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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Cellular and Molecuar Biology

syllabus

for 1
st

year pharmacy students


1.

Subject, place and significance of biology. Basic methods in biology.

2.

Molecular organization of life.
Organic compounds. Proteins


structure and
functions.

3.

Nucleic acids.
DNA


struct
ure and biological functions.

4.

Nucleic acids.
RNA


types and biological functions.

Self
-
assembly of
macromolecul
e
s.

5.

Cellular basis of life.
Comparative structural and functional characterization of
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
.
Origin and evolution of
cell
s
.

6.

The cell as an open biological system
: membrane transport
, endocytosis and
exocytosis
.

Cell signaling. Cell junctions. Cell receptors.


7.

Individual development of cells.

Cell senescence.
Apoptosis.

8.

Cell reproduction.

Phases of the cell cycle. Mechan
ism, phases and consecutive
events of mitosis. Cytokinesis.

9.

Cell reproduction.

Cell cycle control, MPF description.
Control of cell proliferation
in multicellular organisms.

10.

Molecular mechanisms of the basic genetic processes
.
R
eplication

(DNA
synthesis)
.
Basic modes of replication.

11.

Molecular mechanisms of the basic genetic processes
.
Mutagenic factors and
mechanism of their action. DNA repair.

12.

Molecular mechanisms of the basic genetic processes
.
Transcription (RNA
synthesis)
.

13.

Molecular mechanisms of the ba
sic genetic processes
.
RNA processing.

14.

Molecular mechanisms of the basic genetic processes
.
Genetic code. Translation.

15.

Molecular mechanisms of the basic genetic processes
.
Protein sorting into cellular
organelles.

Posttranslational modification of proteins
. Senescence and degradation of
proteins
.

16.

Organization of the prokaryotic genome. Regulation of gene expression in
prokaryotic cells
.

17.

Organization of the eukaryotic genome. Levels of regulation of gene expression in
eukaryotic cells
.


18.

Submicroscopic struct
ure of chromosomes.

19.

Microscopic structure of chromosomes. Human karyotype.
Methods of
karyotyping and chromosomal analysis. Evolution of karyotype
.

20.

Laws of heredity.
Allelic form of the genes.
Interactions between genes.

Basic types
of inheritance. Penetra
nce and expressivity

21.

Laws of heredity.
Inheritance of linked genes. Crossing over. Molecular mechanisms
of crossing over. Groups of linked genes in the human
.

22.

Laws of heredity.
Extrachromosomal (cytoplasmic) inheritance in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes.

23.

Hered
ity and environment.
Reaction norm. Phenocopies and genocopies
.
Genotype
variation.

Hybrid and r
ecombinational variation
.


24.

Genotype variation.
Mutational variation



chromosomal and genome

(numerical chromosomal)

mutations
.
Chromosome di
seases.

25.

Mutational variation



gene

mutations
.
Molecular

diseases.

Pharmacogenetics
.

26.

Genetic engineering

at the level of population, organism and cell.

27.

Genetic engineering
at subcellular level, cloning by transplantation of somatic cell
nuclei into oocytes
.



28.

Recombinant DNA techniques and gene engineering
.
Specific DNA cleavage, most
important enzymes in recombinant DNA techniques. DNA sequencing
. Hybridization
of nucleic acids
with specific probes.


29.

Recombinant DNA techniques and gene engineering
.
DNA

a
nd cDNA

cloning.
Polymerase chain reaction. Gene engineering and gene therapy
.


30.

Immunological homeostasis.
Non
-
specific (innate) immunity. Complement system.

31.

Antigens as inducers of the immune response. Haptens
.


32.

Antibodies
.
Structure
, classes

and functio
n of antibodies, antigenic determinants of
antibodies.

33.

Antigen


antibody reaction
.

Immunological methods.

34.

Cellular basis of the immune response.

Cells involved in immune response
.
Т
lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, phagocytic and antigen
-
presenting cells
.

35.

Human alloantigens
.
ABO(H) system.
Lewis system
. Lectins. Biosynthesis of the
A,B, H and Lewis antigens

36.

Human alloantigens
.
Rhesus system
.
Immunological conflict between mother and
fetu
s. Origin and biological importance of alloantigens
.


37.

Cellular interactions during the immune response
.
Activation of antigen
-
presenting cells. Activation of T lymphocytes. Activation of B lymphocytes
.


38.

Phases in differentiation of immunocompetent

cells. Primary and secondary
immune response.


39.

Genetic control of the synthesis
of antibodies and T
-
cell receptors (TCR).

40.

Major histocompatibility complex

(МНС)
.
Transplantation immunity.


41.

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of
anti
-
tumor defense
.

42.

Regulation and control of the immune processes.

Genetic control of the intensity
of the immune response
.
Immune tolerance
.

Immunity theories.

43.

Reproductive biology
.
Sex determination and differentiation

44.

Reproductive biology
.
Cytological basis of sexual reproduction. Meiosis

45.

Reproductive biology
.
Gametogenesis. Spermatogenesis. Characteristic features of
male gametes.

Origin of germ cells.

46.

Reproductive biology
.
Oogen
esis. Molecular mechanisms of oocyte maturation.
Characteristic features of mature ova
.


47.

Reproductive biology
.
Fertilization. External fertilization and mechanisms for
blocking polyspermy. Completion of fertilization
.

48.

Reproductive biology
.
Fertilization. I
nternal fertilization in mammals. Differences
between external and internal fertilization
.


49.

Reproductive biology
.
In vitro fertilization. ICSI method. Atypical forms of
reproduction
.


50.

Individual development
. Embryonic period

in vertebrates
. Body plan form
ation,
role
of
grey crescent

in

amphibians
, cleavage. Regulative and mosaic types of
development
.


51.

Individual development
.
Formation of the blastula. Gastrulation. Cellular and
molecular mechanisms of gastrulation
. Embryonic induction. Elements of
organoge
nesis.

52.

Individual development
.
Embryonic development of mammals and human.

Stem
cells.

Differentiation, differences between cells, cell memory
.

53.

Population biology
.
Phenotype, genotype and gene frequences.
Hardy



Weinberg
law
.

54.

Molecular evolution.



REFERE
NCES


MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. Alberts B., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K.
Roberts, P. Walter. 4
th

Edition. Garland Publ. Inc., New York, 2002.

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. Gilbert S.F. 8
th

Edition
. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland,
Massachusetts,
2006
.


ESSENTIAL IMMUNOLOGY
.
Roitt

I
.,
P. Delves
.
10
th

Edition. Blackwell
,
2004
.

IMMUNOLOGY
.
Lydyard

P
.,
A
.
Whelan
,
M
.
Fanger
. 2
nd

Edition. Garland Publ. Inc., New
York, Abingdon, 2004, 2005, 2007.

GENETICS
.
Fletcher

H
.,

I. Hickey, P. Winter. 3
rd

Edition. Taylor
& Francis, New York,
Abingdon, 2007.

MODERN GENETICS. Ayala F.J., J.A. Kiger. 2
nd

Edition. Benjamin
-
Cummings, 1984.


This syllabus is valid from the academic year 20
10/2011

onward.