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ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

Diunduh

dari
: http://toolkit.smallbiz.nsw.gov.au/part/17/86/371 ……………… 6/12/2012


Environmental
sustainability

involves making decisions
and taking action that are
in the interests of
protecting the natural
world, with particular
emphasis on preserving
the capability of the
environment to support
human life.


Environmental sustainability is
about making responsible
decisions that will reduce your
business' negative impact on the
environment.


It is not simply about reducing
the amount of waste you produce
or using less energy, but is
concerned with developing
processes that will lead to
businesses becoming completely
sustainable in the future.

Sustainable development issues therefore include:

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/99
-
00/bio_fuel_cells/groupproject/library/sustainableenergy/pageframe.htm……………… 7/12/2012

1.
Ecological sustainability:

Preventing
damage to major biological life cycles,
maintaining ecosystems and
biodiversity;

2.
Sustainable resource use:

Resource
use should not threaten ecological
sustainability and should be within
the renewable capacity;

3.
Sustainable waste management and
pollution prevention:

Generation of
waste and release of pollution should
not threaten ecological sustainability
and should be within the absorption
capacity of the receiving environment;

4.
Development of a sustainable society:

This is concerned with social inclusion
and economic development to
improve the quality of life for all, both
in the short and long term.


Sustainable development and the "Triple
bottom line"

The Need for an Environmental Sustainability Index


1.
Counterpart
to
Competitiveness
Index
and other
economic
performance
measures

2.
Benchmark
environmental
performance

3.
Better goals,
programs, and
policies

4.
Clarify
environment/econ
omic tradeoffs


Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability
Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia,
May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

Requirements for Environmental Impact
Assessments


Environmental impact assessments are required for any projects likely
to have a significant effect on the environment, and are mandatory for
large energy projects and wastewater treatment plants. Planning
authorities require the developer to produce an Environmental
Statement including:

1.
A description of the development and data on the main impacts it
is likely to have on the environment;

2.
A description of the likely significant environmental impacts
including direct and indirect impacts:

1.
Impacts on human beings

2.
Use of natural and material resources, air and water

3.
Impacts on ecology

4.
Emissions of pollutants and elimination of waste

5.
Impacts on landscape and cultural heritage

3.
Assessment and forecasts of the effects of the use of natural
resources, emissions, and waste in the short to long term including
indirect, cumulative, temporary, and permanent effects;

4.
Measures envisaged to avoid, reduce, or remedy adverse effects;

5.
An outline of alternative solutions which have been studied.

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/99
-
00/bio_fuel_cells/groupproject/library/environmental/pageframe.htm

Environmental
Systems


Urban Air Quality


Water Quantity


Water Quality


Biodiversity


Land

Human
Vulnerability


Basic Sustenance


Public Health


Environmental Disasters

Environmental
Stresses


Air Pollution


Water Pollution/Use


Ecosystem Stress


Waste/Consumption


Population

Global
Stewardship


Contribution to
International Cooperation


Impact on Global
Commons

Social and
Institutional
Capacity


Science/Technical Capacity


Rigorous Policy Debate


Environmental Regulation
and Management


Tracking Environmental
Conditions


Eco
-
efficiency


Public Choice Failures

Analytical
Foundations

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

EMPIRICAL INPUTS


For each factor, we identified 1
-
6 variables to
serve as quantitative measures (65 total)


For this pilot, we weighted the factors
equally

in computing the Index

65
variables


21
Factors


Index

5 components

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

Example: Social and Institutional Capacity

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ukraine
Turkey
Switzerland
Portugal
Malaysia
France
Egypt
Costa Rica
Brazil
Austria
Scientific and Technical Capacity
Capacity for Rigorous Public Debate
Environmental Regulation and Management
Tracking Environmental Conditions
Eco-efficiency
Avoiding Public Choice Failures
Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ukraine
Egypt
Malaysia
Turkey
Brazil
Costa Rica
Portugal
France
Austria
Switzerland
Scientific and Technical Capacity
Capacity for Rigorous Public Debate
Environmental Regulation and Management
Tracking Environmental Conditions
Eco-efficiency
Avoiding Public Choice Failures
Example: Social and Institutional Capacity

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

Example: Social and Institutional Capacity

0
20
40
60
80
100
Vietnam
Ukraine
Colombia
Bulgaria
China
Russia
Venezuela
Egypt
Bolivia
Indonesia
Mexico
India
Philippines
Malaysia
Greece
Zimbabwe
Peru
Ecuador
Czech Republic
Turkey
Poland
Hungary
El Salvador
Jordan
Thailand
Brazil
Slovak Republic
South Africa
Argentina
Mauritius
Chile
Costa Rica
Italy
Korea
Spain
Singapore
Ireland
Portugal
Belgium
United States
Japan
Canada
Australia
France
New Zealand
Iceland
Israel
Germany
United Kingdom
Austria
Norway
Denmark
Finland
Sweden
Netherlands
Switzerland
Longer bars denote greater levels of capacity

Figure 9. Social and Institutional Capacity Component

Scientific and Technical Capacity
Capacity for Rigorous Public Debate
Environmental Regulation and Management
Tracking Environmental Conditions
Eco-efficiency
Avoiding Public Choice Failures
Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

Putting the Index to Use:

Assessing Environment/Economic Tradeoffs

Relationship between Environmental Sustainability and
Economic Growth, 1993-1998
GDP Growth Rate, 1993-1998
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index
80
70
60
50
40
Environmental
sustainability does
not appear to impose
a constraint on
economic growth

Relationship between Environmental Sustainability
and Economic Competitiveness
WEF Competitiveness Index
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index
80
70
60
50
40
As hypothesized by
Michael Porter, there may
be a connection between
good economic
performance and good
environmental
performance

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

Why does this matter?

Four perspectives on the relationship between economic
performance and environmental sustainability

Difficult
tradeoffs


policy
dilemmas

Economics

Environment

Good things go together


policy “free lunch”

All combinations are possible


importance of responsible policy
choices

Good
indicators
are vital

Environmental
Kuznets: just be
patient

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

(
Does the world
really

need another environmental
indicator?)


Measuring
environmental
sustainability is
possible and
useful


This is a surprising,
and encouraging,
result


Some aspects
appear to be
easier to quantify
than others


Some surprises
here (capacity v.
stress)

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012

LIVING GREENER


1.
Save energy and cost

2.
Save and re
-
use water

3.
Reduce wastes and recycle

4.
Travel
snarter

(
Sumber
: http://www.livinggreener.gov.au/)

Energy is connected to nearly every aspect of
daily life. But the energy sources we rely on
most
-

like coal, oil and natural gas
-

are
being used up and can’t be replaced for
millions of years.

Producing energy from these sources also
releases harmful greenhouse gases which
impact our environment.


A future ESI can improve on the Pilot


Investment in data creation


Most global environmental monitoring programs are based on 19
th

century models


time to move forward


Pluralistic, distributed networks (no central bottlenecks)


Greater use of civil society


Remote sensing and other advanced technologies


More sophisticated methods to weight factors and test
validity, understand underlying assumptions and values


Factor analysis, time series analysis, regression analysis


Interactive, open version


Permit users to change factors and variables, change weights, add new
variables


Scalable version


Permit users to integrate global, national, regional and local indicators
as appropriate to their needs

Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012


Environmental Systems



1.
Urban Air Quality

2.
Water Quantity

3.
Water Quality

4.
Biodiversity

5.
Land



Sumber
: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index,
Dan
Esty
, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000.
……………
diunduh

28/11/2012


URBAN AIR
QUALITY


KUALITAS UDARA

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the
requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or
purpose. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration
from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air
pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in
different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and
each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public
health advisories are associated with each AQI range.

The AQI can go up (meaning worse air quality) due to a lack of dilution
of air pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone,
temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pollution remain in a
local area, leading to high concentrations of pollutants and hazy
conditions. An agency might encourage members of the public to take
public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.


INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

An
air quality index

(AQI) is a number used by
government agencies to communicate to the public how
polluted the air is currently or how polluted it is forecast to
become.


As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the
population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse
health effects. Different countries have their own air quality
indices which are not all consistent.

Different countries also use different names for their indices
such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and
Pollutant Standards Index.


Air quality in Canada

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

. Air quality in Canada has been reported for many years with provincial Air Quality
Indices (AQIs). Significantly, AQI values reflect air quality management objectives,
which are based on the lowest achievable emissions rate, and not exclusively concern
for human health. The Air Quality Health Index or (
AQHI
) is a scale designed to help
understand the impact of air quality on health. It is a health protection tool used to
make decisions to reduce short
-
term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity
levels during increased levels of air pollution.


The
Air Quality Health Index

provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the level
of health risk associated with local air quality. On occasion, when the amount of air
pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air
quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight,
and tomorrow, and provides associated health advice.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

+

Risk:

Low
(1
-
3)

Moderate
(4
-
6)

High
(7
-
10)

Very high
(above 10)

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

Health Risk

Air Quality
Health
Index

Health Messages

At Risk population

*General Population

Low

1
-
3

Enjoy

your usual outdoor
activities.

Ideal

air quality for outdoor activities

Moderate

4
-
6

Consider reducing

or
rescheduling strenuous
activities outdoors if you are
experiencing symptoms.

No need to modify

your usual
outdoor activities unless you
experience symptoms such as
coughing and throat irritation.

High

7
-
10

Reduce

or reschedule
strenuous activities outdoors.
Children and the elderly should
also take it easy.

Consider reducing

or rescheduling
strenuous activities outdoors if you
experience symptoms such as
coughing and throat irritation.

Very high

Above 10

Avoid

strenuous activities
outdoors. Children and the
elderly should also avoid
outdoor physical exertion.

Reduce

or reschedule strenuous
activities outdoors, especially if you
experience symptoms such as
coughing and throat irritation.

Air quality in Canada

INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA DI USA

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012


The
United States
Environmental
Protection Agency

(EPA) has developed an
index which they use to
report daily air quality.


This AQI is divided into
six categories indicating
increasing levels of
health concern.


An AQI value over 300
represents hazardous air
quality whereas if it is
below 50 the air quality
is good


Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values

Levels of Health
Concern

Colors

0 to 50

Good

Green

51 to 100

Moderate

Yellow

101 to 150

Unhealthy for
Sensitive Groups

Orange

151 to 200

Unhealthy

Red

201 to 300

Very Unhealthy

Purple

301 to 500

Hazardous

Maroon



Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

. The AQI is based on the five pollutants regulated by the
Clean Air Act
: ground
-
level
ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
The EPA has established
National Ambient Air Quality Standards

for all of these
pollutants to protect public health. An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the
standard for the pollutant.
[3]

The air quality index is a
piecewise linear function

of the pollutant concentration. At
the boundary between AQI categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit.
To convert from concentration to AQI this equation is used:
[15]

where:





I

= the (Air Quality) index,


C = the pollutant concentration,


Clow

= the concentration breakpoint that is ≤ ,


Chigh

= the concentration breakpoint that is ≥ ,


Ilow

= the index breakpoint corresponding to ,


Ihigh

= the index breakpoint corresponding to .




Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index ……………… 28/11/2012

EPA's table of breakpoints for PM
2.5

is:

Category

0

15.4

0

50

Good

15.5

40.4

51

100

Moderate

40.5

65.4

101

150

Unhealthy for Sensitive
Groups

65.5

150.4

151

200

Unhealthy

150.5

250.4

201

300

Very Unhealthy

250.5

350.4

301

400

Hazardous

350.5

500.4

401

500

Hazardous

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

(
IAQ
)

Diunduh

dari
: … http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indoor_air_quality …………… 28/11/2012

Indoor air quality

(
IAQ
) is a term which refers to the
air quality

within and around
buildings

and
structures
, especially as it relates to
the health and comfort of building occupants.

IAQ can be affected by gases (including
carbon monoxide
,
radon
,
volatile organic compounds
),
particulates
,
microbial

contaminants
(
mould
,
bacteria
) or any mass or energy stressor that can induce
adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of
ventilation

to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for
improving indoor air quality in most buildings.

Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring
human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building
surfaces and computer
modelling

of air flow inside buildings.

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

Common pollutants



1.1 Second
-
hand smoke

1.2 Radon

1.3 Moulds and other allergens

1.4 Carbon monoxide

1.5 Volatile organic compounds

1.6
Legionella

1.7 Other bacteria

1.8 Asbestos
fibres

1.9 Carbon dioxide

1.10 Ozone

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

(
IAQ
)

Second
-
hand smoke

Second
-
hand smoke

is tobacco smoke which
affects other people other than the 'active' smoker.
Second
-
hand tobacco smoke includes both a
gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular
hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide
(as indicated below) and very small particulates
(at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural
defences
. The only certain method to improve
indoor air quality as regards second
-
hand smoke
is the implementation of comprehensive
smoke
-
free laws
.




Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

Volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or
liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short
-

and long
-
term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher
indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of
products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint
strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office
equipment such as copiers and printers,
correction fluids

and
carbonless copy paper
,
graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and
photographic solutions.
[5]

Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints,
varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting,
cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals.
All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some
degree, when they are stored. Testing emissions from building materials used indoors
has become increasingly common for floor coverings, paints, and many other
important indoor building materials and finishes.

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ)
:

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.healthyheating.com/Defintion_of_indoor_environmental_quality.htm#.UL0Pr2fRnKQ ………………
4/12/2012

For additional support visit our
client service
page.

Before “indoor environmental quality” or “IEQ”
has completely lost its meaning, we want to bring
attention to its definition which is a
comprehensive term from the field of indoor
climate engineering representing the collective
influence from the indoor environment on all the
physiological sensory systems of the human body
which can be represented by;


IEQ = IAQ +ITQ + ILQ + ISQ + IOQ + IVQ


where

I = Indoor, Q = Quality


and,

A = Air

T = Thermal

L = Lighting

S = Sound

O =
Odour

(odor)

V = Vibrations

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC)

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.blueegg.com/Green
-
Glossary/Volatile
-
organic
-
compound
-
VOC.html ……………… 28/11/2012

A paint job that leaves you lightheaded, or new upholstery that has a funny scent
-
these are VOCs at work.

These insidious chemicals are emitted, at room temperature, from many common
household materials, paints, finishes, furnishings, and textiles. Examples of VOCs
include benzene,
formaldehyde
, and
methylene

chloride. Some occur naturally in the
materials; others are added during the manufacturing process.


The
offgassing

of VOCs can have both short
-

and long
-
term adverse health effects,
ranging from nausea and eye irritation to nervous system damage and cancer. These
days, it's getting easier and easier to find no
-
VOC and low
-
VOC products such as
paints, adhesives, and fabrics.


Concentrations of VOCs in the air are considerably higher indoors than out, and VOCs
in poorly ventilated buildings are a major cause of
sick building syndrome (SBS)
.
Look for products that are free of these chemicals whenever possible; otherwise, when
using paints, varnishes, cleaning solvents, or any other products that contain them,
take care to ventilate the work area well and dispose of the leftovers and waste
properly afterward.



WATER QUALITY


It’s a simple fact
-

we can’t live without water.

People use it every day for drinking, washing and cooking, as well as for
irrigating crops and generating electricity. Water is also essential for
maintaining the health of natural systems, which in turn support us.

There are many actions to take to use water wisely at home and in the garden to
help secure water for our future.

Sumber
: http://www.livinggreener.gov.au/water)

KUALITAS AIR

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012

Water quality

refers to the chemical, physical and biological
characteristics of water.


It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of
one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.
[2]

It
is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against
which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards
used to assess water quality relate to health of
ecosystems
, safety of
human contact and
drinking water
.


The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use.
Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is
treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment.

ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012

Environmental water quality, also called
ambient water quality,

relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water
quality standards for surface waters vary significantly due to different
environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses.
Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can
present a health hazard for non
-
drinking purposes such as irrigation,
swimming, fishing, rafting, boating, and industrial uses. These
conditions may also affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or
as a habitat. Modern water quality laws generally specify protection of
fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of
current quality standards

Freshwater environmental quality parameters

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_environmental_quality_parameters ……………… 28/11/2012


Freshwater environmental quality parameters

are the natural
and man
-
made
chemical
,
biological

and
microbiological

characteristics of
rivers
,
lakes

and
ground
-
waters
, the ways they are
measured and the ways that they change.


The values or concentrations attributed to such
parameters

can be
used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic
status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular
organisms being present.


Monitoring of environmental quality parameters is a key activity in
managing the environment, restoring polluted environments and
anticipating the effects of man
-
made changes on the environment.


HUMAN CONSUMPTION

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


Contaminants that may be in untreated water include
microorganisms

such as
viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as
salts

and
metals
;
organic
chemical

contaminants from industrial processes and
petroleum

use;
pesticides

and
herbicides
; and
radioactive

contaminants. Water quality depends on the local
geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial
pollution, use of water bodies as a
heat sink
, and overuse (which may lower the level
of the water).


In urbanized areas throughout the world,
water purification

technology is used in
municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water (surface
water or
groundwater
) before it is distributed to homes, businesses, schools and
other users. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or
aquifer

and that has no
treatment will be of uncertain quality.


INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC USE

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012

Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of
industrial and domestic purposes.

The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium
and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and
can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or
boilers.


Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening
process often substitutes sodium
cations
.


Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption,
since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and
with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may sacrifice
nutrition for cleaning effectiveness

DRINKING WATER INDICATORS

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


1.
An electrical conductivity meter is used to measure total dissolved solids

2.
The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:

3.
Alkalinity

4.
Color of water

5.
pH

6.
Taste and odor (
geosmin
, 2
-
Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.)

7.
Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese,
magnesium)

8.
Microorganisms such as fecal
coliform

bacteria (
Escherichia coli
),
Cryptosporidium, and
Giardia

lamblia

9.
Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)

10.
Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved
organic carbon (DOC)

11.
Radon

12.
Heavy metals

13.
Pharmaceuticals

14.
Hormone analogs.


INDICATOR OF WATER

Diunduh

dari
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012

Physical Indicators/ assessment


1.
Water Temperature

2.
Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical
Conductance, Conductivity

3.
Total suspended solids (TSS)

4.
Transparency or Turbidity

5.
Total dissolved solids (TDS)

6.
Odor of Water

7.
Color of water

8.
Taste of Water


Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

Chemical Indicators/ assessment


1.
pH

2.
Total Hardness, Hard water, TH = Permanent Hardness +
Temporary Hardness

3.
Dissolved oxygen (DO)

4.
Nitrat
-
N

5.
Orthofosfat

6.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

7.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

8.
Pestisida

9.
Logam
-
logam

berat
.


INDICATOR OF WATER

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

Biological Indicators/ assessment

1.
Ephemeroptera

2.
Plecoptera

3.
Trichoptera

4.
Escherichia Coli or
E.Coli

or
E.coli

5.
Coliform

Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely
used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders
Ephemeroptera
,
Plecoptera

and
Trichoptera

(EPT).


EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the
greater the number of
taxa

from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and
other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring
program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders.


Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab
scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water
quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which
includes a benthic
macroinvertebrate

indicator key.


INDICATOR OF WATER

WATER QUALITY
INDEX

Diunduh

dari
: http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/watershed/wqi_info.html ……………… 28/11/2012


A water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses
overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water
quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality
data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This
type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s
a red or blue air quality day.


The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among
water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water
quality; there are many other water quality parameters that are not included in
the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human health
or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very
important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives
the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region.




Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012


.

Water Quality Standards and Reports

1. WHO Guideline

World Health
Organisation

(
WHO
) guideline for Drinking Water Standards.


2. ICMR

Standards

ICMR

Standards for Drinking Water.


3. International standards or ISI
Satandards

Water quality regulated by the
International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) is covered in the section of
ICS 13.060,
[19]

ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water,
sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological
properties. ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems.
[20]




Diunduh

dari
: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


.

Water Quality Criteria



Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act requires us to develop criteria for water
quality that accurately reflects the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are
based solely on data and scientific judgments on pollutant concentrations and
environmental or human health effects. Section 304(a) also provides guidance to
states and tribes in adopting water quality standards. Criteria are developed for the
protection of
aquatic life

as well as for
human health
.


More general
information on criteria
.




Diunduh

dari
: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


.

Aquatic Life

Aquatic Life

criteria lists chemical concentration goals to protect surface water for
aquatic life use.

Biological

criteria are based on the numbers and kinds of organisms present and
describe the biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting surface waters.

Nutrients

are substances used by living things that promote growth (e.g., nitrogen
and phosphorus). We are developing nutrient criteria to prevent over enrichment in
surface waters of the U.S.




Diunduh

dari
: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


.

Human Health

Human Health

includes technical information and guidance on surface water,
drinking water and
microbials
.

Microbial (Pathogen)

criteria are used to protect the public from exposure to
harmful levels of pathogens in ground and surface waters, food sources, and
finished drinking water.

Recreational Criteria

protect people who swim and play in coastal recreational
waters from exposure to pathogens. We held an Experts Scientific Workshop to help
map our future directions.




Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx…………
…… 28/11/2012


.

Water Quality Index and Indicators

The integrity of an ecosystem is typically assessed through its ability to provide
goods and services on a continuous basis. Together with the air we breathe, the
provision of clean water is arguably the most fundamental service provided by
ecosystems. Yet, human activities have fundamentally altered inland water
ecosystems and their catchments. As a consequence species dependant on inland
waters are more likely to go extinct, and future extinction rates of freshwater
animals could be up to 5 times higher than for terrestrial animals.

Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a
water body. These characteristics determine how and for what water can be used
and the species and ecosystem process it can support.




Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx
……………… 28/11/2012

.

Global Drinking Water Quality Index


Drinking Water Quality Index (
DWQI
)

all parameters regardless of WHO designation

Source Water Quality Index (
SWQI
)

health and microbial criteria only

arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate,
nitrite,
faecal

coliforms

Acceptability Water Quality Index (
AWQI
)

acceptability criteria only

ammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium,
sulphate
, zinc

4X4 Rule:


Each parameter that contributes to the index must be measured at least 4 times
per year at stations that have measured a minimum of 4 parameters per year.


Calculation of Global Water Quality Indices

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx
……………… 28/11/2012



Diunduh

dari
: http://analegeo.ro/wp
-
content/uploads/2010/12/5.
-
IONUS
-
Oana.pdf ……………… 28/11/2012

.

In most of the cases, this index represents a numerical expression used in the

assessment of the flowing water quality, through the framing of the values in five

classes on the interval going from 1 to 100; a certain quality state, respectively a

usage domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006).

The raw values of each quality parameter must be compared with the

standard threshold values that are taken into account for the computation of the

index, in the view of the qualitative assessment. In all cases when the index must

be determinate, the computation formula is the following:





WQI


the Water Quality Index

i



the quality parameter

qi



the registered value

wi



the rank of implication of the parameter in the computation formula


The
values of the Water Quality Index that were thus obtained are

distributed on a number of intervals, which render the quality of the respective

water and the usage domain (Table no. 1): 10

25 percent
-

highly polluted; 26

50

percent
-

polluted; 51

70 percent
-

reasonable; 71

90 percent
-

good; 91

100

percent
-

very good (House and Ellis, 1987).


WATER
QUANTITY


DOMESTIC WATER QUANTITY, SERVICE LEVEL AND HEALTH

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/wsh0302/en/ ……………… 4/12/2012

The quantity of water delivered and used for households is an important aspect of domestic
water supplies, which influences hygiene and therefore public health.


Summary of requirement for water service level to promote health

Service level


Access measure

Needs met


Level of health

concern


No access (quantity

collected often

below 5
l/c
/d)

More than 1000m or

30 minutes total

collection time

Consumption


cannot be assured

Hygiene


not possible (unless

practised

at source)

Very high

Basic access

(average quantity

unlikely to exceed

20
l/c
/d)

Between 100 and

1000m or 5 to 30

minutes total

collection time

Consumption


should be assured

Hygiene


handwashing

and basic food

hygiene possible; laundry/

bathing difficult to assure unless

carried out at source

High

Intermediate access

(average quantity

about 50
l/c
/d)

Water delivered

through one tap
onplot

(or within 100m

or 5 minutes total

collection time

Consumption


assured

Hygiene


all basic personal and food

hygiene assured; laundry and bathing

should also be assured

Low

Optimal access

(average quantity

100
l/c
/d and above)

Water supplied

through multiple taps

continuously

Consumption


all needs met

Hygiene


all needs should be met


Very Low

WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION

The quantity of water required for municipal uses for which the water
supply scheme has to be designed requires following data:


1.
Water consumption rate
(Per Capita Demand in
litres

per day per
head)

2.
Population to be served.



Quantity= Per capita demand x Population


Water Consumption Rate

It is very difficult to precisely assess the quantity of water demanded by
the public, since there are many variable factors affecting water
consumption. The various types of water demands, which a city may
have, may be broken into following classes:


Water Consumption for Various Purposes:

Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm ………………
4/12/2012

WATER CONSUMPTION FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES

Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012



Types of Consumption

Normal Range
(lit/capita/day)

Average

%

1

Domestic Consumption

65
-
300

160

35

2

Industrial and
Commercial Demand

45
-
450

135

30

3

Public Uses including Fire
Demand

20
-
90

45

10

4

Losses and Waste

45
-
150

62

25

FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND

The per capita fire demand is very less on an average basis but the rate at
which the water is required is very large.

The rate of fire demand is sometimes
traeted

as a function of population
and is worked out from following empirical formulae:

Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012

Authority

Formulae (P in thousand)

Q for 1 lakh
Population)

1

American
Insurance
Association

Q (L/min)=4637 ÖP (1
-
0.01 ÖP)

41760

2

Kuchling's Formula

Q (L/min)=3182 ÖP

31800

3

Freeman's Formula

Q (L/min)= 1136.5(P/5+10)

35050

4

Ministry of Urban
Development
Manual Formula

Q (kilo liters/d)=100 ÖP for P>50000

31623

FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND:

1.
Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cities is generally large as
compared to that for smaller towns as big cities have
sewered

houses.

2.
Adanya

industri
-
industri
.

3.
Kondisi

iklim
.

4.
Perilaku

kebiasaan

orang

dan

status
ekonominya
.

5.
Kualitas

air: If water is aesthetically $ medically safe, the consumption
will increase as people will not resort to private wells, etc.

6.
Pressure in the distribution system.

7.
Efficiency of water works administration: Leaks in water mains and
services; and
unauthorised

use of water can be kept to a minimum by
surveys.

8.
Biaya

air.

9.
Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two
different ways: on the basis of meter reading and on the basis of certain
fixed monthly rate.

Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012

FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND


Average Daily Per Capita Demand




= Quantity Required in 12 Months/ (365 x Population)


If this average demand is supplied at all the times, it will not be sufficient to meet the
fluctuations.


1.
Seasonal variation
: The demand peaks during summer. Firebreak outs are
generally more in summer, increasing demand. So, there is seasonal variation .

2.
Daily variation
depends on the activity. People draw out more water on Sundays
and Festival days, thus increasing demand on these days.

3.
Hourly variations
are very important as they have a wide range. During active
household working hours i.e. from six to ten in the morning and four to eight in the
evening, the bulk of the daily requirement is taken. During other hours the
requirement is negligible. Moreover, if a fire breaks out, a huge quantity of water is
required to be supplied during short duration, necessitating the need for a
maximum rate of hourly supply.


Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012


The

adequate quantity of water must be available to meet the peak demand. To
meet all the fluctuations, the supply pipes, service reservoirs and distribution pipes
must be properly proportioned.

The water is supplied by pumping directly and the pumps and distribution system
must be designed to meet the peak demand. The effect of monthly variation
influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the
design of pumps and service reservoirs.

As the population decreases, the fluctuation rate increases.


Maximum daily demand
= 1.8 x average daily demand


Maximum hourly demand of maximum day i.e. Peak demand





= 1.5 x average hourly demand


= 1.5 x Maximum daily demand/24



= 1.5 x (1.8 x average daily demand)/24



= 2.7 x average daily demand/24



= 2.7 x annual average hourly demand


Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012

FLUCTUATIONS IN RATE OF DEMAND

DESIGN PERIODS & POPULATION FORECAST

This quantity should be worked out with due provision for the
estimated requirements of the future . The future period for which a
provision is made in the water supply scheme is known as the
design
period
.


Design period is estimated based on the following:

1.
Useful life of the component, considering obsolescence, wear, tear,
etc.

2.
Expandability aspect.

3.
Anticipated rate of growth of population, including industrial,
commercial developments & migration
-
immigration.

4.
Available resources.

5.
Performance of the system during initial period.

Diunduh

dari
: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
KANPUR/wasteWater/Lecture%202.htm………………
4/12/2012

WATER QUANTITY STRESS

Diunduh

dari
: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation
-
ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

The word stress is used to talk about problems with water quantity, or
the ability of a drinking water system to supply enough water.


It is important to understand when, where and how water is leaving a drinking water
source and compare it to how quickly that source can be naturally replenished. It is
also important to look at water takings and water supply trends.


What results from looking at all of these factors is a water budget, which is useful in
predicting water supply shortages and planning for those shortages. Water quantity
stresses can lead to water quality issues as too little water in a source can mean
contaminants are more concentrated and therefore, may be above acceptable levels.


Water quantity stressors include :

1.
water that is taken by municipalities for drinking water;

2.
water that is taken by industry for manufacturing processing;

3.
water that is taken by business for activities such as food and beverage
processing;

4.
water that is taken by agricultural for irrigation;

5.
private well use.

POTENTIAL WATER QUANTITY ISSUES

Taking too much water from a source of water, such as a surface water
body or aquifer, can mean that the water source is stressed.

This may develop into to a water quantity issue should more water be
taken from a source than can be naturally replenished.

Some of the common reasons for taking water include:


1.
Municipal water takings for domestic, industrial, commercial and
institutional use

2.
Agricultural water takings

3.
Private wells taking water for domestic use

4.
Industrial takings such as for aggregate extraction, mining, forestry,
food processing,

5.
bottled water and greenhouse operations

6.
Recreational takings such as for golf courses and bait harvesters in
some areas.


Diunduh

dari
: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation
-
ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

THE THINGS TO PROTECT WATER:

1.
Conserve water. Not only is conserving water helpful to maintaining a constant supply of drinking water,
too little water in a source can mean contaminants are more concentrated and, therefore, may be above
acceptable levels.

2.
Be an avid recycler. Recycling paper products, glass, metals and plastics cuts down on pollution and also
reduces the amount of water we use. Manufacturing recycled paper uses 58% less water than making paper
from virgin wood pulp. Making glass from recycled materials cuts related air pollution 20% and water
pollution 50%.

3.
Dispose of hazardous waste properly. Take unused paints, cleaners, pesticides, and medical prescriptions
to your local hazardous waste facility. Take used engine oil to recycling facilities. Use drop cloths or tarps
when working with hazardous materials such as paints, driveway sealers or wood stain to prevent spills
from leaking into the ground. If a spill occurs, clean it up with an absorbent material such as kitty litter or
sawdust and scoop the contaminant into a container.

4.
Use non
-
toxic products for cleaning and environmentally
-
friendly soaps, shampoos and personal care
products. Remember that what you use in your house goes back down your drain.

5.
Clean up pet waste which contains nutrients and pathogens that can run into storm sewers during a rain
storm.

6.
Prevent pollutants from entering into runoff by reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides, fertilizers,
sidewalk salts and by not over
-
watering your lawn. If you run an agricultural operation and haven’t
already, consider developing and implementing a Nutrient Management Plan.

7.
Take care when refueling gas tanks for cars, lawn mowers, chainsaws, weed trimmers, tractors or other
machinery to avoid spilling fuel on the ground. Also take care when changing engine oil. One
litre

of gas or
oil can contaminate a million
litres

of groundwater.

8.
Take your car to commercial car washes designed to prevent pollutant runoff from entering storm sewers.
Use commercial car washes that use water efficient sprays, reducing their water consumption

Diunduh

dari
: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation
-
ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

SOME WAYS TO PROTECT WATER FOR THOSE WHO LIVE ON RURAL
PROPERTIES INCLUDE:


1.
Keep your septic system in proper working order and empty the tank
regularly.

2.
Protect and maintain your private well. Wells provide pathways for
contaminants to enter the groundwater. If you have a well, be sure it
is sealed properly and if you own a well you no longer use, have it
properly decommissioned by a licensed well technician. Test your
well water regularly to ensure the water is safe to drink.

3.
Manage animal waste on farms to prevent water contamination.

4.
Manage livestock grazing. Overgrazing exposes soil and increases
erosion.

5.
Protect the vegetation along the banks of ponds, streams and lakes to
help control erosion, provide food for aquatic life, and maintain
cooler water temperatures necessary for some species of fish.


Diunduh

dari
: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:qlbP8LaJgEgJ:www.conservation
-
ontario.on.ca/… 4/12/2012

WATER QUANTITY EVALUATION

Diunduh

dari
: http://environment.alberta.ca/01555.html ……………… 4/12/2012

Water quantity is evaluated differently for rivers and streams, lakes and
groundwater.


1.
Rivers and streams.
Streamflow

hydrographs record data from gauges installed
in waterways, indicating how much water flows past a fixed point, over time.

2.
Lakes.
Lake bathymetry uses sonar devices to measure variations in water depth,
then links this measurement to the lake's surface area and volume change with
depth. This allows for estimates of water gained and lost as the lake's level goes up or
down. Bathymetric surveys are commercially available for many Alberta lakes.

3.
Groundwater .
Difficult to quantify because of geological variables, but can be
achieved using computer flow modeling. A pump test can demonstrate the
sustainable productivity of a single, groundwater well. However the groundwater
resource of an entire area is at best an approximation.

4.
Precipitation .
Alberta Environment and its stakeholders have a network of
precipitation gauges throughout the province, providing a good measure of
distribution and quantity of the province's rainfall. This is critical in evaluating
potential water availability. Alberta also collects real time precipitation from many
stations and regularly produces summary maps of the province
-
wide distribution of
precipitation.



BIODIVERSITY
QUALITY


BIODIVERSITY = KEANEKA RAGAMAN HAYATI

Diunduh

dari
: http://woentari
-
monica.blogspot.com/2012/05/pengertian
-
keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dari.html………………
4/12/2012

1.
Keragaman

hayati

(
biodiversity
atau

biological diversity
)
merupakan

istilah

yang
digunakan

untuk

menggambarkan

kekayaan

berbagai

bentuk

kehidupan

di

bumi

ini

mulai

dari

organisme

bersel

tunggal

sampai

organisme

tingkat

tinggi
.
Keragaman

hayati

mencakup

keragaman

habitat,
keragaman

spesies

(
jenis
)
dan

keragaman

genetik

(
variasi

sifat

dalam

spesies
)


2.
Keanekaragaman

Hayati

adalah

tingkat

variasi

bentuk

kehidupan

dalam

suatu

ekosistem

tertentu
,
bioma
,
atau

seluruh

planet.
Keanekaragaman

Hayati

adalah

ukuran

dari

kesehatan

ekosistem
.
Keanekaragaman

Hayati

adalah

sebagian

fungsi

dari

iklim
.
Pada

habitat
darat
,
daerah

tropis

biasanya

kaya

sedangkan

daerah
-
daerah

kutub

dukungan

spesies

yang
lebih

sedikit
.
Perubahan

lingkungan

yang
cepat

biasanya

menyebabkan

kepunahan

massa
.
Salah

satu

perkiraan

adalah

bahwa

kurang

dari

1%
dari

spesies

yang
telah

ada

di

Bumi

yang
masih

ada
.


3.
Keanekaragaman

Hayati

adalah

keseluruhan

variasi

berupa

bentuk
,
penampilan
,
jumlah
,
dan

sifat

yang
dapat

ditemukan

pada

makhluk

hidup.Keanekaragaman

hayati

merupakan

lahan

penelitian

dan

pengembangan

ilmu

yang
sangat

berguna

untuk

kehidupan

manusia
.


KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI

Diunduh

dari
: http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/andreas.pramudianto/2009/02/27/keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dalam
-
hukum
-
lingkungan
-
internasional/ ……………… 4/12/2012

Keanekaragaman

hayati

menekankan

pada

semua

jenis

spesies

tumbuhan
,
hewan

dan

mikroorganisme

juga

dengan

ekosistimnya

dimana

mereka

merupakan

bagian

yang
tak

terpisahkan
,
termasuk

jumlah

dan

frekuensi

ekosistem
,
spesies

dan

gen yang
saling

berkaitan
.


Ada

tiga

macam

keanekaragaman

hayati
,
yaitu

:


a.
Keanekaragaman

spesies

(Species Diversity)

b.
Keanekaragaman

ekosistem

(Ecosystem Diversity)

c.
Keanekaragaman

genetika

(Genetic Diversity)


Keanekaragaman

spesies

/
jenis

(Species Diversity)

Keanekaragaman

spesies

terbentuk

oleh

adanya

kesesuaian

kandungan

genetika

yang
mengatur

sifat

dari

kebakaan

dengan

lingkungan

terhadap

anggota

jenis

yang
sama

yang
dalam

hal

ini

memiliki

kerangka

dasar
,
komponen

genetika

khususnya

kromosom

yang
sama
.


Diunduh

dari
: http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/andreas.pramudianto/2009/02/27/keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dalam
-
hukum
-
lingkungan
-
internasional/ ……………… 4/12/2012

Species Richness Index: Simpson’s
Index


Simpson gave the probability of any two individuals drawn
at random from an infinitely large community belonging to
different species.

The Simpson index is therefore expressed as 1
-
D or 1/D.


Simpson’s index is heavily weighed towards the most
abundant species in the sample while being less sensitive to
species richness. It has been shown that once the number of
species exceeds 10 the underlying species abundance
distribution is important in determining whether the index
has a high or low value.

The D value which is standing for the dominance index is
used in pollution monitoring studies. As D increases,
diversity decreases.


(
diunduh

dari
:
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:CN372gBQkCwJ:ocw.unu.edu/)

Species Diversity Indices: Shannon
-
Wiener Index

Shannon and Wiener independently derived the function which has become known as
Shannon index of diversity. This indeed assumes that individuals are randomly
sampled from an independently large population.

The index also assumes that all the species are represented in the sample. Log2 is
often used for calculating this diversity index but any log base may be used. It is of
course essential to be consistent in the choice of log base when comparing diversity
between samples or estimating evenness.


The value of Shannon diversity is usually found to fall between 1.5 and 3.5 and only
rarely it surpasses 4.5. It has been reported that under log normal distribution, 105
specieswillbe

needed to produce a value of Shannon diversity more than 5. Expected
Shannon diversity is also used (Exp H’) as an alternative to H’. Exp H’ is equivalent to
the number of equally common species required to produce the value of H’ given by
the sample.

The observed diversity (H’) is always compared with maximum Shannon diversity
(
Hmax
) which could possibly occur in a situation where all species were equally
Abundant.


Species Diversity Indices


Shannon
-
Wiener Index

Shannon and Wiener independently derived the function which has


become known as Shannon index of diversity. This indeed assumes that


individuals are randomly sampled from an independently large


population. The index also assumes that all the species are represented


in the sample. Log
2
is often used for calculating this diversity index but


any log base may be used. It is of course essential to be consistent in the


choice of log base when comparing diversity between samples or


estimating evenness. The value of Shannon diversity is usually found to


fall between 1.5 and 3.5 and only rarely it surpasses 4.5. It has been


reported that under log normal distribution, 10
5
specieswillbe needed to


produce a value of Shannon diversity more than 5. Expected Shannon


diversity is also used (Exp H’) as an alternative to H’. Exp H’ is


equivalent to the number of equally common species required to


produce the value of H’ given by the sample. The observed diversity


(H’) is always compared with maximum Shannon diversity (H
max
) which


could possibly occur in a situation where all species were equally


abundan

Diunduh

dari
: http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/andreas.pramudianto/2009/02/27/keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dalam
-
hukum
-
lingkungan
-
internasional/ ……………… 4/12/2012

Keanekaragaman

ekosistem

(Ecosystem Diversity)


Merupakan

suatu

kesatuan

lingkungan

yang
melibatkan

unsur
-
unsur

biotik
,
faktor

fisik

(
iklim
,
tanah

dan

air)
dan

faktor

kimia

(
keasaman
) yang
saling

berinteraksi
.


Beberapa

tipe

(
kelompok
)
keanekaragaman

ekosistem

antara

lain :

1.
Ekosistem

bahari
:
Terdiri

dari

ekosistem

laut

dan

ekosistem

pantai

2.
Ekosistem

darat
”:
Terdiri

dari

vegetasi

dataran

rendah
,
vegetasi

pegunungan

dan

vegetasi

munson
.


Diunduh

dari
: http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/andreas.pramudianto/2009/02/27/keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dalam
-
hukum
-
lingkungan
-
internasional/ ……………… 4/12/2012

An ecosystem is a community plus the physical environment
that it occupies at a given time. An ecosystem can exist at any
scale, for example, from the size of a small tide pool up to the
size of the entire biosphere. However, lakes, marshes, and
forest stands represent more typical examples of the areas
that are compared in discussions of ecosystem diversity.


The diversity of an ecosystem is dependent on the physical
characteristics of the environment, the diversity of species
present, and the interactions that the species have with each
other and with the environment. Therefore, the functional
complexity of an ecosystem can be expected to increase with
the number and taxonomic diversity of the species present,
and the vertical and horizontal complexity of the physical
environment.


(
Sumber
: http://cnx.org/content/m12156/latest/#roth)

KEANEKARAGAMAN GENETIKA
(GENETIC DIVERSITY)


Setiap

kerangka

dasar

komponen

genetika

tersusun

ribuan

faktor

kebakaan

keturunan
.


Satu

faktor

pengatur

kebakaan

disebut

gen,
suatu

lingkungan

yang
memuat

tumbuhan

yang liar/
sudah

didomestikasi
.


Diunduh

dari
: http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/andreas.pramudianto/2009/02/27/keanekaragaman
-
hayati
-
dalam
-
hukum
-
lingkungan
-
internasional/ ……………… 4/12/2012

Keanekaragaman

genetik

(
genetic diversity
)
adalah

suatu

tingkatan

biodiversitas

yang
merujuk

pada

jumlah

total
variasi

genetik

dalam

keseluruhan

spesies

yang
mendiami

sebagian

atau

seluruh

permukaan

bumi

yang
dapat

didiami
.
Ia

berbeda

dari

variabilitas

genetik
, yang
menjelaskan

kecenderungan

kemampuan

suatu

karakter
/
sifat

untuk

bervariasi

yang
dikendalikan

secara

genetik
.


Pengukuran

keanekaragaman

genetik

Keanekaragaman

genetika

suatu

populasi

dapat

diperkirakan

dengan

menggunakan

beberapa

pengukuran

sederhana
.


1.
Keanekaragaman

gen
,
adalah

proporsi

lokus

polimorfik

diseluruh

genom
.

2.
Heterozigositas
,
adalah

jumlah

rata
-
rata
individu

dengan

lokus

polimorfik
.

3.
Alel

per
lokus
,
juga

digunakan

untuk

mendemonstrasikan

variabilitas
.


(
sumber
: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keanekaragaman_genetik)



Diunduh

dari
: http://www.environmentabout.com/820/ecosystem
-
biodiversity
-
and
-
types
-
of
-
biodiversity ……………… 4/12/2012

ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY
implies the existence of
different species within an ecosystem. It can also be defined
as the degree of variations among the life forms in an
ecosystem or planet.


ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
is the variety of different
natural systems or ecosystems in a particular area.


Examples of ecosystem diversity are deserts, forests,
wetlands, rain
-
forests, marine ecosystems etc.



LAND
QUALITY


LAND

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

. The holistic concept of
Land

was already recognized in the Framework
for Land Evaluation (FAO 1976), repeated implicitly in UNCED's
chapter 10 of 1993, and formally described in FAO 1995. It reads:


"Land is a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface,
encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or
below this surface, including those of the near
-
surface climate, the soil
and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes,
rivers, marshes and swamps), the near
-
surface sedimentary layers and
associated groundwater reserve, the plant and animal populations, the
human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present
human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads,
buildings, etc.)."

LAND FUNCTION

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

The various
functions

of land are also described in FAO's 1995 background paper:

1.
L
and is the basis for many life support systems, through production of biomass that provides food,
fodder,
fibre
, fuel, timber and other biotic materials for human use, either directly or through
animal husbandry including aquaculture and inland and coastal fishery (the
production

function);

2.
Land is the basis of terrestrial biodiversity by providing the biological habitats and gene reserves
for plants, animals and micro
-
organisms, above and below ground (the
biotic environmental

function);

3.
L
and and its use are a source and sink of greenhouse gases and form a co
-
determinant of the
global energy balance
-

reflection, absorption and transformation of
radiative

energy of the sun,
and of the global hydrological cycle (the
climate regulative

function);

4.
L
and regulates the storage and flow of surface and groundwater resources, and influences their
quality (the
hydrologic

function);

5.
L
and is a storehouse of raw materials and minerals for human use (the
storage

function);

6.
L
and has a receptive, filtering, buffering and transforming function of hazardous compounds (the
waste and pollution control

function);

7.
L
and provides the physical basis for human settlements, industrial plants and social activities such
as sports and recreation (the
living space

function);

8.
L
and is a medium to store and protect the evidence of the cultural history of humankind, and
source of information on past climatic conditions and past land uses (the archive or
heritage

function);

9.
L
and provides space for the transport of people, inputs and produce, and for the movement of
plants and animals between discrete areas of natural ecosystems (
connective space

function).

LAND ATTRIBUTES

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

Land has attributes, characteristics, properties and qualities
(or limitations/conditions):


1.
A
n
attribute,

or
variable, is

a neutral, over
-
arching term for a single or compound
aspect of the land;

2.
A

characteristic

is an attribute which is easily noticed and which serves as a
distinguishing element for different types of land; it may or may not have a
practical meaning (e.g., soil
colour

or texture, or height of forest cover are
characteristics without giving direct information on land quality);

3.
A

property

is an attribute that already gives a degree of information on the value
of the land type;

4.
A

land quality

(or limitation) is a complex attribute of land which acts in a manner
distinct from the actions of other land qualities in its influence on the suitability of
land for a specified kind of use.


LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY FROM CROPS OR OTHER
PLANT GROWTH

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

1.
Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below).

2.
Moisture availability.

3.
Nutrient availability.

4.
Oxygen availability in the root zone.

5.
Adequacy of foothold for roots.

6.
Conditions for germination.

7.
Workability of the land (ease of cultivation).

8.
Salinity or
sodicity
.

9.
Soil toxicity.

10.
Resistance to soil erosion.

11.
Pests and diseases related to the land.

12.
Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation).

13.
Temperature regime.

14.
Radiation energy and photoperiod.

15.
Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost).

16.
Air humidity as affecting plant growth.

17.
Drying periods for ripening of crops.


LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO DOMESTIC ANIMAL
PRODUCTIVITY

Diunduh

dari
: ……………… 28/11/2012

1.
Productivity of grazing land

2.
Climatic hardships affecting animals.

3.
Endemic pests and diseases.

4.
Nutritive value of grazing land.

5.
Toxicity of grazing land.

6.
Resistance to degradation of vegetation.

7.
Resistance to soil erosion under grazing conditions.

8.
Availability of drinking water.


LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO FOREST PRODUCTIVITY

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

1.

The qualities listed may refer to natural
forests, forestry plantations, or both.

2.
Mean annual increments of timber species
(a resultant of many qualities listed under
"Atmospheric qualities“).

3.
Types and quantities of indigenous timber
species.

4.
Site factors affecting establishment of young
trees.

5.
Pests and diseases.

6.
Fire hazard.


LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT AND INPUTS

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

1.
The qualities listed may refer to arable use, animal
production or forestry.

2.
Terrain factors affecting mechanization (
trafficability
).

3.
Terrain factors affecting construction and maintenance of
access
-
roads (accessibility).

4.
Size of potential management units (e.g. forest blocks, farms,
fields).

5.
Location in relation to markets and to supplies of inputs.


Land qualities related to vertical components of a
natural land unit

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012


ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES


1.
Atmospheric moisture
supply: rainfall, length of
growing season,
evaporation, dew
formation.

2.
Atmospheric energy for
photosynthesis:
temperature,
daylength
,
sunshine conditions.

3.
Atmospheric conditions for
crop ripening, harvesting
and land preparation:
occurrence of dry spells.


Land qualities related to vertical components of a
natural land unit

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

LAND COVER QUALITIES


1.
Value of the standing vegetation as "crop", such as
timber.

2.
Value of the standing vegetation as germ
plasm
:
biodiversity value.

3.
Value of the standing vegetation as protection
against degradation of soils and catchment.

4.
Value of the standing vegetation as regulator of
local and regional climatic conditions.

5.
Regeneration capacity of the vegetation after
complete removal.

6.
Value of the standing vegetation as shelter for crops
and cattle against adverse atmospheric influences.

7.
Hindrance of vegetation at introduction of crops
and pastures: the land "development" costs.

8.
Incidence of above
-
ground pests and vectors of
diseases: health risks of humans and animals.


Land qualities related to vertical components of a
natural land unit

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

LAND SURFACE AND TERRAIN QUALITIES


1.
Surface receptivity as seedbed: the
tilth

condition.

2.
Surface treatability: the bearing capacity for cattle, machinery, etc.

3.
Surface limitations for the use of implements (stoniness, stickiness, etc.): the
arability.

4.
Spatial regularity of soil and terrain pattern, determining size and shape of
fields with a capacity for uniform management.

5.
Surface liability to deformation: the occurrence or hazard of wind and water
erosion.

6.
Accessibility of the land: the degree of remoteness from means of transport.

7.
The presence of open freshwater bodies for use by humans, animals or
fisheries.

8.
Surface water storage capacity of the terrain: the presence or potential of
ponds, on
-
farm reservoirs, bunds, etc.

9.
Surface propensity to yield run
-
off water, for local water harvesting or
downstream water supply.

10.
Accumulation position of the land: degree of fertility renewal or crop
damaging by overflow or
overblow
.

Land qualities related to vertical components of a
natural land unit

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

SOIL QUALITIES

1.
Physical soil fertility: the net moisture storage capacity in the
rootable

zone.

2.
Physical soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of
waterlogging

in the
rootable

zone (i.e. the absence of oxygen).

3.
Chemical soil fertility: the availability of plant nutrients.

4.
Chemical soil toxicity: salinity or
salinization

hazard; excess of
exchangeable sodium.

5.
Biological soil fertility: the N
-
fixation capacity of the soil biomass;
and its capacity for soil organic matter turnover.

6.
Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil
-
borne pests
and diseases.

7.
Substratum (and soil profile) as source of construction materials.

8.
Substratum (and soil profile) as source of minerals.

9.
Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil
-
borne pests
and diseases.


Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

SUBSTRATUM OR UNDERGROUND
QUALITIES



1.
Groundwater level and quality in relation to
(irrigated) land use.

2.
Substratum potential for water storage (local use)
and conductance (downstream use).

3.
Presence of unconfined freshwater aquifers.

4.
Substratum (and soil profile) suitability for
foundation works (buildings, roads, canals, etc.)


Land qualities related to vertical components of a
natural land unit

LAND DEGRADATION CRITERIA

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012

1.

Light degradation: The terrain has somewhat reduced
agricultural suitability, but is suitable for use in local farming
systems. Restoration to full productivity is possible by
modifications of the management system. Original biotic
functions are still largely intact.

2.
Moderate degradation: The terrain has greatly reduced
agricultural productivity but is still suitable for use in local
farming systems. Major improvements are required to restore
productivity. Original biotic functions are partially destroyed.

3.
Strong degradation: The terrain is non
-
reclaimable at farm
level. Major engineering works are required for terrain
restoration. Original biotic functions are largely destroyed.

4.
Extreme degradation: The terrain is
unreclaimable

and beyond
restoration. Original biotic functions are fully destroyed.

LAND EVALUATION

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e05.htm#land%20resources%20evaluation%20and%20the%20role%20of%20land%2
0related%20indicators……………… 28/11/2012