stripe 1. No runaway [AWOL] attempts

Controls verbal aggression

Controls physical aggression

Follows directions and rules

Respect for others ownership

Respect for property


Stripe 2. School behavior/grades

Social skills

Positive group member

Non
-
agitation

Controls horseplay

Basic self
-
awareness



Stripe 3. Problem
-
solves

Coaches

Encourages

Mentors

Patience

Problem
-
solves

Short
-
term goals

Long
-
term goals



Stripe 4. Shows positive leadership

Communication skills

Accepts success and failure gracefully

Assists in solving conflicts, Mediates

Endures unavoidable delays, hardships, setbacks

Has completed project benefiting others

5

copyright Edwin L. Young 9
-
22
-
2002

2. Ages and Stages


Evolve through Significant Structural Transitions


Over Time, as a Result of Significant Life Events, in Relationships, through Roles, and within Social Structures


Infancy: development of the
basic orientation of the Will
has the most pervasive effect
on the remainder of life.


Early childhood: initiates
enduring incorporation of the
Implicit Other. Play taking of
parent roles. Will competency
expansion through
spontaneous self selected
challenges.


Pre
-
teens: initiates increased
autonomy of will and
competency of skill. With
increased experimentation
comes accelerated mastery
with the excitement of
challenge and the possibility
of danger.


Early teens: initiates
beginning of emotional and
territorial independence from
parents; re
-
orientation to
peers; establishing informal
roles and identities,
complementary relationship
scenarios with close friends.



Late teens and early
adulthood: initiates territorial
and emotional separation from
parents and peers and moves
toward an independent belief
system, values, view of the
world, life style, economic self
reliance, vision of one’s role
and destiny in ever
encompassing strata of the
world, and, culminating in
establishing enduring intimate
relationships and parenting.


The impact of parents, parent substitutes, events, and setting structures on the infant up
through early childhood is to define for the child a fundamental sense of ‘I can’ versus ‘I can’t’. In
early childhood these same factors plus peer relations begin to define the child in terms of ‘I
should’ versus ‘I shouldn’t’. This orientation of restraint versus experimenting determines the
growth of competency, confidence, and satisfaction with self. From here through late teens,
status and identity of parents is a major aspect of identity formation.



In pre
-
teens there is increased exploration out of the sight
-
range of parents which is
accompanied by an ever
-
increased drive for autonomy and competency. This leads to the
increased possibility of mis
-
behavior and accidents. To curb the newly empowered will of the
pre
-
teen, parents invoke rules and imbue rules with an aura of absolutism. Rule oriented games
are played and spontaneous play begins to be governed by group initiated rules with arguments
and negotiations over acceptable rules. The will is being is being expanded but constrained by
and conformed to rules.


In early teens the influence of parents and adult authorities diminishes, ‘setting structures’
ascend, and peer relations and social roles begin to predominate. The former restraint versus
experimentation orientation reveals the power of its early influence in the face of expanding
territorial independence. The greater the earlier empowered will, the greater the territorial
adventuring. The insecurity of moving out into the strange adult world is overcome by mutual
dependency within a peer group. To have security, peers must develop a code of loyalty to one
another. What the group says now has to become the rule so the united power of the group
functions to back each other up. This paves the way for an evolving degree of independence,
strength, and self reliance of Will. Emotional security at this stage determines the extent to
which the teen develops social, intellectual, and physical competence. The initial assignment or
adoption of formal and informal roles shapes their developing character, preferences, and
behavior. Roles change frequently based on the expediency of the moment. At the same time,
with the fluidity of childhood carried over, and knowing adulthood is around the corner, they
engage in trying on identities. They eventually develop a degree of emotional independence
from the peer group. They begin to want to trust their own judgment, yet still needing their
judgment validated by others. These dynamics eventually work together to begin to crystallize
Identity. Dominance of rules and group loyalty is replaced with the necessity to use judgment
informed by newly developing awareness of consequences. As they develop a capacity for
abstract thinking they make the move to adopt general principles by which to guide their acts.


At this stage, identity reorients in that it becomes more shaped from within and is developed as
a counterpoint in relation to parents. Independence of will takes a surge forward and
encompasses knowledge, skill, traits, beliefs, values, preferences, style. Departing from the
ways of parents and peers and separating emotionally, territorially, and economically requires
the freedom and strength of will to envision one’s own future and how to prepare for it. Identity
is the launching pad for this great adventure. Life becomes more complex and demands the self
reformulate the bases for decision making. A transition is gradually made to learning to judge
each unique situation on its own merits and seeing exceptions even to principles.

11/10/2013

11/10/2013
6
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

3. A Progression of Seven Potential
Levels of Maturity


Level 7: Uses broader and deeper perspectives that


encompasses Universalism to evaluate choices for action


Level 6: Uses assessment of individual Situations as basis


for actions


Level 5: Actions are guided by conventional Principles of
living


Level 4: Actions are influenced by Loyalty to Peers


Level 3: Oriented to Rules laid down by authorities with the


understanding that the rules should be absolute


Level 2: Acts are Oriented to the Power of those in charge


or those with the most strength or leverage in bargaining


Level 1: Guided by immediate or anticipated Experience of


Pleasure
-
pain

THE CENTRAL LEADING PRINCIPLE, AT EACH LEVEL OF MATURITY, ON
WHICH THE PERSON’S CONDUCT OF THEIR LIFE IS BASED

11/10/2013
7
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

4 .A Person’s Level of Intelligence Limits the Probable Upper Range of Their Level of Maturity

Levels of Maturity

Levels of Intelligence

Very High

High

Above Average

Average

Below Average

Low

Very Low

Intelligence range

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Maturity range

Very High

High

Above Average

Average

Below Average

Low

Very Low

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

PROBABLE RANGE

11/10/2013
8
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

5. Some Important Attributes Involved In

The Progression Through Successive Levels Of Maturity

The Following Are Some of the Attributes that Either Phase in or Are Gradually Transformed

Over the Successive Ages and Stages Outlined in the Following Levels of Maturity


Focus of attention


Relation to objects


Relation to people


Relation to time


Degrees of differentiation of people’s characteristics


Role playing parental roles


Relation to own behavior


Strategies for coping, acquiring, and fighting


from physical to verbal


Relation to rules


Degrees of awareness of consequences


Internalizing parents


Relation to peers


Quest for mastery


Territorial expansion


Role playing heroes


Emancipation from parents


Orientation to one’s future


Expanded view of the world


Emancipation from Peers


Relation to the complexities of life


Abstract understanding of values and conscious prioritizing of values


Economic integration, life style independence, and self reliance


Relation to own family


Accepting dependents


11/10/2013
9
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

6. LEVEL 1: Pleasure
-
Pain

CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 1


Level 1 is typical of very young children and increasingly rare with increase in age.


If early life conditions were chaotic, neglectful, and devoid of nurturing, Level 1 persists
with aging.


Attention and focus of awareness is on the immediate, what can be touched, seen,
heard, smelled, as well as internal bodily sensations like hunger, thirst, elimination, and
physical pain and pleasure.


Time orientation is restricted to the present and immediate past and future. Schedules
are not internalized or observed.


Others persons are reacted to on the basis of whether they inflict pain or pleasure.
They do not take notice of whether the other is experiencing pleasure or pain. Others
are more like any other object except that they can inflict pain and they can give or take
what the person wants. The other’s wishes are not regarded.


Their actions are determined by immediate experiences or directed to, what among
immediately present objects, they want. Their memory is confined to stimuli that
produce pain or pleasure and actions to avoid pain or elicit pleasure. They do exhibit
curiosity, but explorations and experimental manipulations are not guided by a strategy
to understand or solve perplexities.


There is very limited retention of successful or unsuccessful patterns of action.


There is no awareness of their affect on others, nor do they intend affect other’s
feelings.


Decision making is more rudimentary and is rather limited to the prominence of
immediate stimuli from which to choose.


Their reaction to frustration is rage, screaming, or crying. Others’ attempt at controlling
them is met with the same frustration reactions.

11/10/2013
10
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

7. Level 2:

Power

CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 2


Level 2 is typical of early childhood and usually extends roughly from age two through seven or
eight. Orientation to power is influenced by parenting styles and manner of exposure to peers.


Attention and focus of awareness shifts to the ‘characteristics’ of people in the immediate vicinity.
The child begins to notice that avoidance of pain and frustration and access to desired objects has
something to do with interactions with the bigger people. Inhibiting some behaviors and exhibiting
others in the presence of and at the signals from these bigger people can make life easier and results
in more often getting what one wants.


Time orientation shifts to expectations of what may come next when one behaves in a certain way
and to anticipations of when the bigger people come and go and what they may do next.


Other people are differentiated into those who have the power to affect and control one’s life as well
as their power over peers and to the manner in which they execute this power.


They begin to store this knowledge of who has power and who does not and what influences the
actions of these powerful people. They begin to learn how to use this knowledge to manipulate
power figures in order to get and avoid what they do and do not want and even to manipulate the
power figures in relation to peers. They can hold intentions in check and inhibit behavior and make
rudimentary decisions among behavioral possibilities of relative advantage and disadvantage. They
can selectively exhibit and inhibit signs of frustration like rage, screaming and crying. They learn to
use behavioral and even linguistic signs to produce more favorable results from power figures.


Peers become possible rivals, allies, or enemies and they rapidly alternate between which of these
possibilities their peers will be for the moment.


They learn how to interact with objects to make them more interesting or pleasure
-
ful or less painful
and frustrating. They learn to manipulate objects to elicit desired responses from power figures.


They retain this information for future use and even combine behavior patterns and build upon them.


They experience intrinsic satisfaction or reward from creating new successful behavioral patterns
and this engenders a quest for mastery and its concomitant experience of satisfaction.


They begin to learn to induce cooperative strategies from peers and therefore begin to see peers as
people with characteristics. Discriminating between and using these peer characteristics leads to a
sense of social mastery.

11/10/2013
11
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

8. Level 3: Rules

CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 3


Level 3 tends to begin around seven or eight and extends to around twelve.


Having learned the satisfaction of intending and succeeding and acquiring a strong motivation for
unopposed mastery, this strong willed creature was subsequently faced with the more powerful will of
the big people.


On the one hand, the parents’ control is often backed up by the force of physical punishment and the
terror of booming, harsh voices. On the other hand, control is reinforced by pleasant consequences
when the ‘little will’ is enacted in approved ways. The child eventually becomes a expert at discerning
relevant signs from adults and differentiating between the patterns associated with different adults.


The adults take advantage of this knowledge by framing approval and disapproval for common
behaviors as ‘rules’.


This simplifies the child’s world so that he/she internalizes the rules and how to apply them to sets of
situations and behaviors. The control patterns of the parents, their rule dispensing traits, become
embedded in the child’s mind as implicit parents that are now portable. Wherever, he/she goes, in or
out of the view of the actual parents, the implicit parents invisibly and unconsciously maintain control
over the child’s will and behavior.


The child picks up the powerful and magical character of rules. At the same time, the child begins to
be able to transform the implicit parents, or rather transform himself into the parents, and is able to
play as though he/she were a parent. The child pretends to be or role
-
plays the parents, especially
this powerful characteristic of the parents of controlling through rules.


The child can now control the will and behavior of peers with rules like the parent does. This is a new
form of mastery that is felt not only as a great extension of power but also gives the child a powerful
sense of self or a sense of self that is very powerful and therefore extremely pleasant and reinforcing.


Now, when a peer does not act the way the child wants them to, he/she does not have to hit but can
invoke ‘the rule’. He/she can say, “You are not supposed to do that. That is against the rules.”


The parenting style of the parents will determine the way the child relates to itself in terms of
expressing or inhibiting behavior encompassed by the parents’ rule orientation. The child also,
similarly, relates to others with respect to rule related behavior. Furthermore, these processes
determine the way the child relates to “rule
-
ness” in itself and in general. For example, should parents
show hostility to rules and exhibit inconsistency, arbitrariness, and inconsistent but extremely harsh
consequences for rule breaking, the child will grow up with a tendency to focus on but rebel against
rules and as well as against rule dispensers, namely authorities.


Each parental style with respect to rules will show up in some manner in the rule orientation of the
child. This may likely stay with the child for the rest of its life.

11/10/2013
12
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

9. Level 4: Loyalty


Level 4 begins roughly around age 13, just as the youth is beginning puberty and has hit a spurt in growth, and
can extend indefinitely into the person’s future.


Most youths at this age have learned about rules but each has their own way of relating to rules. At this age,
and his physical size suddenly approaching that of the older youths, the youth develops an increased drive for
mastery. With the combination of age, hormones, and size, along with considerable experience exploring the
world, the youth feels the time is right to move farther beyond the supervision of adults. He is not sure enough
of himself to do this alone so he teams up with others his age. He joins or forms a peer group.


The surge for independence causes them to want to challenge and defy the rules of adults.


As the group begins to plan, adventure, and explore the world they find they have different ideas about rules.


Their awareness of consequences in this larger world is, however, still limited at this time.


Together, they take pleasure in engaging in risky and devious activities. They can demonstrate their power
without the constraints of adults and their rules. While they compete with one another and other groups in
showing off their mastery and daring, puberty also makes the male aware of the girls’ watching their feats
which tends to push them beyond their limits, while the girls’ watch and cheer or ridicule.


Finding that they can maneuver about the world demonstrating their power, yet aware of possible real danger
that they cannot handle alone, they bond together as an identifiable group. They feel increasingly powerful.
They develop their own rules and plan new challenges together. They envision possibilities of new triumphs.


During this phase, they learn the skills of cooperation and coordination that enable them to execute more
complex plans in the future with more fine
-
tuned timing.


To succeed, they must be able to count on one another.


Their adventures require that they must perfect the art of deception toward outsiders.


To operate efficiently, they have to parcel out roles so that they know who can and will do what, when,
especially when threatened and especially when they are temporarily separated from one another.


While the power of rules seemed magical at the earlier level, now it is the power of the prowess of the group.
With a few successes and their lack of knowledge of consequences, they are lead to feel invincible.


The ethos of each group is that their group is the coolest, smartest, most powerful, and most formidable.


While they assign each other roles, frequently changing circumstances demand that roles change quickly and
frequently. A hold
-
over of childhood imagination permits them to fantasize that they are the greatest in each
role. When they see heroes on the screen playing that kind of role, they fantasize that they are that screen
hero. This becomes a temporary identity and the exuberance that comes with each new identity is so prized
that any dirty dig about it, especially from outsiders, can start a fight. Insiders often play at digging each other.


Serious dirty digs, however, are to be used only toward outsiders and their use becomes a valued art in a kind
of verbal warfare that perpetually treads dangerously close to precipitating battles between groups. If a battle
is going to break out, they each must be able to count on being backed up by the rest of the group.



The extent to which this loyal in
-
group becomes antisocial and delinquent is a function of the structures of
the community, the institutions having responsibility over them such as school and police, and also parents.

11/10/2013
13
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

10. Level 5: Principles

LEVEL 5 begins after Level 4, however, there is no time table.

1.
For Level 5 to begin, there must be certain preconditions.

a.
There must be adult
-
minded people who know, understand, live by, can teach, and coach the youth about principles.

b.
There also must be some kind of consistent structure where choices requiring, or providing the opportunity to,
exercise principles exist and where correct choices are recognized and reinforced.

c.
The persons teaching and coaching must be available at opportune times to allow the youth to discuss principles and
the situations he faced or faces that did or could invoke the use of principles.

2.
Level 4 peer groups can have a code that is the opposite of recognized principles and yet the group members can feel
they are perfectly in the right to uphold their code. Moving beyond loyalty to their unprincipled group code and up to
principled living requires a major effort of will and strength of character that rejects the peer group code and usually
requires a major effort of mind to understand the rationale and abstract ideas entailed in each principle.

3.
Many youths are not mentally capable of this level of abstract reasoning. However,
if the youth is in an institution, for an
extended period of time, that is structured to
:

a.

Guide the youth to act with principled behavior;

b.

To provide recognition and positive feedback for adhering to and upholding principles; and, furthermore,

c.

Is designed to overcome the countervailing negative influences that could come from peer groups in the institution,

d.

Then the youth can learn principled behavior without having to understand the abstract reasons for the principles
.

4.
Some of the basic topics concerned with principles are: Honesty, Integrity, Fairness, Responsibility. Compassion,
Perseverance, Respectfulness, Cooperation, Civic Duty, and Courage.

5.
Youths
may

be able to make the move to Level 5 if they are fortunate enough to have either been brought up with these
preconditions or have been placed in an institution that provides a structure with these preconditions and does so in a
way that overcomes the influence of a negative home environment and a negative peer group in the home community.

6.
Furthermore, in order for these fortunate youths to rise to Level 5, they must be in an institutional program that facilitate
s
their own personal goals to meet the following internal conditions:

a.
They have to achieve an emotional emancipation from their parents.

b.
They also have to develop an emotional independence from their peer group.

c.
They have to want to learn to trust their own judgment.

d.
They have to:

i.
Move toward their own independent belief system,

ii.
Develop values that they own,

iii.
Develop their own view of the world and what ethical principles should be observed in that world,

iv.
Create their own life style,

v.
Establish economic self
-
reliance,

vi.
Have a vision of their future role in the world,

vii.
All of which culminate in establishing an intimate relationship with a life’s partner and starting their own family.

7.
When these internal conditions are met, they will feel and understand ethical dilemmas and the difficulty
of adhering to principles but also will more readily be able to appreciate and uphold their principles.

11/10/2013
14
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

11. Level 6: Individual Situations

1.
Level 6 does not usually begin to develop until the person passes over into young adulthood and enters the world of work
and family life. Principles could become a preoccupation in the in
-
between period, particularly if the person attends college.


2.
The conditions that prompt a move to a situation
-
oriented life, and particularly situation
-
based ethics, have to do with facing
real
-
life situations that can entail far
-
reaching and perilous consequences. These conditions are likely to arise when facing
relationship decisions that can do extensive damage to others in the short or long term. For example, if the person faces a
dilemma that entails: if you tell, you lose, if you do not tell you create a false basis for the relationship. Also, as a n
ewc
omer
in a company, these situations with ethical dilemmas will arise quite often. For instance there may be situations where, if
you take the decision to adhere to your principles you avoid a sense of personal culpability, but you also may put the health

of many people at risk. It is a matter of being able to take larger perspectives and put values on a priority scale.

3.
In the company workplace, the dedicated rule
-
oriented person is often seen as a buffoon. Yet, in a dispute between
management and employees, even principled people can resort to strict adherence to rules because they know that by doing
so they sabotage the company or bring work flow to a virtual standstill and force management to concede. In such
circumstances, one can usually avoid blame by hiding behind rule
-
based behavior.

4.
In another example, a situation could have to do with exposing the possibility of widespread harm that is nevertheless
difficult to detect. A close friend erred in decision making that caused the potential danger. It may be difficult to lay t
he
blame at your door if you adhere to the principle of non
-
betrayal of the friend who has erred. The principle of truth
-
telling
presents a conflict with the non
-
betrayal principle. In such a case the non
-
betrayal principle can easily be conceded to.
While truth
-
telling may expose the friend’s negligence and expose both the friend and you, as whistleblower, to the
possibility of losing your jobs and risking the welfare of your families. The alternative of withholding the truth of possib
le
danger in order to protect the friend may expose many people to danger. Many TV dramas have such dilemmas at the core of
the plot.

5.
The principled person’s fallacy in the workplace is not obvious. Principles can be used as a guise when, for instance, an
administrator of a large company’s employees health plan says it is a matter of principle to prohibit approving benefits for
necessary medical procedures even if the consequences are life
-
threatening. Yet, he knows, but for cost, the policy could be
changed. From opposite end of the spectrum, a physician may say that it is matter of principle to make sure that he gets his

patient a donor organ when to do so violates the policy of adhering to a donor list and ensuring fairness for all in need. H
e
faces the horror of either seeing his patient die or violating the policy. If he violates the policy, he does not have to se
e s
ome
other patient die. Hard choices! However, when looked at from the broader perspective, the value of maintaining fairness fo
r
‘all’, even those whom you do not see, outweighs the seemingly altruistic dedication to the ‘one’, namely yours.

6.
When one enters the world of family responsibility but also has an occupation, rules and principles that apply to either fami
ly
or company may conflict, leaving one in impossible dilemmas. In either case, principles may have to be suspended in favor
of values pertaining to larger scale issues. In one case one’s own family may be put at risk in favor of a higher value and
in
another case a whole company may be put at risk. The stakes can be very high. Such issues require being able to see the
larger picture and accepting the disadvantage on the smaller, more personal scale of one family or one company. The issues
can be quite complex.

7.
The social pre
-
conditions for being able to face these situational dilemmas are typically entrance to the larger context of the
adult world. The pre
-
conditions for facilitating facility at understanding these more fuzzy and abstract choices and resolving
them with the great moral courage they require are, primarily, having mentors in the organization who are of great moral
stature and wisdom.

8.
The personal pre
-
conditions are having gained a broad and deep understanding of the complexities of life and a perspective
on the possibilities for consequences that are socially and temporally far
-
reaching and therefore not immediately present to
the awareness of oneself. One may stand alone in such cases as others who are present with you may be only be capable of
comprehending what is visibly and immediately present. Standing alone in the midst of disapproval from co
-
workers, family,
or employers and having this broader perspective, understanding, and knowledge can make the conflict between competing
values on the two planes soul
-
wrenching.

9.
Making such decisions wisely and living with the personal costs can develop a very strong character.

11/10/2013
15
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

12. Application of the Concept of Levels of Maturity
to the Stars and Stripes Program


In applying of the concept of levels of maturity to the youth in the Stars and Stripes program, only the first five
levels will come into play. The goal is to try to facilitate each youth’s growth to as near Level 5 as possible.


The program is designed so that all youth are initially confronted with the demands typical of Level 3. Youths
will enter the program with different levels which can range from Level 1 through Level 6. The extremes of
Level 1 and Level 6 are improbable. Those youths who enter at the higher levels will advance through Stripes
more quickly. These youths are ideal candidates to take the pro
-
social roles of orienting, training, mentoring,
teaching and tutoring the beginners. They are required to do so in order to achieve the higher Stripes. Those
entering at the lower levels will take longer to achieve the first Stripes. When these youths reach the stage
where they are expected to orient and train, etc., they should be well prepared to do so. However, many will be
limited in their effectiveness if they are considerably below average in intelligence. They can be assisted in
these tasks by more proficient cohorts since maturity and character are more critical factors than intelligence.


All are exposed to program features that are typical of Levels 3 through 5 from the beginning. Therefore, when
they have to meet the criteria for higher Stripes, they already have had exposure to youths who have achieved
the higher Stripes and serve as models as well as trainers of beginners.


It is vital that staff as well as advanced youth are finely attuned to where the beginners are in terms of their
developmental maturity. As such, they can learn to target just what the youth is ready for in relation to the
criteria for the next Stripe. These skills can be modeled, illustrated, and taught by staff most readily through
Support Teams, Mediation Training, and Student Government.


Staff, however, can also be trained in
situational coaching

so that they can coach youths whom they perceive
to be having difficulty relating and carrying out tasks as the situation is occurring. Situational coaching
opportunities can occur in classes, in recreation, during competitions, at meal times, when rising and at
bedtime, while working on projects, during visitation with family, while performing work assignments, when
evaluating one another for promotions, while conducting or participating in ceremonies, on outings, when there
are visiting dignitaries, and on many other occasions.


When the program is working well, even youth who are having a hard time reaching criteria and taking an extra
long time will, nevertheless, not be stressed because they know that everyone is supportive and working
together for their success and all truly have their best interest at heart.


When youth attain their criteria and go through the promotions, they know that they have succeeded because
they incorporated and demonstrated the values and behaviors exemplary of the attained Stripe and therefore of
the related characteristics of maturity and character. The attained maturity and character then becomes
associated with their identity at each advance in Stripes and eventually is incorporated into their self
-
concept
and self
-
esteem to carry with them for the rest of their life, and especially when returning to home.

11/10/2013
16
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

13. Characteristics of Progression through Stripes in
Relation to Intelligence and Maturity Levels

IN SUMMARY


Residents come into Stars and Stripes with widely varying levels of intelligence
and maturity.


Each resident is going to progress at the pace of which they are capable.


Each is going to fulfill the successive pro
-
social roles with different levels of
proficiency in accord with the limits of their capacity.


Since Stars and Stripes is a community oriented program designed for mutual
facilitation and support of each other, residents can assist one another when
the demands of the role exceed their capacity, yet empower each other to reach
their capacity.


Since the mission of the program is facilitating each youth in development of
their judgment, maturity, and character, both staff and residents can join in the
cultivation of each other’s maturity and character.


While each resident may perform the prescribed pro
-
social role with different
degrees of proficiency, depending upon their inherent capacity, nevertheless,
all can reach the same level of care and dedication in fulfilling the respective
pro
-
social roles.


When it is clear that a youth has sincerely reached the point of genuine care
and dedication, consistently across settings, and seems to have truly
incorporated the spirit of the pro
-
social role, this is when promotion to the next
Stripe is in order.

11/10/2013
17
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

14. How Age and Life Experiences Are Related to
Progression in Stripes


Maturity and character are not only related to levels of intelligence. They are also
related to two other major factors.


They are related to the age of the resident. The younger the resident is, the more
likely it is that they should, on average, be less mature. Yet, level intelligence does
still remain a factor.


Life experiences also have a major influence. Youths whose parents or extended
family have put little effort into being good role models and have done little coaching
of the youth to cultivate his maturity and character will enter the program at a much
lower maturity level and, with respect to character and social skills, may be expected
to be fairly unsocialized and even be fairly anti
-
social.


When these factors of age and life conditions are taken into consideration, staff can
see that some youths will need a lot more attention and concentrated coaching. Staff
will have to put considerable effort into forming the kind of bond with the youth that is a
pre
-
condition for creating receptivity to the coaching lessons.


The program is designed, specifically, to work with such youths. That is why the total
institution is involved, every single staff member, twenty
-
four hours a day, seven days
a week. That is why every function, every contact with every department, every
program, and every setting is carefully designed to induce the teachable moment in
the youths. The program is designed to facilitate his growth in maturity and character
step by gradual step, according to the natural developmental stages for maturation.


The training of the staff is also designed to facilitate the creation of those necessary
relationship bonds. Furthermore, that is why it is so necessary for staff, also, to be
concerned with increasing growth in their own maturity and character so as to, for the
first time in many youth’s lives, provide them with good role models.


When the program is operating in an optimal manner, it becomes possible to gradually
overcome the youth’s negative and neglectful life experiences and allow the youth to
progress in a manner that is natural for his age and intelligence.

A Key for Staff to Use in Helping Youth Develop Mature Judgment

11/10/2013
19
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

15. How Changes in the Self Take Place in Adolescents in the Institution


When I was first developing Stars and Stripes, the thought that development stages of maturation during adolescence was the u
nde
rlying
foundation for the Stars and Stripes framework occasionally crossed my mind. It seemed real but not really solidly justifiab
le
from a theoretical
point of view and so I left it to lie fallow until now. Now I wonder why I did not see how it was such a natural and vital d
yna
mic underlying the
rationale for the program. As this concept unfolds in this new exploration I am also seeing how it resolves some crucial unr
eso
lved problems.


I also well knew that traditional juvenile correctional programs and past experimental programs had not worked and also knew
tha
t individual
counseling was not only useless but often counterproductive.


I knew adolescents’ minds were conceptually organized differently from adults and this type of organization, common to all ad
ole
scents, made
their minds unreceptive to counseling in contrast to the organization of the adult mind.


Counseling sessions were, in some cases with institutionalized youths, comforting to them and sometimes elicited catharsis an
d c
onfidential
information and, therefore, therapists were convinced that counseling was helpful in the way it is helpful to adults. Howeve
r,
over the years,
extensive experience with these youths urged upon me the conclusion that these assumptions were incorrect and counterproducti
ve.



The adolescent lives life with an urgent attention to the immediate present and very near future. They neither are concerned

wi
th nor ready to
probe the past nor were they prepared to engage in directed guidance or problem solving within a counseling session. They ca
n e
mote but tend
to feel ‘probing their feelings’ is a waste of time.


Their urgent need, on the other hand, is to understand what is going on in this bewildering new world they are just entering
and

to find ways to
survive what ‘they’ feel are life and death threats to their existence.


It is the time factor! It is the time of life they are in that is the dominant influence in their lives. Living life forwar
d,
completely naïve in this
beginning, and moving into bewildering new challenges in totally un
-
chartered territory creates an inner state that screams, “He
lp me!” Yet the
nature of their position while facing this challenge forces ‘the inner adolescent’ to say, “I don’t need anyone’s help! I am

an

adult and I am self
sufficient.”


This bit of knowledge about adolescents is common knowledge even among the most ill
-
informed adults. Nevertheless, tracing the
steps
backwards so as to ask how adolescents need to be helped eludes almost everyone, especially professionals. A few fortunate s
oul
s have hit
upon the solution accidentally even though without having the answer that explains why this is so.


For institutionalized youth, this answer comes in the form of the structure of a program that gives every youth:



a significant, formal role;


prepares those in advanced roles to orient, teach, counsel, and tutor beginners;


places the youth with surrogate parents in a Support Team that emphasizes allowing the youth to learn to use their own judgme
nt
without
criticism for failures;


creates a positive peer group through student government in the dorms;


gives them badges that provide visual confirmation of the prerogatives of each progression in roles along with the accompanyi
ng
status
and self
-
esteem;


and puts staff in the role of coaches for how to face difficult situations more maturely rather than counseling them; as well

as

many other
features that address the specific vulnerabilities of adolescents but does it in a 24/7 controlled environment with a structu
re
that emphasizes
consistency.


In this new, un
-
bewildering, structured atmosphere where help does not imply loss of face, they are able to forge their identiti
es and personalities
in an intrinsically rewarding way. Now, they can begin shaping their selves, as all other adolescents do, for the first time
.
Now, as adults, they
may not have to go back for therapy and undo the damage of the past, something adult counseling may be much better suited to
do.



20

Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD 9
-
22
-
2002

16. Some Characteristics Typically Acquired During Adolescent Developmental Stages

Compared to Criteria for Progression in Stars and Stripes


Developing leadership, and social and civic responsibility


Developing a capacity for positive identification with social institutions


Developing appreciation for wisdom, peace, and a positive vision


Learning moderation and conservation in using property and resources


Learning to integrate time and short and long term goals with reality


Learning delay of gratification


Learning patience with delays


Developing a capacity for bonding in constructive relationships


Learning consideration for others, empathy, politeness, and diplomacy


Learning a sense of timing and fair turn
-
taking


Developing a capacity for responsibility and reliability


Learning self reliance and the value of productivity


Developing a capacity for self determination and persistence


Appreciating independent judgment and accountability


Understanding how to estimate risk and show discretion and courage


Developing a tendency toward conscious pursuit of initiative, creativity


Learning fairness in sharing


Learning the value of honesty and integrity


Developing a capacity for resistance to negative peer influence


Understanding the value of adhering to values and principles


Developing a capacity for self
-
control and self
-
correction


Learning to think and think twice before acting


Learning to listen to and accept constructive feedback and criticism


Understanding positive and negative consequences


Understanding and using realistic cause and effect concepts


Remembering past information and tagging for future recall


Understanding and properly expressing one’s own feelings


Learning to respect and follow rules and schedules


Learning to make a conscious effort to retain and use knowledge


Developing a love of learning, trying, skill acquisition, and mastery


Learning a socialized expression of curiosity and adventuresome
-
ness


Learning socialized fun, spontaneity, outgoingness


Characteristics Acquired Through Stars and Stripes Progression


4. Shows positive leadership

Communication skills

Accepts success and failure
gracefully

Assists in solving conflicts, Mediates

Endures unavoidable delays,
hardships, setbacks

Has completed project benefiting
others



3. Problem
-
solves, coaches,
encourages, mentors

Patience

Problem
-
solves

Short
-
term goals

Long
-
term goals



2. School behavior/grades

Social skills

Positive group member

Non
-
agitation

Controls horseplay

Basic self
-
awareness



1. No runaway [AWOL] attempts

Controls verbal aggression

Controls physical aggression

Follows directions and rules

Respect for others ownership

Respect for property


Stripes 1 Through 4


11/10/2013



21

Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD 9
-
22
-
2002

17. The Social Arts Learned in Stars and Stripes Program Features
Correspond to the Progression in Interpersonal and Societal Maturation


Group goal setting and implementing with diligence


Problem solving and planning thoroughly


Decision
-
making with consensus development


Meeting
-
discussing seriously and openly


Coordinating institutional social events responsibly


Supervising work carefully and constructively


Performing cooperative work with consideration


Making promotion decisions for peers objectively


Evaluating peers for promotion constructively


Teaching
-
tutoring peers with dedication and patience


Mediating conflicts with fairness, patience, firmness


Negotiating conflicting interests without bias


Giving and accepting Awards with grace and humility


Carrying out work assignments responsibly


Playing sports with observance of sportsmanship


Engaging civilly in teamwork and competition


Learning proper gender relations


Socializing properly at institutional functions


Participating civilly and wholeheartedly in recreation


Peer counseling
-
listening with empathy


Helping with compassion and accepting help graciously


Dealing with other’s feelings with sensitivity


Expressing feelings honestly and diplomatically


Resolving conflicts and curbing aggression


Dealing with ethnic differences with respect


Dealing with individual differences with sensitivity


Dealing with different beliefs and values with tolerance


Studying and learning with discipline and purpose


Setting one’s long and short term goals realistically


Self discipline with consistency under all conditions


Acceptance of and adherence to rules

THE SOCIAL ARTS LEARNED THROUGH STARS AND STRIPES
PROGRAM:

20.

Encouragement of all, staff and residents, to
assume a responsibility for maintaining a healthy,
positive community within the institution

19.
A pre
-
release program that facilitates re
-
incorporation into the family with a new positive
role and identity

17.
Criteria for advanced ranks that involve longer term
goals and projects to give back to the community

16.

A well
-
trained staff where all function as maturity
coaches

15.
Consistency of program throughout the total
institution and around the clock, seven days a week

14.
A vocational program that establishes an identity
that includes vocation

13.
An educational program that is individualized, self
paced, socially inclusive, and totally positive

12.
Student government to learn civic responsibility and
replacing a negative with a positive peer group

11.
Training to be peer counselors followed by
Certification to be Mediators

10.
Advanced ranks orienting and training beginners

9.
Visible emblems signifying ranks that validate
status, responsibilities, privileges and instill self
-
esteem

8.
Community ceremonies to mark promotions

7.
Progression in work assignments according to
ranks

6.
Progression in pro
-
social roles associated with
ranks

5.
Emphasizing use of own judgment is goal setting

4.
Support Teams that function as surrogate parents

3.
Involvement of both staff and peers in promotions

2.
Measured criteria must be met to progress

1.
Progression through the ranks of Stars and Stripes

PROGRAM FEATURES FACILITATING MATURATION:

11/10/2013
11/10/2013
22
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

18. Work and Recreational Activities Suited to Each Maturity Level

1.
Very High

is suited to: work and recreation requiring leadership;
creativity; complex instructions; developing new plans; coordinating;
longest range goals; supervising; instructing; learning and teaching
new knowledge and skills; entertainment that requires thought and
interpretation; recreation with complex rules; subtle rewards.

2.
High

is suited to: leadership; coordinating; instructing; supervising;
long range goals; learning and teaching new skills; entertainment that
has a point or goal; social and psychological rewards.

3.
Above Average

is suited to: following; near term goals; supervising
routine tasks; learning and teaching simple, basic skills; recreation
with simple rules; social and concrete rewards.

4.
Average

is suited to: following; near term goals; learning basic skills;
familiar activities; performing routine social and physical activities;
simple, action
-
oriented entertainment; public and concrete rewards.

5.
Below Average

is suited to: following in non
-
complex activities;
immediate goals; learning basic skills; repetitive performance;
familiar, routine social and physical activities; immediate, frequent,
explicit feedback; immediate, public, simple and concrete rewards.

6.
Low

is suited to: simple, vigorous physical activities with very brief,
explicit, repeated instructions; work with simple physical tasks and
objects; recreation with highly familiar routines; reinforced with
frequent and immediate feedback; simple, public, concrete rewards.

7.
Very Low

is suited to: vigorous, repetitive, gross motor, physical
activities that appeal to senses of smell, color, taste; oriented to goals
that can be seen; simplistic, action packed entertainment; reinforced
with frequent, simple, immediate, tangible rewards.

Maturity range

Very High

High

Above Average

Average

Below Average

Low

Very Low

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Level of Maturity

Activities Appropriate To Each Level Of Maturity

11/10/2013
23
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

19. The Heart and Soul of Stars and Stripes

After

reviewing

the

concepts

of

Levels

of

maturity,

it

is

now

possible

to

clearly

see

how

the

structure

of

Stars

and

Stripes

is

designed

to

facilitate,

within

a

juvenile

correctional

institution,

a

natural

progression

through

levels

of

maturity

that

is

in

harmony

with

the

natural

progression

that

occurs

in

healthy,

wholesome

homes

and

communities

everywhere
.

11/10/2013
24
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

EXERCISES FOR

LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6


11/10/2013
25
Copyright 9
-
2002 Edwin L Young, PhD

MOVIES FOR

LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6