Human Heredity and Genetic Engineering Advances

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Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

1









Human Heredity and
Genetic Engineering Advances
















Farmington Public Schools

Grade Level
8

Science



















Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

2


Table of Contents

Unit Summary


………………….….…
………..page3


Stage One: Standards

Stage One identifies the desired re
sults of the unit including the broad
understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that
focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills.

The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999

……………………………....

pages 4


Stage Two: Assessmen
t Package

Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the
understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One.

………………………………

page 9


Stage Three: Curriculum and Instruction

Stage Three helps teachers plan learning exper
iences and instruction that aligns
with Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage two. Planning and
lesson options are given, however teachers are encouraged to customize this stage
to their own students, maintaining alignment with Stages On
e and Two.

………………..………………

page 11




Appendices


….....……………………….

pag
e 14











Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

3



Unit Summary


This 8
-
week unit for a heterogeneous class of eighth graders is part of a year
-
long life science
course. It follows a u
nit on human body systems and precedes a unit on
evolution and
ecology.
Chromosome the
ory, principles of genetics, patterns of i
nheritance and
advances in
genetic engineering

are studied.

The unit links back to cell division and lays groundwork for
underst
anding the connection between genetics and natural selection of traits. The unit will
include a three day review of CMT labs and practice constructed response questions just
prior to the Science CMT. The unit also includes a grade 9
-
10 CAPT task concerning

GM
foods.


Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

4


Stage One: Standards


Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad
understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit,
and the necessary knowledge and skills.


The Understanding b
y Design Handbook, 1999



Science Essential Understandings and Content Standards


#1
-
Scientific inquiry is an ongoing process building knowledge about events and
phenomena


The students will:


1.15
-
explain that scientists believe that the basic rules gover
ning nature have been
and are discovered by careful, systematic investigation



1.22
-
select appropriate format to communicate findings
*


#2
-
Science is a human endeavor which has lasting impact on civilization


The students will:


2.14
-
describe the contribu
tions made by various people an
d

cultures to the
advancement of science and technology, and explain their impact on civilization


2.16
-
recognize that scientists help people understand the likely causes and possible
effects of matters of public concern


2.1
7
-
recongize the influence of societal factors (such as cultural values, human needs,
resources) on the development of science and technology


2.18
-
identify current ethical issues involving the use of humans and other animals in
scientific investigations



Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

5


#7
-
There is unity among the diverse types of life on Earth


The student will:


7.15
-
describe


meiosis and
[its]

importance to organism growth and development



7.18
-
expla
i
n how diseases and other factors affect the health of life forms


7.19
-
a
pply the pr
inciples of genetics



#9
-
Constancy, patterns,
change

and evolution permeate all systems


The student will:


9.10
-
u
se patterns of change to make predictions and to solve practical problems



State Frameworks Expected Performances
:

8.2
-

Reproduction is a
characteristic of living systems and it is essential for the continuation of
every species.


The student will:

C
25 Explain the similarities and differences in cell division in somatic and germ cells.

C27 Describe how genetic information is organized in gen
es on chromosomes, and
explain sex determination in humans.

10.4
.
-

In sexually reproducing organisms, each offspring contains a mix of characteristics
inherited from both parents.


The student will:

D36 Explain how meiosis contributes to the genetic varia
bility of organisms.

D37 Use the Punnet Square technique to predict the distribution of traits in mono
-

and di
-
hybrid crossings.

D38 Deduce the probable mode of inheritance of traits (e.g., recessive/dominant, sex
-
linked)
from pedigree diagrams showing phe
notypes.

D39 Describe the difference between genetic disorders and infectious diseases.



Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

6


Technology Standards

#1 Information Accessing Standards


Information skill and strategies are necessary to
effectively locate and use resources for solving problems
, conducting research and pursuing
personal interests.

Students will demonstrate ability to extract and record informatio
n collected to meet
their
information needs.*


Students will demonstrate ability to summarize and paraphrase important facts and

detail
s
.*


Student will recognize the need to analyze information based on timeliness, authority,
reliability and relevance



#4 Responsible Information Use


The responsibility student will demonstrate legal use of
information resources, computers or other tech
nologies, recognizing the attendant social,
economic and ethical issues.

Students will apply established MLA bibliographic standards for giving credit for information
used.






Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

7


Unit Outcome Statement


As a result of the unit on human heredity and genetic

engineering, student will understand
that traits are passed from parents to offspring in a predictable way. These traits are carried
on genes, which make up chromosomes. Students will explore the current uses and potential
future implication of genetic en
gineering.




Essential Questions


How is the scientific method used to gain knowledge

about heredity?


Why do I have the traits that I have?


Does genetic engineering have more advantages or disadvantages?


Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

8


Knowledge and Skills


The Knowledge and Skills
section includes the key facts, concepts, principles, skills,
and processes called for by the content standards and needed by students to reach
desired understandings.


The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999


Knowledge



Role of meiosis in chromosome seg
regation



Chromosome Theory



Development of the principles of modern genetics



Patterns of inheritance in humans (including multiple alleles for blood types)



Advances in genetic engineering such as GM foods, DNA fingerprinting, therapy,
and selective breedin
g



Skills/Processes



Create and analyze a Punnett square for single alleles



Create and analyze a Punnett square for multiple alleles



Create and analyze a pedigree chart
/case studies



Evaluate the credibility of web based information



Use web
-
based informatio
n to develop a web
-
based opinion(GM Foods labeling)




Thinking Skills



Sequencing events (meiosis)



Making inferences (inheritance patterns)



Identify pros and cons of GM foods




Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

9


Stage Two: Assessment Package


Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence t
hat students have acquired the
understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One.



*
Authentic Performance Task

:
Creature Feature Genetics Task

(standards 1.22, 7.19, D37)


Goal:
Create a paper pet family with 2 parents and six offspring

with f
ive genetic
traits to demonstrate the principles of genetics
. W
rite an analysis of your findings.


Role:
You are tutoring a fellow eighth

grade student in genetics
.

Audience
:
Eighth grade science

student


Situation
:



Review Punnett Squares



You will be give
n traits for your P generation which you wil
l copy onto your
paper parents



Use Punnett squares to determine possible outcomes for the offspring, the F1
generation



Toss pennies to determine the actual genotypes of the six offspring of your
parents



Complete
the related worksheets



Create a poster
or a 3
-
dimensional display showing the parents and six children



Write a detailed analysis of your results


Products and Performance




Your Paper Pets Creature Feature Presentation should be complete and consist of
a Fa
mily P
ortrait or 3
-
dimensional display showing the parents and six offspring
along with their genotypes and phenotypes written out and the phenotypes drawn
on one side of the pets. All of the traits should be neatly and correctly drawn and
identified.



The
worksheets and Punnett squares have to be neatly and correctly
completed.



The word
-
processed analysis needs to:



effectively explain the actual results compared to the expected
results



compare family members and explain their resemblance



make connections a
mong concepts

and
include sophisticated use of
scientific terms




Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

10


S
tandards & Criteria for Success
:




WORKMANSHIP:

1.

All required elements are complete plus additional student created items

2.

The Family Portrait or other visual is exceptionally clear and rel
evant

3.

The analysis is exceptionally clear and relevant



ANALYSIS:

1.

Completely accurate analysis and explanation of actual results from Punnett
squares

2.

Highly effective comparison and explanation of family resemblance

3.

Ratios of genotypes and phenotypes of off
spring have no errors (including sex
-
linked trait)



CONTENT:

1.

Parent phenotypes and genotypes of all traits are correctly identified and neatly
drawn

2.

Offspring phenotypes and genotypes of are complete and correct; including the

sex
-
linked trait

3.

Makes connec
tions among concepts

4.

Sophisticated use of science terms


Tests, Quizzes, and Other Quick and Ongoing Checks for Understanding


Principles of Genetic
s

quiz

(1.15,
2.14)

Punnett Squares Qui
z

(
7.19, 9.10, D37)

Chromosome theory and DNA structure quiz

(C27, D3
6)

Meoisis quiz

(7.15, C25)

Unit test

(7.18, 7.19, C25, D39)


Projects, Prompts, etc.

Penny for Your thoughts Lab
(7.19, 9.10, D37)

Pedigree case studies

(1.22,
7.19, D38)

GATTACA movie
-
ethical implication discussion questions

(2.14, 2.17, 2.18)

GM Foods in
ternet research task
-
evidence
-
based opinion on mandatory labeling

(2.14,
2.16, 2.18 and information literacy standards)


*Bold face indicate
s

required formative and summative assessments
Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

11



Stage Three: Learning Experiences and Instruction


Stage Three helps

teachers plan learning experiences and instruction that align with
Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage Two.


Learning Experiences and Instruction



Middle Grades : 8


The learning experiences and instruction described i
n this section provide teachers with one
option for meeting the standards listed in Stage One. Teachers are encouraged to design their
own learning experiences and instruction, tailored to the needs of their particular students.







Guiding Questions

In
structional Strategies

Check for Understanding

Lesson Topic: Genetic Principles and Probability

Duration:
6
days




What are the key
concepts in
genetics?




How can we predict
the possible traits of
offspring?

HO
OK: Lab Investigation
:

YOU ARE UNIQUE
: Student

pair
s
discover which traits are inherited (eye &
hair color, tongue
-
rolling ability, color
-
blindness) and which are acquired.


Prompt
: How similar is Mendel’s work to
the scientific

method?

Read 3
-
1 with
orga
nizer.


Notes: Mendel’s principles of Genetics
(connect to prompt as the “findings” of
his work)

Read 3
-
2 and demonstrate punnett square
construction and analysis statements



Rehearsal: Punnett square practice
problems, Sponge Bob Squarepants
genetics, an
d Penny For Your Thoughts
lab




Punnett square exit card


Punnett square and principles
quiz


Penny for Your Thoughts Lab

LEGEND: * = See APPENDIX for this document; RG = See Resource Guide


Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

12



Guiding Questions

Instructional Strategies

Check for Understanding


Lesson Topic: The Cell and Inheritance

Duration: 7
days




What role do
chromosomes play
in inheritance?




Why is DNA often
called the “code of
life”?




How does DNA
direct cells to make
protein?

Students
complete p
acket
: Chromosomes
and Inheritance

(see Halina Mirecki)


Read 3.3 with organizer
. Show online
animations of meosis. Label meiosis
diagram.


Rehea
rsal: Alike and Different chart,
Meiosis manipulatives, What are
Chromosomes packet


View Video: Assignment Discovery:




Power of Genes

(Library)


Students brainstorm on w
hat and why
cells need to manufacture substances.


Teacher
deliver
s n
otes on protein
synthesis
.

Show online animations.


Students take notes on
DNA structure

and
mutations
, and complete related
worksheets (Chapter 3.
4

of textbook).


DNA model lab


Misconce
ption Check: Baby Mice Probe
[vol 2#17]




Alike and Different Chart


DNA Model lab


Cell Inheritance and DNA quiz



Creature Feature Paper Pet Performance Assessment Duration: 4 days

(show exemplar posters, review XX and XY for gender)





Science C
MT Preparation

Duration: 3
-
4

days

(use student work in CMT

portfolios to review embedded tasks, complete and discuss
practice constructed response questions)




Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

13



Lesson Topic: Human Heredity


Duration: 6

days




What is a multiple
allele?




What are sex
-
linked
traits?

Notes: Constructing and reading pedigree
charts


Read Section 4
-
1 Human Inheritance

Notes
-

Sex linked traits


Pedigree
Case Studies of sex linked traits


Lab
:

“Bloodless” Blood Type Lab


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-
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-
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Guiding Questions

Instructional Strategies

Check for

Understanding

Optional Lesson Topic: Genetic Diseases and Disorders Duration: 2 days (time permitting)


How is an illness different
from a genetic disorder?


HOOK
-

Prompt
: How is an illness
different from a genetic disorder?


Case Studies
:

Sickle Ce
ll Anemia case
study (RG)


Students take notes
and complet
e related
worksheets (Chapter 4.2

of textbook).




Case Studies
:

Sickle Cell Anemia
case study (RG)



Lesson Topic: Advances in Genetics Duration:
10

da
ys




What are three ways
in which an
organism’s traits be
慬瑥a敤?




What are the issues
resulting from
genetic engineering?


Hook: What do you know about Dolly the
cloned sheep?


Read 4.3 and take two
-
column notes


View movie GAT
T
ACA with discussion
quest
ion on ethics of genetic
discrimination


GM Foods magazine with note organizer


Online DNA fingerprinting virtual lab
and video clips from Secrets of the
Sequence



Give study guide for unit test


GM Food CAPT research



GM Food CAPT research


Unit test

Author(s)

REVISION: 6/2007

Farmington Public Schools


Wenzel, Mirecki, Buckley
, Wilbur

14





Appendices




Resources

Textbook:

Prentice Hall: Science Explorer: Cells and Heredity Chapters 3


5

Resource Guide: Prentice Hall: Science Explorer: Cells and Heredity

Video:

Assignment Discovery: Power of Genes

(part 1 & 2)

Video:
Assignment Discov
ery:

Cloning

Vi
deo: GATTACA

www. Science
-
explorer.phschool.com

This c
orresponds with
the
textbook. This website


provides on
-
line review and extensions for topics covered. It also provides links for


enrichment.



See following pages for student work sheet
s