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28 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μέρες)

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Chapter 9

Using Perl

for CGI

Computation is required to support sophisticated web

Computation can be done by the server or the client
(browser) or both

The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a protocol
describing a standard way of providing server
side active
web content

Under circumstances determined by the server, an HTTP
request will cause a program to run

The output from the program will be the response returned to
the client making the request

Data from forms will be encoded in a request sent do the

This data can be used by a CGI program

ASP.NET from Microsoft

Executable code embedded in web pages

Java Servlets and Java Server Pages

Servlets are executable code in Java

Java server pages (JSP) are executable code
embedded in web pages

There are several common ways a web server
can use to determine if a web request should
cause a CGI program to execute

Usually, the determination is based on the
target of the request

Certain directories can be designated as
containing CGI programs

Often cgi
bin is used

Certain file extensions can be designated as
signifying a CGI program

.pl usually identifies a Perl script

A request for a CGI program to executed can
be made with a simple link (<a> tag in

This method is limited

Any data sent must be hard
coded into the link

The usual way for invoking CGI programs is
through the action attribute of a form

Data from the form is then encoded and sent
with the request

The CGI program generally creates the response
by sending output to the standard output stream

Using print in Perl

The CGI program will usually have to provide
the content
type header

type: text/html

This will be the last line of the response headers and
must be followed by a blank line

The rest of the response is created by printing
the HTML code desired to standard output

Both GET and POST requests under HTTP can be
used to carry form data from the browser to the server

The data is formatted into a query string

Each form of request includes the information in a
different way

In a GET request, the query string is appended to the
URL of the request, with a question mark used to
separate it from the first part of the URL

In a POST request, the query string is sent as the data
part of the request

In both cases, the query string is formatted the same

Each unit of data sent is encoded as

name = value

The name is usually the value of a name attribute of a
form widget

The value is the string representation of the widget value

Several units are combined by separating them with
ampersands, &

Special characters in name and value are encoded

The code is a percent sign, %, followed by the
hexadecimal code for the character

A space is encoded as %20

Some browsers will encode spaces as +

When the POST method is used, the query
string can be read from standard input

The CONTENT_LENGTH environment
variable tells how many characters can be read

When The GET method is used, the query
string is given by the value of the
environment variable QUERY_STRING

Writing a CGI program from scratch is very

Creating HTML requires numerous print

Retrieving data from the query strings is tricky

One of the reasons for Perl’s popularity for CGI
programming is the powerful pattern matching
facilities which greatly ease the task of parsing a query

The Perl module provides numerous
functions to help with both of these problems

Shortcut functions return string values containing HTML

Note, the string must be printed out to actually become part of
the response

Some functions take no arguments

print br;

puts the tag <br/> into the response

Some functions can be given a single argument which
becomes the content of the tag

print h1(“A Header”)


<h1>A Header</h1>

into the response

Attributes for tags are provided as attribute/value
pairs in the argument list of the shortcut function

The arguments are provided in the form of a literal hash

Attribute names are preceded by a hyphen,

print textarea(
name => "Description",

rows => "2",

cols => "35");

produces this in the response

<textarea name="Description" rows="2"



Attributes and content can both be provided to a
shortcut by giving the attributes explicitly as a
hash reference

print a({
href => "fruit.html"},

Press here for fruit descriptions");

produces this in the response

<a href="fruit.html"> Press here for

fruit descriptions </a>

If an array reference is provided for the content,
a tag is created for each item, giving the tag all
the specified attributes

The head shortcut function provides a
standard header

The start_html function provides the
beginning part of an HTML document,
through the <body> start tag

The function takes one argument, the document

The param function takes a name as an

The function returns the value associated to
the name, if any, in the request

The example includes an HTML page,
popcorn.html, for placing an order

Also it includes a Perl CGI program for
processing the data, popcorn.cgi

Note, to run this example, you must have a
web server configured to run CGI programs,
you cannot simply browse to the file on your
local system

The survey example is keeps track of data
from a simple survey

There are three components

conelec.html presents the form and links

conelec1.cgi processes a survey

conelec2.cgi presents a summary of the results

A file is used to store a summary of the data

The file is updated by conelec1.cgi after each
survey is submitted

Care must be taken that two simultaneous
requests do not interfere with each other

Both CGI programs will use the Perl flock
function that will allow only one program at a
time access to the file

The file is accessed by coneclec2.cgi for each
request for a summary

The Tr function will create a sequence of
table rows from an argument that is a
reference to a list

Tr is capitalized to distinguish it from the
transliterate function tr

Similarly, the th and td functions will produce
a sequence of tags from a reference to a list

Note the period between the

and td
function calls, this concatenates the results in
order to make a single row

border => "border"},

caption("Sales Figures"),


(["Salesperson", "Mon", "Tues", “Wed",

"Thu", "Fri"]),







HTTP is a stateless protocol, that is, the server treats each
request as completely separate from any other

This, however, makes some applications difficult

A shopping cart is an object that must be maintained across
numerous requests and responses

The mechanism of cookies can be used to help maintain
state by storing some information on the browser system

A cookie is a key/value pair that is keyed to the domain of
the server

This key/value pair is sent along with any request made by the
browser of the same server

A cookie has a lifetime which specifies a time at which the
cookie is deleted from the browser

Cookies are only returned to the server that
created them

Cookies can be used to determine usage
patterns that might not otherwise be ascertained
by a server

Browsers generally allow users to limit how
cookies are used

Browsers usually allow users to remove all cookies
currently stored by the browser

Systems that depend on cookies will fail if the
browser refuses to store them

The cookie function takes a hash with three
keys for the name, value and expiration time of a

The cookie value produced by this function
must be passed to the header function using the

cookie key

cookie => $a_cookie)

Calling the cookie function with no arguments
produces a hash of all cookies from the current

The example illustrates using a
cookie to store the last time the page was visited