Reengineering Library Services with Emerging Technologies

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Reengineering Library Services with
Emerging Technologies


BY



Devashri Shastri * and Pradipsinh Chudasma**

*Librarian, Aadhrshila Knowledge Valley, Gandhinagar

** Library Assistant, Institute of Technology, Nirma University


Date: March 21
-
23, 2013.

1


Objectives:




To understand and analyze structure and utility value of new


technologies in the library scenario.




To find out technological challenges and areas of application
of emerging technology in the automated library system.





To evaluate application of technological services with their


advantages and disadvantages.

2



INTRODUCTION
:




Libraries

and

Information

centers

have

to

evolve

measures

continuously

to

keep

up

with

the

changing

requirements

of

their

patrons
.

The

father

of

library

science

in

India,

Dr
.

S
.

R
.

Ranganathan’

s

philosophy

reflects

“Right

information”

to

the

“Right

user”

in

a

“Right

Personal

way”

at

a

“Right

time”

in

his

pioneer

work

“Five

Laws

of

Library

Science
.


Due

to

information

explosion

and

information

pollution

knowledge

professionals

and

librarians

are

facing

many

challenges
.

ICT,

Internet

and

library

automation

softwares

made

it

possible

for

users

to

locate

what

they

want

without

going

to

library

and

fulfill

their

needs
.

3





EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LIBRARY


SCENARIO:




MOBILE TECHNOLOGY




CLOUD COMPUTING




GIS (Geographic Information System)




INTERNET BASED LIBRARY SERVICES




DIGITAL REFERENCE SERVICE:


SYNCHRONOUS REFERENCE SERVICE


ASYNCHRONOUS REFERENCE SERVICE




CONSORTIA BASED SERVICES


4

5






APPLICATION OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN
LIBRARY SCENARIO




M
OBILE

BASED

L
IBRARY

AND

I
NFORMATION

S
ERVICES
:


User orientation programmes


Upcoming Events


Information literacy programs


New Arrivals / Book Reservation


Circulate significant circulars of library and institute


Renewals notification alert


Due and overdue documents messages


OCLC Released it

6

LIBRARY AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGY:

7




APPLICATION
OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN

THE
LIBRARY
SCENARIO




8



C
LOUD

C
OMPUTING

AND

L
IBRARY
:



Definition

of

Cloud

Computing
:


Cloud

is

a

virtualization

of

resources

and

services

that

maintains

itself

and

in

cloud

computing,

distributed,

grid

and

utility

computing

combined

to

perform

functions

with

dynamically

changing

requirements
.

Resources

like

software,

hardware

and

platform

are

provided

on

demand

as

well

as

it

is

a

secure,

reliable

data

storage

center
.

9



C
LOUD

S
ERVICE

MODEL

:



Platform

as

a

Service

(PaaS)



Software

as

a

Service

(SaaS)



Infrastructure

as

a

Service

(IaaS)

10



P
LATFORM

AS

A

S
ERVICE

(P
AA
S)


Build

web
-
applications

and

deploy

application

without

installing

any

tool

or

their

system



advantage
:

Simplified

deployment,

lower

risk,

pay
-
per
-
use

model

and

scalability




Disadvantage
:

some

applications

are

local

and

some

are

in

cloud

so

increased

complexity


11



S
OFTWARE

AS

A

S
ERVICE

(S
AA
S)


Benefits
:



Install,

run

and

maintain

software


Service

delivered

through

the

browser

and

no

expert

team

is

required



Provide

this

service

by

downloading

the

application

for

customers


Host

the

application

on

the

web

server

either

on

contract

basis

or

on

the

basis

of

license

agreements
.

12



I
NFRASTRUCTURE

AS

A

S
ERVICE

(I
AA
S)


Libraries

can

share

hardware

and

other

computing

resources,

so

the

cost

of

server

and

maintenance

will

be

saved
.


Examples

of

IaaS

providers

:


ServePath’s GoGrid


Skytap’s Skytap virtual lab


3 tera’s


Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud


AT &T, IBM & Unisys, Gni’s GNi Dedicated
Hosting, and IBM’s Computing on Demand

13



C
LOUD

C
OMPUTING

F
EATURES
:



cost
-
effectiveness


security


scalability


versatility



virtualization



user
-
friendliness



scalability

and

resource

optimization


14



C
LOUD

BASED

S
ERVICES


Google

Apps

Service


World

Wide

Web


RSS

Feeds


Remote

Access

Facility


Collaborating

online

Databases


Collaborative

Virtual

Reference

Service

(CVRS)


IM,

IR,

Online

Streaming,

Blogs,

Wikis

15



P
ROBLEM

S
OLVED

BY

C
LOUD

C
OMPUTING
:


IT

infrastructure


Shortage

of

I
.

T
.

experts


Financial

problems


Data

integrity



Upgrade

and

Maintenance


Intellectual

Property

Rights

Management

related

issues


Backups

16

APPLICATION OF GIS SOFTWARE IN LIBRARY
SCENARIO



17



HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
:






Tomlinson (1998), the leader of Canadian Geographic
Information System, coined the term ‘Geographic
Information System’ in the early 1960s to refer to any
computer application that perform functions with geospatial
data (data related to space).




1960


70s Innovation


First GIS


Canada Land Inventory


DIME US Bureau of Census


Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics


Major vendors started (e.g. ESRI, Intergraph)


Landsat satellite launched


Key academic conferences (e.g. AutoCarto)

18



DEFINITION OF GIS:


A

Geographical

Information

System

is

a

tool,

which

can

accept

large

volumes

of

spatial

data

derived

from

a

variety

of

sources,

retrieve,

manipulate,

analyze

and

display

them

according

to

user
-
defined

specifications
.



It

brings

together

the

ideas

developed

in

various

fields

such

as

Computer

Science,

Civil

Engineering,

Mathematics,

Surveying,

Economics,

Agriculture

and

Geography

to

name

a

few
.

19



S
ELECTED

D
EFINITIONS

OF

GIS:

Aronoff

(
1989
)

-

Any

manual

or

computer

based

set

of

procedures

used

to

store

and

manipulate

geographically

referenced

data

Dueker

(
1979
)

-

A

special

case

of

information

systems

where

the

database

consists

of

observations

on

spatially

distributed

features,

activities,

or

events,

which

are

definable

in

space

as

points,

lines,

or

areas
.

A

GIS

manipulates

data

about

these

points,

lines

and

areas

to

retrieve

data

for

adhoc

queries

and

analyses
.

DoE

(
1987
)

-

A

system

for

capturing,

storing,

checking,

manipulating,

analyzing

and

displaying

data

which

are

spatially

referenced

to

the

Earth
.

Carter

(
1989
)

-

An

institutional

entity,

reflecting

an

organizational

structure

that

integrates

technology

with

a

database,

expertise

and

continuing

financial

support

over

time
.

Parker

(
1988
)

-

An

information

technology

which

stores,

analyses,

and

displays

both

spatial

and

non
-
spatial

data
.






Geographic Information System consists of:


GIS is Organized collection of



Hardware


Software



People



Data


Network


Procedures

People

Software

Data

Procedures

Hardware

Network

21



Key Components of GIS:




Hardware


High end workstations to desktop systems




Software


Geo processing engine of GIS


Major Functions


collect, store, process, manage,


analyse and presentation of data.




GIS data base
(spatial and related data)




Live ware


People are responsible for designing,


implementation and using GIS

22



W
HERE

IS

A

GIS
FROM

?



Geography, Cartography



Remote Sensing and space technology




Computer Aided Design (CAD) and computer


graphics



Surveying and photogrammetry

23



TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS:



Transaction Processing Systems




Decision Support System (DSS)



GIS belongs to second type that is Decision
Support System (DSS)
, used for resource planning,
data manipulation, analysis and formation of
modeling to provide guidance to decision makers.


24















SPECIAL FEATURES OF GIS:




GIS basically handles two kinds of data:


Spatial data
also referred as geographic co
-
ordinate


data (records point, line, area) and another is,


Attribute data,

information related with particular


geographical feature.




It is Multidimensional and Voluminous.




Requires projection to flat surface and use unique


analysis methods.


25

26



Analyses require data integration and data updates are
expensive and time consuming, GIS can solve this
problem.




Map displays require fast data retrieval.



GIS industry is worth around $13 billion:




Software




Services




Data




Publishing




Education

27



Global Positioning System (GPS) and GIS:




Contribution

of

GPS

to

the

development

of

GIS

data

bases

is

very

significant
.



Global

Positioning

System

(GPS)

is

a

satellite

based

navigation

and

surveying

system

for

determining

precise

position

and

time

using

radio

signals

from

satellites

in

real

time

or

in

post

processing

mode
.

Mainly

GPS

is

used

for

determining

the

coordinates

of

important

geographical

features,

precise

cadastral

surveys,

vehicle

navigation

and

on

highways

using

GPS
-
GIS

integrated

systems
.


28

0
1000000
2000000
3000000
Users
Internet
Viewer
Component
Hand-held
Desktop
Professional
Type of Software System


GIS
S
OFTWARE

C
LASSIFICATION
:


0
1000000
2000000
3000000
Internet
Viewer
Component
Hand
-
held
Desktop
Professional
Users
Type of Software System
29



POPULAR PROPRIETARY GIS SOFTWARES:



Esri


Products include ArcView 3.x, ArcGIS, ArcSDE,


ArcIMS, ArcWeb services and ArcGIS Server
.





IGiS




MapInfo




Intergraph




Autodesk




SuperMap Inc.


30



SOME POPULAR FOSS GIS SOFTWARES:





TerraView




TatukGIS




GRASS GIS




SAGA GIS




Quantum GIS (QGIS)




uDig




JUMP GIS / OpenJUMP ((Open) Java Unified Mapping


Platform)

The desktop GISs, OpenJUMP, SkyJUMP,


deeJUMP and Kosmo all emerged from JUMP
.

31

32

FOSS SOFTWARE

PLATFORM & FEATURES

TerraView

Windows, Linux, Handles vector and raster
data stored in a relational or geo
-
relational
database, i.e. a frontend for
TerraLib
.

TatukGIS

Windows (XP, Vista, 7,

8 and Server 2003,
2008 & 2012). System requirements same
as for the Windows operating system

MapWindow

GIS

Windows, Free desktop application and
programming component.

GRASS GIS

Windows, Max OS X, Linux, BSD, Unix,
Originally developed by the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers: a complete GIS.


33

FOSS SOFTWARE

PLATFORM & FEATURES

SAGA GIS (System for
Automated
Geoscientific

Analysis)

Windows, Linux, Free BSD, A hybrid GIS
software, has a unique Application
Programming Interface (API) and a fast
growing set of
geoscientific

methods, bundled
in exchangeable Module Libraries.


Quantum GIS (QGIS)

Runs on LINUX, UNIX, Mac OS X and
Windows.


uDig

LINUX, UNIX, Mac OS X and Windows, API
and source code (Java) available

JUMP GIS / Open JUMP
((Open) Java Unified
Mapping Platform)
-

JAVA base, The desktop GISs,
OpenJUMP
,
SkyJUMP, deeJUMP and Kosmo all emerged
from JUMP.




GIS T
ECHNOLOGY

AND

L
IBRARY
:


The

significant

steps

involved

in

application

of

GIS

in

libraries

are

drawing

library

building

map,

floor

maps

and

designing

the

database,

developers

can

take

help

of

AutoCAD

for

preparing

accurate

architectural

layout

of

library

building
.


For

a

multi
-
storied

library

building

GIS

technology

can

be

applied
.

Nowadays

Global

Position

Systems

(GPS)

and

web
-
based

mapping

applications

like

Google

Maps

are

also

play

active

role,

LIS

research

will

also

continue

to

organize

and

disseminate

geospatial

data
.

34



AREAS OF APPLICATION OF GIS IN THE LIBRARY:







USER EDUCATION




SYSTEMATIC SHELVING MODEL




DETAILS ABOUT LOCATION OF LIBRARY USERS




MAPPING OF BOOK SUPPLIERS AND DISTRIBUTORS




ASSISTS TO FIND LOCATION OF PARTICULAR DOCUMENT


ON RACK THROUGH MAP







FORM VIRTUAL LIBRARY NETWORK



35


Advantages of FOSS GIS:



One

can

visualized

information

spatially

using

map

and

images,

not

only

a

bunch

of

data

inside

table
.




Good

support

of

open

standards

and

unrestricted

use

of

the

software
.



Customization

at

API

level
.



No

loss

of

support

to

a

particular

programming

language,

source

codes

freely

Available
.


36



FOSS GIS Disadvantages:



Know
-
how on installing the software may be needed, but with
some time spend on the net plenty of advice will be available.



FOSS

GIS

have

some

limitations

while

compared

with

powerful

proprietary

GIS

softwares

(proprietary

GIS

softwares

are

coastly)


such

as

ArcView

or

ArcGIS

especially

FOSS

GIS

are

unable

to

create

automating

labeling

and

usually

proprietary

softwares

are

better

in

terms

of

support

for

various

projection,

navigation

and

coordinating

systems
.





Training costs may be high




New projects may have initial starting troubles




Application of GIS in library is resource intensive as well as too


much amount of data needed to enter in the beginning.

37




LIBRARY MAP FROM ARC VIEW GIS 3.2:

38



Image of library books
-

status using GIS
:

39



I
NTERNET

B
ASED

I
NFORMATION

S
ERVICES

AND



I
NFORMATION

M
ANAGEMENT
:



Search Engines : Alta Vista, Hot Bot, Lycos, Infoseek,
Excite…


Multithread Search Engines: Metacrawler and Dogpile


E
-
resources : E
-
books, e
-
Journals, IR, Information
Portals



Subject Directories



Listeserves



Webinars

40



LIBRARY
AUTOMATION:

41


LMS: Koha, NewGenLib, OpenBiblio, Evergreen,
PhpmyLibrary, GNU Library Management
System and Libsys


CMS :
Drupal, Jumala, Wordpress, Mambo,
Typo3


IR : Dspace, Fedora Commons, CDSware,
Eprint, Ganesha, XTF, VuDL



Synchronous Digital Reference Services



A
synchronous Digital Reference Services




INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT:


Blogs


Tagging


Folksonomy


Podcast


Prove useful for creating, sharing and distributing
information in library scenario.

42



Role of Consortia:


Some significant consortia in India are:


Government funded consortium (National Knowledge
Resource Consortium), INDEST
-
AICTE consortium (open
consortia, funded by MHRD), UGC
-
INFONET (funded by
UGC), CeRA, HELINET, ERMED consortium and many
voluntary consortia like FORSA. IIM Libraries…



There is need to emphasis conference papers, research
articles etc. along with other e
-
journals and e
-
books.

43



Conclusion:




With the help of technological advances, library and


knowledge professionals need to redesign library


services to support learning, teaching, research, and


other developmental activities.




To provide virtual and digital library services via


technologies such as
Cloud computing
and
GIS
, high


bandwidth is required so country wide strong I. T.


infrastructure is pre
-
requisite.





GIS platform in the library opens many new gateways and


provides several opportunities to the libraries for


contributing their share in planning and decision making


in the area of handling geographic information,

44

which they did not avail earlier. The system is quiet
expensive, especially the GIS software. But, nowadays
there's development of open source GIS that able to
overcome this problem.

46