-PLC Powerline Communication

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28 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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October, 2012

Jean Vigneron

General Secretary of G3
-
PLC Alliance

Jean.vigneron@g3
-
plc.com

Kaveh Razazian

Senior Scientist
-

Maxim Integrated

kaveh.razazian@maximintegrated.com

“ G3
-
PLC Powerline
Communication
Standard for Today’s Smart Grid”


Choosing a Technology
Platform for the Future

“The biggest challenge facing implementers is how to meet both current and
future smart grid requirements, while ensuring interoperability and open
-
endedness among grid
elements”


When evaluating communications platforms, it is important to look for a solution
that:



Provides cost
-
effective system architecture
-

Plug
-
and
-
Play



Provides real
-
time communications


Robust, long range, two
-
way link



Includes security mechanisms
-

to protect grid assets and theft



Standards based
-

to ensure interoperability and open
-
endedness



Scalable and field upgradable



Strong industry support

PLC Evolution


1950’s


10Hz one way communication used managing town
lighting


1970’s
-

X10 low speed (20 bits/s), one way communication for
simple control of devices and appliances


1980s
-

INSTEON using X10 and RF to address inherent
limitations of X10 to penetrate a wider network


1990’s
-

FSK PLC technology became popular providing low data
rate (2.4kbps), two way communication for command and
control applications


2000’s


Broadband above 2MHz, PLC communication (OFDM)
for multimedia consumer applications


2010’s
-

G3
-
PLC low frequency below 500KHz PLC (OFDM)
delivering highly reliable, high speed, secure, two way
communication designed specifically for the Smart Grid

Maxim Confidential

Severe Channel Condition

In noisy AC line, there is harmonic noise,
impulsive noise, and frequency selective
attenuation.
Therefore signal
amplitude
variation is large as shown in Figures 1
& 2

Impulsive Noise

Preamble

Fi gure 1

Fi gure 2


Noise power distribution
between 10kHz to130kHz
is 20
-
30 dB stronger than
signals above 200kHz

G3
-
PLC

Defined by Utilities, Developed for Utilities


In association with: ERDF (Electricité Réseau Distribution France)


100% subsidiary of EDF (Electricité dé France)


35M customers


1,284,000km of electricity power lines


Smart grid deployment plan: 2012



Technology developer: Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.


Over 25 years in business; 12 years in OFDM PLC



Main objective:
Communication technology offering a balance of robustness, quality
of service, high data rate and cost


Deliverable:
A complete OFDM PLC specification, including PHY, MAC, adaptation layer,
and meter profile


PHY/MAC specification completed:
2009



G3
-
PLC
-

A Global Solution

MV / MV, MV / LV & LV / LV

High data rate

IPv6 compliant

Secure

Robustness

High density areas

Smart Grid


and additional
services

Low density areas

Open specification


FCC section 15
defined 10
-
490kHz frequency band for PLC in
North America and Canada


ARIB

defined 10
-
450kHz frequency band for PLC in

Asia
and Japan


Cenelec EN50065
-
1
defined a range of low frequency bands

for
PLC in
Europe



A
-
band (3
-
95 kHz),
Frequencies in this band shall only
be used for applications for monitoring or controlling
the low
-
voltage
,distribution
network, including energy
usage of connected equipment and premises



B
-
band (95
-
125 kHz), can be used by all applications



C
-
band(125
-
140 kHz), for home networking systems



D
-
band (140
-
148.5 kHz), specified for alarm
-
and
security
-
systems


Government

Regulations

for PLC

G3
-
PLC


Smart Grid Solution Summary



Physical Layer


Support of internationally accepted bands from
10kHz
-

490kHz (FCC, CENELEC, ARIB)


Multi
-
layer error encoding/decoding


Viterbi, Convolution, Reed Solomon and CRC16


8psk,QPSK, BPSK, Robo, Messaging Mode


Adaptive Tone mapping, notching and modulation


Application Layer


Compliant ANSI C12.19/C12.22, IEC 62056
-
61/62
(DLMS/COSEM)or other standards used world wide


Transport and Network Layer


IPv6 enables potential services: SNMP, TFPT, etc


Adaptation layer 6LowPan associates the MAC Layer
802.15.4 to IPV6:


Compression of IP header, fragmentation, routing,
authentication.


MAC layer


Plug and play network management to choose “Best Path”
(Full Mesh Support)


Time domain and collision management


MAC Layer IEEE 802.15.4
-
2006


CSMA/ARQ


Application

Layer

Complete PLC modem for the Smart Grid

(from the PHY to the Application layer)

FSK provides only 2Kbps @ 10^
-
4 BER

at 12dB*
(From STM Datasheet)

OFDM provides 32Kbps @ 10^
-
4 BER, and at only
3dB* (G3
-
Lite
-

MAX2990 w/DBPSK)

Figure 2

Figure 1

Benefits of OFDM

Higher Data rates at Lower SNR


10dB performance improvement vs. single
-
carrier PLC



Higher reliability


Wider coverage


Longer distances





* 12dB
SNR means signal is ~4 times stronger than noise

* 3dB SNR means signal is ~1.5 times stronger than noise

G3
-
PLC Data Rates
and
BER plots

Frequency Band

Typ Robo

Data Rate (bps)

Typ DBPSK

Data Rate (bps)

Typ DQPSK

Data Rate (bps)

Typ D
8PSK

Data Rate (bps)

Max D8PSK

Data Rate (bps)

CENELEC A (36kHz to 91kHz)

4,500

14,640

29,285

43,928

46,044

FCC (150kHz to 487.5kHz)

21,000

62,287

124,575

186,863

234,321

FCC (10kHz to 487.5kHz)



38,000

75,152

150,304

225,457

298,224

Maxim Confidential

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

-
0.4

-
0.3

-
0.2

-
0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4


Received Signal + Noise in Good channel RMS= 0.071 V

Attenuation= 20 dB (Signal reduced ~10 Times)

SIR =
-
6 dB (interference stronger 2 times


than Signal )

Preamble

Channel Characteristics:

Bad Condition

S
-
FSK vs. OFDM

Application Data Rate

Technology

Time (s) to Get a Load Profile
Reading of

3300 Bytes*

S
-
FSK 1200

56

S
-
FSK 2400

28

OFDM

4

*
Notes:


Calculated by DLMS
-
UA for S
-
FSK.


Measured in the field for OFDM.



Grid asset management



Meter management



In
-
home energy
display/management




Designed
for multiple
Smart
Grid applications



Electric vehicle charging



Lighting automation (Street, Airport,
commercial buildings)



Factory automation/energy
monitoring



G3
-
PLC progress to
mass roll
-
out

2007

2008

2009

2011

2012

2010


ITU G3
-
PLC
Standard Pre
-
publication


Dec 2011

OFDM Demo

EDF/ERDF

Jan
2007

OFDM Field

Trials

Dec
2007

Start Spec

Development

Aug
2008

G3
-
PLC (DSP)

Field Trails

June 2009

Spec

Release

July 2009

Standardization starts

(IEEE, ITU, IEC)

Dec 2009

DC/Meter

(Implementation)

June 2010

G3
-
PLC Chipset

Available


Nov 2010

DC/Meter

(Certification)

May 2011

G3
-
PLC

DC/Meter

(Production)

July 2011

DC/Meter

Deployment

Completed

Sep
2011


G3
-
PLC
-

Main Technology Driving Narrow Band
(NB) OFDM PLC Standardization”



NB OFDM PLC Standards under development to date:



ITU G.9955


G3
-
PLC Annex Pre
-
publication completed in Dec 2011


IEEE 1901.2


Cenelec through FCC based on G3
-
PLC


target ballot Q2CY12


DLMS /COSEM

Upper Layer G3
-
PLC submitted for inclusion in Blue Book

G3
-
PLC
Standardization

Field tested Worldwide




France


ERDF



Portugal
-

EDP



USA
-

WIN Energy and St Louis Coop



Japan


TEPCO and Chugoku




China, State Grid and NARI




Taiwan
-

III/TaiPower




Mexico


CFE




Germany
-

Vattenfall





Field test Results
-

Examples

Typical Electricity Topology

Urban area

(~400 meters/transformer)

Residential

(200
-
300 meters/transformer)

Isolated

(<9 meters/transformer)

Long
-
distance MV
-
to
-
MV
Tests
(France)

*G3 tests preformed in CENELEC (32
-
95kHz ) frequency band without 8PSK limiting data rate.

Test performed by
ERDF 6.4KM.
No repeaters.

Technology

Distance

Data
Rate
(Kbps)

FER
(Frame Error rate)

G3*

6.4Km

6.092

0%

MV
-
to
-
LV and LV
-
to
-
MV

(France)

1,4 km

2 km

(M)

(S)

(S)


Concentrator installed on the MV network, and two slave devices connected to the LV network


MV
-
to
-
LV transformer crossing introduced frequency
-
dependent attenuation of over 40dB

MV
-
to
-
LV Test Setup

Technology

Master/

Slave configuration

Data Rate (bps)

FER (
Frame Error Rate
)

G3
-
PLC*

4175 bps

1%

*
G3
-
PLC
tests preformed in CENELEC (32
-
95kHz ) frequency band without 8PSK limiting data rate.

Test configuration

Pictures from Field Test


Room #2 with all commonly used home
appliances where PLC Rx #3 was located.


location where PLC Rx #1 and
PLC Rx #2 were located with
two Kotasus were on.

Home Appliances Noise


The following appliances are used as the noise source in the field trial:


IH Heater, TV, triac, 3 Kotasu Heaters, Microwave, Rice Cooker, Water
Pot, Blanket, and carpet vacuum


The noise spectrum of two major noise sources IH Heater an Kotasu are as
shown below:

Maxim Confidential

IH Heater

Kotasu Heater

Test Results


At room 2, we compare the received spectrum with all noise sources off (on the
left side), and the received spectrum with all noise sources on (on the right side)
as shown as below


With ATM mode, data rate is about 6
-
10 kbps


Maxim Confidential

signal level is

much higher than


noise level

Noise level

signal level is

almost the same

as noise level

MV
-
to
-
LV Tests

(USA)

MV

LV

From

To

Distance

Frequency
Band

Mode

Data Rate
(Kbps)

A

B

.8KM

300
-
450kHz

BPSK

54

A

C

1.8KM

300
-
450kHz

BPSK

48

High
-
speed communications while crossing medium
-
to
-
low voltage transformers



Test were performed in a customer designated site



Substation located in the basement of a parking structure



Test site had two MV/LV transformers (T1 and T2).



MV distribution is underground

Distance

Freq Band

Data Rate

A
-
> B: 150m

ARIB

100Kbps

A
-
> C: 155m

ARIB

100Kbps

A
-
> D: 220m

ARIB

100Kbps

A
-
> E: 200m

ARIB

96Kbps

Test results in Beijing

MV

LV

18 Floors

Thank you for your attention


Visit our website

www.G3
-
plc.com

Additional G3
-
PLC
Information


Idaho National Labs


Charger and EMC testing


http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/phev/VtoVSESmartGridRpt.pdf


Pacific National Labs


30 million Message test


http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/
merit_review_2011/veh_sys_sim/vss055_gowri_2011_
p..
pdf


IEEE G3
-
PLC Research


G3
-
PLC on Galvanized SWER


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber
=6102338&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2
Fiel5%2F6093618%2F6102296%2F06102338.pdf%3Far
number%3D6102338