bsaa animal biotechnology worksheet

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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ANIMAL
BIOTECHNOLOGY

Illinois Biological Science Applications in Agriculture Lesson C1

3 • Page 1

Student Learning Objectives.
Instruction in this lesson should result in
students

achieving the following objectives:

1
Identify the major areas of biotechnol
ogy in animal science.

2
Explain various molecular biotechnology methods.

3
Discuss applications of molecular biotechnology.

4
Discuss applications of organismic biotechnology.


Anticipated Problem:
What are the major areas of biotechnology in animal scien
ce?


I.
Biotechnology
is the management of biological systems for the benefit of people and
their

environment. It is also viewed as the application of science in food and fiber
production.

Biotechnology has been used for hundreds of years. Using yeast to m
ake
bread and bacteria

to make cheese are everyday examples of biotechnology.
Animal
biotechnology
is the

a
pplication of biotechnology methods to improve animals. There are
two major areas of biotechnology

in animal science. They are:


A. Molecular biotech
nology

Molecular biotechnology
is changing the structure and
parts

of cells to change the organism. It begins with the atom. Molecular biotechnology
often

changes the physical appearance of an organism. In some cases, undesirable traits
may

d
evelop along w
ith those that are desired.


B. Organismic biotechnology

Organismic biotechnology
deals with intact or complete

organisms. The genetic makeup of the organism is not artificially changed. This is the

most widely used type of biotechnology.

Illinois Biologic
al Science Applications in Agriculture Lesson C1

3 • Page 3

Anticipated Problem:
What are some of the various molecular biotechnology methods?


II. The number of molecular biotechnological methods has increased. The result of this
work

has improved animal
production. Three of the most common methods are:


A. Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering
is a form of biotechnology in which
genetic

information is changed to make a new product. Through this process, sections of
the

DNA strand are cut out and new sec
tions are inserted.
Gene transfer
is the moving of
a

gene from one organism to another. Genetic engineering is a means of complementing

traditional breeding programs.


B. Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA
is gene slicing. Genes are cut out of a DNA

strand wi
th a restriction enzyme that works like a scalpel. They are then inserted into

circular DNA molecules in bacteria plasmids.
Plasmids
are circular pieces of DNA

found outside the nucleus in bacteria. The plasmid is inserted into the cell that is to be

alter
ed. This allows the DNA of two different organisms to be combined. This is a very

complicated and complex procedure. Most cells die in the process. Many surviving cells

do not have the new DNA present in the nucleus.


C. Transgenic Animals

A
transgenic ani
mal
is an animal that has incorporated a
foreign

gene into its cells. This animal can pass to its offspring this
transgene
, or altered
gene. All

of the cells within the transgenic animal contain this transgene. Some common
transgenic

methods are:

1. Microi
njection

This is the most common method used. InjectingDNAinto a cell

using a fine diameter glass needle and a microscope constitutes
microinjection
.

2. Particle injection

Particle injection
is using a microprojectile unit to shoot tiny

particles coated wi
th DNA into cells. Microprojectile units are sometimes called

particle guns. Both methods have relatively low success rates.


Anticipated Problem:
What are some of the applications of molecular biotechnology?


III. There have been several major improvement
s discovered through the use of
molecular biotechnology.

They can be broken down into several categories.


A. Human health

Animals are being used to study several different types of diseases

found in humans. Insulin was once extracted from the pancreas of
slaughtered cattle

and hogs. This extraction process was very expensive. Sometime the insulin from the

animals caused allergic reactions to the diabetics who used it. Through molecular
biotechnology,

insulin is now produced artificially in laboratories. Th
is artificial insulin
is

of higher quality and less expensive to produce. This is just one example of a product

being developed through biotechnology that will benefit human health. Many more are

on the horizon.


B. Food production

Increasing the levels of

beta casein in milk decreases the time

required for rennet coagulation and whey expulsion in making cheese. This lowers total

processing time and cost. Also through biotechnology, the fat content in milk can be

reduced to make fat
-
free cheese and ice crea
m. If a substance known as kappa casein is

increased 5 percent in milk, it makes it more stable and easier to ship. These are only a

few examples of food products that have been developed through biotechnology. Soon,

many new foods will be introduced on th
e market that are high in quality.


C. Livestock production

The use of biotechnology has increased growth rate,
efficiency,

and disease resistance in livestock. This has made livestock production cost
decline and

aids in the supply of a low cost food suppl
y.


Anticipated Problem:
What are some applications of organismic biotechnology?


IV. Most animal management practices done in livestock production are organismic
biotechnology.

Several examples of this area of biotechnology are:


A. Greater fertility

Incr
easing the reproductive capacity of top animals is important to

producers. Two methods to increase the reproductive capacity of animals are:

1. Superovulation

Superovulation
is getting a female to release more than the usual

number of eggs during a single
estrous cycle. Hormones are injected to assure more

eggs.

2. Embryo transfer

Embryo transfer
is taking an embryo from its mother and

implanting it in another female. The embryo completes development in the recipient.


B. Increased production

Three methods
used to increase production are:

1. Milk hormones

Injections of milk hormones cause the cow’s mammary system to

become more productive. The most common milk hormone is bovine somatotropin

(bST). Since bST is a naturally occurring hormone, it has been widel
y accepted

in the dairy industry.

2. Meat hormones

Injections of meat hormones causes the animal to produce more

muscle cells resulting in larger and leaner cuts of valuable meat.

3. Growth implants

Growth implants are small pellets placed under the skin.
They

promote growth by making the animal more feed efficient.


C. Enhancing animal nutrition

The greatest results of biotechnology have been seen in

animal nutrition. Some of the enhancements are:

1. Digestibility testing

Tests are made by getting samples
from the digestive systems

of animals after they have eaten. This information is used to improve feed use and

animal growth.

2. Controlled feeding

Computer chips can be put in a monitor around the animal’s

neck, ear tag or under the skin. A computerized fe
eding station will read the chip

and regulate the amount of feed the animal receives. Daily feed intake by the animal

is used to aid in the detection of health problems.


























ANIMAL
BIOTECHNOLOGY


Part One: Matching


Instructions:
Match

the word with the correct definition.


a. Biotechnology

e. Genetic Engineering

i. Embryo Transfer

b. Microinjection

f. Molecular biotechnology

j. Superovulation

c. Organismic biotechnology

g. Transge
ne

d. Recombinant DNA

h. Gene transfer


_______1. Changing the structure and parts of cells to change the organism


_______2. A form of biotechnology in which genetic information is changed to make a new
product.


_______3. Altered gene


_______4. Injecting DNA into a cell using a fine diameter glass needle and a microscope


_______5. The management of biological systems for the benefit of people and their
environment.


_______6. Taking an embryo from its mother and implanting it in anothe
r female


_______7. The genetic makeup of the organism is not artificially changed.


_______8. Gene slicing


_______9. The moving of a gene from one organism to another.


______10. Getting a female to release more than the usual number of eggs during a sin
gle
estrous cycle.


Part Two: Fill
-
in
-
the
-
Blank


Instructions:
Complete the following statements.


1. A ______________ ______________ is an animal that has incorporated a foreign gene into its
cells.


2. _______________ _______________ is using a microproj
ectile unit to shoot tiny particles
coated with DNA

into cells.


3. Molecular biotechnology often changes the ________________ appearance of an organism.

Illinois Biological Science Applications in Agriculture Lesson C1

3 • Page 9

4. Biotechnology has been

used for _________________ of years.


5. The use of biotechnology has __________________ growth rate, efficiency, and disease
resistance in livestock.


6. The most common milk hormone is _______________ _________________.


7. Daily feed intake by the anim
al is used to aid in the detection of ___________ problems.

8. Injections of meat hormones causes the animal to produce more __________ cells.


9. ____________ _______________ is the most widely used type of biotechnology.


Part Three: Multiple Choice


Ins
tructions:
Circle the letter of the correct answer.


_______1. Biotechnology in agriculture consists of all of the following except:

a. equipment engineering

b. genetic engineering

c. cell cultures

d. tissue cultures


_______2. Which is a product of biotec
hnology in the agriculture industry?

a. leaner meat in cattle

b. cloning

c. BST

d. all of the above


_______3. Which type of biotechnology involves changing the structure of the cell?

a. superovulation

b. molecular biotechnology

c. organismic biotechnology

d. embryo transfer


_______4. All of the following are true about genetic engineering except:

a. it is a form of biotechnology in which genetic information is changed to make a new product

b. DNA strands are cut out and new sections are inserted

c. genes
are not allowed to be moved from one organism to another

d. it is a means of complementing traditional breeding programs.


Part Four: Short Answer


Instructions:
Answer the following statement.


Explain the two types of biotechnology.

Illinois Biological S
cience Applications in Agriculture Lesson C1

3 • Page 10

Assessment


TS

A








Technical Supplement

BIOTECHNOLOGY


1. What is genetic engineering?

It is a biotechnological technique that involves the alteration of the genetic makeup

of an organism to pro
duce a desired effect.


2. What is the potential of genetic engineering in animals?

Better disease resistance of animals, better feed efficiency, more milk production,

more nutritious meat, and lower cholesterol levels.


3. How is genetic engineering curre
ntly being used in the animal industry?

One example is insulin. Insulin is produced, the insulin gene is then put into bacteria,

huge amounts of this genetically engineered bacteria is produced, when bacteria

is grown, they produce insulin, and bacteria is

killed and the insulin is extracted.


4. What is cloning?

Cloning is the duplication of an animal from the genetic material found in a cell of

an animal. Even though clones have the same genetics, they do not always have the

same phenotypic expression.


5
. What are concerns over genetic engineering?

There is a fear that this technology could get into the wrong hands and produce

unwanted organisms. There are concerns that species might be produced that could

be harmful. Some may even argue that using this t
echnology is unethical because

you are tampering with nature.

Illinois Biological Science Applications in Agriculture Lesson C1

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