Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

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REPUBLIC OF MALAWI

E4085v14













Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security



Agricultural Productivity Prog
ram for Southern Africa
(APPSA
)





ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
IMPACT ASSESSMENT











Ministry of
Agriculture and Food Security


Capital Hill

P O Box 3013
4


Capital City

Lilongwe 3

MALAWI



January 7
,

201
3



Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The
consultant
wishes

to acknowledge

all

the
people who
participated in the public consultations and
contributed to the preparation of t
his Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.

The people consulted included
staff

and
farmers

that were visited
in

the selected
research stations in
Malawi which include
Mbawa in Mzimba, Chitedze in Lilongwe, Lifuwu and Chitala in Salima, Bvumbwe
in Thyolo and Kasinthula in Chikwawa.

Key

staff at the selected research stations

and

lead
farmers

provided valuable input to this study.


In addition, a number of senior officers in the
Ministry of Agriculture

and Food Security
, Environmental
Affairs
Department,

Pesticides Control Board
, Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development
,

the World
Bank
and other stakeholder Ministries and Departments
provided
relevant literature and
considerable
administrative support during the assignment. The
consultant

wishes to sincerely acknowledge their
support.






Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

iii

T
ABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

................................
................................
................................
..............

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

................................
................................
................................
................
iii

LIST OF ACRONYMS

................................
................................
................................
..................

vi

EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY

................................
................................
................................
............
viii

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

................................
..........................

1

1.1

The Proposed Agricultural Productivity Program for Southern Africa

.........................

1

1.1.1

APPSA Program Components

................................
................................
.....................

1

1.1.2

Proposed Research Priorities, Objectives and Expected Outcomes of APPSA Program

2

1.1.3

Proposed research activities with regional spillovers

................................
.................

3

1.1.4

Proposed dissemination activities to link Center of Leadership outputs to national
technology dissemination system

................................
................................
...........................

4

1.1.5

National coordination and implementation arrangements

................................
...........

5

1.1.6

Project Implementing Agency

................................
................................
.....................

6

1.1.7

Project Cost Estimates

................................
................................
................................

6

1.2

Rationale for the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

................................
.

6

1.3

Objective of the ESIA

................................
................................
................................
..

6

1.4

Users of the ESIA

................................
................................
................................
........

6

1.5

Meth
odology in Preparing the ESIA

................................
................................
.............

7

1.6

Constraints and Limitation of the Study

................................
................................
......

8

1.7

Organization of the Report

................................
................................
..........................

8

CHAPTER TWO:


THE BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

................................
..........................

10

2.1

APPSA Project locations and Land Size

................................
................................
....

10

2.2

Mbawa Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
........

10

2.2.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

10

2.3

Chitedze Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
......

11

2.3.1

Background Information

................................
................................
...........................

11

2.3.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

11

2.3.3

Climate

................................
................................
................................
..................

11

2.4

Lifuwu Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
.........

12

2.4.1

Background Information

................................
................................
...........................

12

2.4.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

12

2.4.3

Climate

................................
................................
................................
..................

12

2.4.4

Main Act
ivities

................................
................................
................................
.........

12

2.5

Chitala Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
........

12

2.5.1

Background Information

................................
................................
...........................

12

2.5.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

12

2.5.3

Climate

................................
................................
................................
..................

13

2.5.4

Main Activities

................................
................................
................................
.........

13

2.6

Bv
umbwe Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
....

13

2.6.1

Background Information

................................
................................
...........................

13

2.6.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

13

2.6.3

Climate

................................
................................
................................
..................

13

2.7

Kasinthula Agriculture Research Station

................................
................................
...

14

2.7.1

Background Information

................................
................................
...........................

14

2.7.2

Location

................................
................................
................................
.................

14

2.7.3

Climate

................................
................................
................................
..................

14

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

iv

2.7.4

Main Activities

................................
................................
................................
.........

14

CHAPTER THREE:

AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIO
-
ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

...................

15

3.1

General Situation

................................
................................
................................
......

15

3.2

Agriculture

................................
................................
................................
................

15

3.2.1 Agricu
lture and the Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP)
................................
.................

16

3.2.1 Agriculture and Land Tenure

................................
................................
........................

17

3.2.2 Agriculture and Forest Resources

................................
................................
................

18

3.2.3 Agriculture and Gender

................................
................................
...............................

18

3.2.4 Agriculture and Health, HIV and AIDS

................................
................................
...........

20

3.3

Agriculture Research

................................
................................
................................

21

CHAPTER FOUR:

POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

................................
............................

23

4.1

Malawi Legislation Relevant to the APPSA

................................
................................

23

4.1.1 Policy Framework

................................
................................
................................
.......

23

4.1.2 Legal Framework

................................
................................
................................
........

26

Agricu
ltural Policies

................................
................................
................................
.............

27

4.2

Relevant World Bank Policies

................................
................................
...................

30

4.2.1 Environmental Assessment (Operational Policy 4.01)
................................
.....................

30

4.2.2 Natural Habitats (Operational Policy 4.04)

................................
................................
.....

31

4.2.3 Pest Management (Operational Policy 4.09)

................................
................................
..

31

CHAPTER FIVE:

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL
IMPACTS FOR THE
PROJECT

33

5.1

Project Activities and the Impacted Environmental Components

..............................

33

5.2

Determination of Potential Impacts

................................
................................
...........

33

5.3

Determination of Mitigation Measures

................................
................................
.......

33

Table 5.2: Environmental Impacts

................................
................................
.........................

39

Table 5.3: Social Impacts

................................
................................
................................
......

41

5.4

Evaluation of Impacts

................................
................................
................................

45

CHAPTER SIX:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN

.

47

6.1

Environmental and Social Management Plan

................................
.............................

47

6.2

Environmental and Social Monitoring Plan

................................
............................

55

6.2.1

Monitoring

................................
................................
................................
.............

55

6.2.2

Monitoring Indicators, Institutions and Costs

................................
........................

55

CHAPTER SEVEN:

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING

...................

72

7.1

National Coordination and
Implementation Arrangements

................................
........

72

7.2

Centre of Leadership Implementation Arrangements

................................
................

73

7.3

Capacity Building Requirements

................................
................................
...............

74

7.3.1

Current Capacity Within Research Program and Assessment of Gaps

.........................

74

7.4.1

Proposed Environmental and Social Training and Awareness

Programmes

.................

76

7.4.2

Environmental and Social Management Training for APPSA

................................
.......

77

7.4.3

Proposed Approach in Executing the Environmental and Social Management Training

.

77

CHAPTER EIGHT:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

................................
...............

78

8.1

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
................

78

8.2

Recommendations

................................
................................
................................
....

79

REFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
...........................

81



Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

v

APPENDIX 1

LIST
OF INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS CONSULTED

................................
...

82

APPENDIX 2

LOCATION FOR PROPOSED REGIONAL CENTRES

................................
.........

105

APPENDIX 3:

CHECKLIST FOR DEMONSTRATION FIELDS

................................
...................

110

APPENDIX 4

SUMMARY OF WORLD BANK SAFEGUARD POLICIES

................................
.....

111

APPENDIX 5.1:


ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT EVALUATION AND SCORING
METHOD

115

APPENDIX 5.2

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND SC
ORES

.......

116

APPENDIX 6.1:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE PROPOSED
REGIONAL CENTRE OF LEADERSHIP

................................
................................
.....................

118

APPENDIX 6.2:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MONITORING PLAN FOR THE PROPOSED
REGIONAL CENTRE OF LEADERSHIP

................................
................................
.....................

126

APPENDIX 7:


CONSULTANT CV

................................
................................
...........................

138



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1:

Breakdown of Total Project Cost

Table 2.1:

Summary of Total Land for Research Stations

Table 3.1

Gender Distribution in the Agricultural Occupation

Table 3.2

Women Participation in Selected Sectors

Table 3.3:

Women Farmers Participation in the various ASWAp
-
SP in 2011

Table 4.1:

Summary of Safeguard Policies Triggered by the APPSA

Table 5.1:

Project Activities and their Potential Impacts on the Various Environm
ental
Components

Table 5.2:

Environmental and Social Impacts

Table 6.1:

Environmental and Social Management Plan for Positive Impacts

Table 6.2:

Environmental and Social Management Plan for Negative Impacts

Table 6.3:

Summary of Management Costs for 1 Year

Table 6.4:

Environmental and Social Monitoring Plan for Positive Impacts

Table 6.5:

Environmental and Social Monitoring Plan for Negative Impacts

Table 6.6:

Summary of Monitoring Costs for 1 Year

Table 7.1:

Key Partners and their Roles During

APPSA Implementation

Table 7.2:

NARS Physical Infrastructure Current State

Table 7.3:

DARS Scientific, Technical and Administrative Human Capacity

Table 7.4:

Numbers and Academic Qualifications of DARS Scientific Personnel

Table 7.5:

Estimated costs for s
ensitization meetings and trainings





LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1:

National Production of Cassava, Sweet Potatoes and Irish potatoes in Metric Tonnes

Figure 3.2:

National Production of Beans, Pegion peas, Cow peas and Soya beans in Metric
Tonnes

Figure
7.1:

Centre of Leadership National Level Implementation Framework



Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

vi

LIST OF ACRONYMS


ADD



Agricultural Development Division

ADMARC

Agriculture Development and Marketing Corporation

ADP
-
SP

Agriculture Development Program


Support Projec
t


AEDO


Agriculture Extension Development Officer

AEZ


Agricultural Ecological Zones

AGRA


Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa

AGRES


Agriculture Gender Roles and Extension Support Services

AISP


Agriculture Input Subsidy Program

APPSA


Agricultural Productivity Program for Southern Africa

ASWAp


Agricultural Sector Wide Approach

ASWAp
-
SP

Agricultural Sector Wide Approach

-

Support Project

ATCC


Agricultural Technology Clearing Committee

BP


Bank Policy

CADECOM

Catholic Development Commi
ssion in Malawi

CCARDESA

Centre for Coordination of Agricultural Research and Development for Southern Africa

CIAT


International Centre for Tropical Agriculture

CIMMYT

Centro Internacional de
Mejoramiento de Maízy Trigo

CoL


Centre of Leadership

DDC


District Development Committee

DEC


District Executive Committee

DAES


Department of Agricultural Extension Services

DADO


District Agriculture Development Officer

DARS


Department of Agricultural Research

DEA


Director of Environmental Affairs

DH
O


District Health Officer

EAD


Environmental Affairs Department

EDO


Environmental District Officer

EIA


Environmental Impact Assessment

EMC


Executive Management Committee

EMP


Environmental management plan

EPA


Extension Planning Area

ESIA


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

ESMP


Environmental
and Social
Management Plan

FAO


Food
and
Agriculture Organisation

FHH


Female
-
Headed Household

FISP


Farmer Input Subsidy Program

FM


Financial Management

GDP


Gross domestic Product

GMO


Genetically Modified Organisms

GoM


Government of Malawi

ICRAF


International Centre for Research in Agroforestry

ICRISAT

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi
-
Arid
-
Tropics

IGA


Income Generating Activities

IPM


Integrated Pest Management

I
PMP


Integrated Pest Management

Plan

IPPC


International Plant Protection Convention

IRLADP


Irrigation, Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Development Project

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

vii

ISP


Input Subsidy Program

LGB


Large Grain Borer

LRCO


Land Resources and Conservation Officer

MAWTCO

Malawi Agricultural Warehousing and Trading Company

MBS


Malawi Bureau of Standards

MGDS


Malawi Growth and Development Strategy

MoAFS


Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

MoWDI


Ministry of Water Development and Irrigation

MoLGRD

Minist
ry of Local Government and Rural Development

MPRS


Malawi Poverty and Reduction Strategy

MSc


Master of Science

MSV


Maize Streak Virus

NAC


National AIDS Commission

NRCM


National Research Council of Malawi

NCE


National Council for the Environment

NEAP


National Environmental Action Plan


OP


Operational Policy

OPC


Office of the President and Cabinet

PCB


Pesticide Control Board

RCoLs


Regional Centre of Leadership

SADC


Southern African Development committee

SFFRFM

Smallholder Farmers’
Fertilizer Revolving Fund of Malaw
i

SPGI


Sustainable Productivity Growth Initiative

SWAp


Sector Wide Approach

SWG


Sector Working Group

TCE


Technical Committee on the Environment

TWG


Technical Working Group

WB


World Ban
k

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

viii



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Int
roduction


The Government of Malawi
through the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

(MoAFS)

is seeking
support from World Bank to
implement

an Agricultural Productivity Programme in Southern Africa
(APPSA) with the objective of increasing the productivity of maize, rice and legumes through the
introduction of improved varieties and modern farming technologies. The proposed
APPSA
programme
wil
l support agricultural technology generation and dissemination by supporting the strengthening and
scaling up of regional
centres

of research leadership on programs of regional importance through
regional collaboration. For identified regional priority pro
grams, APPSA would support efforts to scale
up and develop national research centres into regional
centres

of leadership
.
The total project cost
for
Malawi
is approximately US$
3
0

million.



Objective and
Scope of
Work of

the
Assignment


The objective of
this assignment is to assist M
inistry
o
f
A
griculture
F
ood
S
ecurity

in assessing the
potential impact
s of APPSA

with respect to the different World Bank safeguards policies and to update
the existing safeguards instruments accordingly
.
To successfully carry

out the
assignment
,

a
review

of
relevant Malawi environmental and social legislation and policies, World Bank safeguard policies

was

conducted
.
Key stakeholder c
onsultations were done with government officials in Ministry of Agriculture
and Food Security,

Research Stations Staff and Extension workers

to solicit their views on the
proposed programme
.
Consultations with beneficiaries especially farmers were a
lso done in selected
areas in proximity

to research stations that will participate in APPSA programme
.
A review of safeguard
documents already in place under ASWAp
-
SP and IRLADP was also done.
From the above described
activities, potential environmental and social impacts were identified and assessed. After the
assessment, appropriate mitigation and enhan
cement measures were identified for the impacts to be
generated by the project activities.
The safeguard instruments applicable to this assignment include
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) to describe potential positive and social impacts
o
f the project activities, and an updated
Pest Management Plan for
safe management of

impacts from
any activities that will involve use
of
pesticides
and agro
-
chemicals for scaling up agricultural
productivity.


Rationale for Preparing ESIA


It is
anticipated that the proposed activities under APPSA will generate potential environmental and
social impacts and in order to mitigate

the negative impacts

and enhance the

positive

impacts
appropriate environmental and social safeguards must be prepared as

per
Malawi E
nvironmental
I
mpact Assessment (EIA)
procedures for meeting the environmental and soc
ial management
requirements
outlined in Appendix C of the EIA Guidelines

and
E
nvironmental
A
ssessment policy
(OP.4.01) for World Bank. The
programme
activities will generate impacts ranging from
short

to long
term as well as small

and localised to regional
. Since the specific activities and exact locations where
the project activities will be implemented are known, an Environmental and Social Impact As
sessment
,

as a safeguard instrument
,

has been prepared to identify, and analyse and mitigate any potential
impacts from the programme activities.




Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

ix

Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework

In view of the fact that successful implementation of the progra
mme would require that it be aligned to
the provisions of the existing legislation, a number of policies and Acts were review
e
d including those of
the Bank and these have been used in setting the foundation for the smooth implementation of the
project for
it to be sustainable. The policies relate to those that are specifically focusing on the
environmental and social dimensions
. The key policies and legislations relevant to the program include

the

Constitution of the Republic of Malawi (1995),
Environmental

Management Act (1996),
National
Environmental Policy (2004),
and
National Water Policy (2004), Food Security Policy (2006)
. The Acts
include Land Act (1965), Water Resources Act (1969), Pesticides Ac
t (2000), B
.
Other legal, legislative
and administrative

documents are National Environmental Action Plan (1994), Malawi Agricultural and
Natural Resources Research Master Plan (1995), National Land Resources Management Policy and
Strategy (2000), Agricultural Research Master Plan (2006), Contract Farming Strat
egy (2007), Malawi
Growth and Development Strategy (2006
-
2011; 2011
-

2016),

The Fertilizer, Plant Protection and Plant
Breeders’ Rights Bills,

Departmental Procedural Guidelines, the World Banks

Environmental
Assessment (Operational Policy 4.01), and Pest

Management (Operational Policy 4.09).


These policies, Acts
, Strategies and Plans will act as the basis for a compliant and sustainable
mechanism through which the project can wholly achieve its intended objectives, outputs and
outcomes.


ESIA Implementat
ion

The successful implementation of the ESIA depends on the commitment of MoAFS a
nd other relevant
institutions, t
he capacity within the institutions and the appropriate functional institutional arrangements
to be put in place for the program
me
. The
D
epar
tment of Agriculture Research Services (D
ARS
) and
Department of Agricultural Extension Services (D
AES)

will have the principal responsibility for
implementation and
delivery of the program.

In addition, the

program will be
executed
through
and
implemented by the
existing structures

within the public sector with
contribution
from the private and
civil society institutions.
This
arrangement, it is believed, would

help ensure
project
sustainability and
significantly
contribute to
capacity build
ing.

Chitedze Research Station will be the main centre
for
APPSA programme activities

in Malawi
.


Project Description


In pursuit of the longer term goal of improving productivity and production of safe and nutritious food
within priority farming systems i
n the Southern Africa region, the P
roject
D
evelopment
O
bjective

is
to
improve the availability of agricultural technologies within and across SADC countries.

APPSA will
pursue this objective by: (i) establishing Regional Centers of Leadership (RCoLs) on co
mmodities of
regional importance, thereby allowing regional specialization around priority farming systems and more
strategic investment in agricultural research capacity; (ii) supporting regional collaboration in agricultural
training and dissemination; a
nd (iii) facilitating increased sharing of agricultural information, knowledge
and technology across boundaries of participating countries.


The proposed program w
ill

have three components:


1.1

Technology Generation and Dissemination

The first component
would support technology generation and dissemination activities associated with
Regional

Centres
of Leadership. This would include research activities targeting the technology
priorities defined through regional dialogue and consistent with a regional pri
ority setting study. The
component would also support regional dissemination programs or technology transfer sub
-
projects to
link

Centres
of Leadership to institutions in other countries and enable scaling up of innovations.

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

x


Malawi has prioritized scaling

up farmer to farmer dissemination methodologies, the use of mass media
(primarily radio), technology demonstration, and scaling up and expanding pluralistic extension
services, within its national technology dissemination system. APPSA will play an import
ant role in
providing the content and higher level training of service providers within the technology dissemination
system. APPSA is not intended to be a full
-

fledged dissemination or extension program and that
a
core focus

of the ASWAp is technology di
ssemination.


The core focus of APPSA supported technology dissemination activities in Malawi will therefore aim at:
improving the content and accessibility of technology messages and knowledge products around
maize technologies; improving the capacity o
f DARS and DAES to strengthen technical training of lead
farmers, extension agents and advisory service providers around maize; strengthening the capacity of
DARS dissemination officers; private sector and civil society engagement; and improving farmer
-
res
earch
-
extension feedback mechanisms to obtain a better analysis of farmer preferences. APPSA will
also support regional information sharing and exchange activities with other participating countries.


1.2

Center of Leadership Strengthening


The second comp
onent would support capacity building for Regional Cent
r
es of Leadership. Within
Malawi, APPSA would support: (i) the upgrading of research infrastructure; (ii) improving management
and performance systems; (iii) scientific training at the post graduate le
vel and to upgrade skills through
short courses or targeted training; and (iv) strengthening seed, regulatory and related services.
Investments in physical infrastructure will focus on improving existing facilities in Chitedze in Lilongwe,
Mbawa in Mzimba,

Lifuwu and Chitala in Salima, Bvumbwe in Thyolo and Kasinthula in Chikwawa.

Investments in seed and related services will focus on increasing the capacity of pre
-
basic and basic
seed production for targeted commodities under APPSA, increasing analytical c
apacity for GMO
detection and mycotoxin analysis, and technical assistance to identify and address regulatory gaps
within the technology generation and dissemination system, if necessary.


1.3

Coordination and Facilitation


The third component would suppor
t implementation of the program and coordination activities. At the
national level the program would be fully integrated into MoAFS. Given the high vacancy rate within
DARS
and DAES
there is an urgent need to identify human resource requirements for program
implementation to be met through Government budget.
MoAFS is currently expanding its approach of
contracting out some services to private providers or NGOs. This is particularly t
he case for extension
and will allow the Ministry to redeploy staff to core functions, including for research, coordination of
extension activities, M&E and sector monitoring and safeguards supervision. .
APPSA also provides an
opportunity to scale up the
use of multi
-
stakeholder platforms within the program to ensure all actors
within the national agricultural research system are involved.


At the regional level the program would finance regional facilitation activities including: (i) regional
planning,
monitoring and evaluation activities needed to establish and monitor regional collaborative
activities; and (ii) regional exchange of information, knowledge and technologies. These functions are
most efficiently provided by a regional entity and CCARDESA i
s in the process of developing a more
detailed proposal on how it could fulfill these functions in APPSA.


Potential Environmental and Social Impacts

Although the
APPSA

activities
especially in technology generation, dissemination and adoption
will vary
in

size, location, scope and approach to implementation, most of these activities
will take place in
Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

xi

already existing research stations identified to be part of the program
. Hence the generic and typical
environmental

and social

impacts would mostly be posit
iv
e, with minor negative impacts.


The identified positive environmental impacts include:



improved soil and water resources management;



improved soil fertility due to nitrogen fixation; and



development of climate change resistant crops.


The identified
positive social impacts include:



increase in maize productivity;



increase in farm incomes for farmers using improved technologies;



increase in food security and nutrition;



improved infrastructure in the existing agricultural research stations;



reduced pos
t harvest losses
; and



improved agricultural extension services.


The ESIA has also identified the following key potential negative environmental impacts:



degradation of surface and ground water quality due to chemical handling and application by
agro deal
ers and smallholder farmers respectively;



contamination of soils and water by agro
-
chemicals;



loss of soil organisms and non
-
targeted insects due to effects of chemicals and pesticides; and



Waste generation from rehabilitation of existing infrastructures
.


The potential negative social impacts:



health and safety risks from chemical poisoning;



Increased work load for already insufficient extension staff; and



Risks of gender inequalities.


The

table below provides the

proposed

measures

to enhance the positive impacts and to mitigate the
adverse ones

including estimated costs
:


Potential Impacts

Enhancement / Mitigation
Measures

Costs (MK)

Responsible
Institution

Component 1:
Technology Generation and Dissemination




Improved maize
productivity



Provide farmers with
improved maize based
technology



conduct awareness on the
advantages of using maize
-
based technologies to
facilitate quick adoption



Conduct field demonstrations
on new maize
-
based
technologies

30,000,000

MoAFS



Increase in
production of
improved maize and legume
varieties



Provide training to APPSA
staff to enhance and maintain
maize and legume breeding
programmes



Conduct regular staff
5,000,000

DARS

and DAES

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

xii

Potential Impacts

Enhancement / Mitigation
Measures

Costs (MK)

Responsible
Institution

exchange programmes



Maintain the production of
acceptable maize and legume
breeds by local
communities



Increase in performance and
sustainability of the research
and technical support
systems



Provide regular and
continuous training to APPSA
staff to enhance
performance
and sustainability of the
research and technical
support systems



Conduct regular staff
exchange programmes

5,000,000

DARS

and DAES



Creation of employment



Employ and build capacity
through training the required
number of agricultural
research experts to fill the
vacant positions in
participating agricult
ural
research stations

3,000,000

MoAFS



Development of climate
change resistant crop
varieties



Promote research activities
aimed at generating crop
varieties resistant to climate
change

5,000,000

DARS



Health and safety risks from
chemical poisoning



Provide information and
increase awareness for staff
and farmers on the risks with
handling chemicals.



Provide protective clothing to
workers

and farmers
during
field trials

1,000,000

MoAFS,
Pesticides
Control
Board



Risks associated with weak
capacity in

dealing with crop
protection



Provide adequate training to
crop protection department

5,000,000

Department
of Crop
Protection

Component 2:
Center of Leadership Strengthening




Improved infrastructure in the
existing agricultural research
stations



Conduct
regular maintenance
of infrastructure in
participating agricultural
research stations

15,000,000

MoAFS



Creation of employment



Employ and build capacity
through training
for
the
required number of
agricultural research experts
to fill the vacant positions
in
participating agricultural
research stations

1,000,000

MoAFS



Increased work load for
already insufficient extension


Provide and train adequate
extension staff

3,000,000

DAES

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

xiii

Potential Impacts

Enhancement / Mitigation
Measures

Costs (MK)

Responsible
Institution

staff



Solid waste generation from
rehabilitation of existing
infrastructures



The contractor in coordination
with APPSA should make
arrangements for proper
disposal of all rubble and solid
wastes from the site.

3,000,000

MoAFS
(DARS)

Component 3: Project Coordination and Facilitation




Improved program planning,
coordination and
facilitation



Provide regular training to
management and staff of
APPSA within participating
agricultural research stations
for effective planning,
coordination and facilitation of
the program

5,000,000

MoAFS



Increasing rates of improved
technology
transfer and
adoption



Advocate for the adoption and
use of efficient and effective
maize based technology



Conduct field demonstrations
on new and improved maize
varieties to facilitate farmer
adoption

5,000,000

MoAFS

TOTAL

86,000,000



As a reference
material, the ES
I
A (supported
by
the
updated PMP
) will be useful to several
stakeholders
who will be involved in planning, implementation and monitoring of the proposed project
activities. Some of the
key users of this ES
I
A are:



Funding agencies/donors for

the proposed
APPSA
;



Staff in proposed regional

centres
of leadership
;



Participating sectors in the implementation of the
APPSA
;



Senior central government officials responsible for policy

making and project planning;



Central government officials responsi
ble for environmental planning and management and;



Contractors

to be involved in implementation of the project activities.


Based on the
findings from this environmental and social
impact
assessment study, it is recommended
that the project proceeds because it will bring significant benefits to the
agricultural sector
, both in the
short and long terms.

Negative impacts identified from this preliminary study will be manageable,
localised and

short term
.



The ES
I
A recommends that the proposals made herein (and those made in the
updated PMP
) must be
implemented adequately to mitigate the consequential environmental
and social
impacts of the project
activities; and to enhance the positive attri
butes.

The proposals

include:



The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security should oversee the implementation of the ESIA.
The MoAFS should do this in coordination with the Environmental Affairs Department;



District and local community structures should be adequately trained to supervise
implementation of the EMP. The project should take advantage of the District Environmental
Sub
-
Committee led by the Environmental District Officer and should provide the nece
ssary
Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

xiv

resources and equipment to enable them monitor implementation of the EMP at district and
area levels;



Key stakeholders should be made aware of the project, the ESIA and its EMP and their role in
its successful implementation. They should also be
sensitized on the linkages between the
program and the environmental and social impacts; and the need to mitigate the impacts to
ensure sustainability of the APPSA program; and the program should put in place an effective
monitoring and evaluation and feed
back mechanism on implementation of the EMP;



Capacity building training programs should be provided to key departments such as Agriculture
Research Services, Pesticides Control Board, Crop Protection and Agriculture Extension
Services which will be critica
l in monitoring the adverse impacts of the proposed project
activities discussed in this report;



The proposed participating research stations should be equipped with modern equipment to
ensure effective implementation of the proposed program;



The Ministry
of Agriculture should ensure that recommendations made in the updated IPMP are
adhered to in order to avoid or minimize risks and impacts associated with use of pesticides,
herbicides and chemicals
; and



The Ministry of Agriculture should ensure that partic
ipation of women

farmers
, youth and other
vulnerable groups is encouraged during
planning and
implementation of the program.

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

1

CHAPTER
ONE
:

INTRODUCTION

AND BACKGROUND


1.
1

The Proposed Agricultural Productivity Program for Southern Africa


The World Bank would like to
support the
implementation
of
an

Agricultural Productivity Programme in
Southern Africa (APPSA) with the objective of increasing the productivity of maize
, rice and legumes

through the introduction of improved varieties and
mod
ern

farming technologies
.
The proposed

programme will

support agricultural technology generation and dissemination by supporting the
strengthening and scaling up of regional

centres
of research leadership on programs of regional
importance through regional

collaboration. For identified regional priority programs, APPSA would
support efforts to scale up and develop national research
centres
into regional

centres
of leadership.


Currently, Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia
have
expressed their interest in
establishing Regional
Centres of Leadership (RCoLs)
for
maize, rice an
d legumes respectively. Malawi
h
as elected to
establish a RCoL on the maize based farming system which will encompass the maize farming system
as a whole, including a focus on the full s
et of crops within the maize farming system, and associated
nutrient, soil and water management issues.

The

programme will be implemented by the ministry of
Agriculture and food Security.



1.
1
.1

APPSA
Program Components


In pursuit of the longer term goa
l of improving productivity and production of safe and nutritious food
within priority farming systems in the Southern Africa region, the P
roject Development
O
bjective of
APPSA

is
to improve the availability of agricultural technologies within and across
SADC countries.

APPSA will pursue this objective by: (i) establishing Regional Centers of Leadership (RCoLs) on
commodities of regional importance, thereby allowing regional specialization around priority farming
systems and more strategic investment in ag
ricultural research capacity; (ii) supporting regional
collaboration in agricultural training and dissemination; and (iii) facilitating increased sharing of
agricultural information, knowledge and technology across boundaries of participating countries.


The
proposed program
would have three components:


1.
1
.1
.1

Technology Generation and Dissemination


The first component would support technology generation and dissemination activities associated with
Regional

Centres
of Leadership. This would include rese
arch activities targeting the technology
priorities defined through regional dialogue and consistent with a regional priority setting study. The
component would also support regional dissemination programs or technology transfer sub
-
projects to
link

centre
s
of Leadership to institutions in other countries and enable scaling up of innovations.


Malawi has prioritized scaling up farmer to farmer dissemination methodologies, the use of mass media
(primarily radio), technology demonstration, and scaling up and
expanding pluralistic extension
services
, within its national technology dissemination system
. APPSA
will
play an important role in
providing the content and higher level training of service providers within the technology dissemination
system. APPSA is no
t intended to be a full

-

fledged dissem
ination or extension program as

that
is
a
core focus

of the A
SWAp. ASWAp
-
SP

has significant resources allocated for technology dissemination
activities around maize.


The core focus of
APPSA supported technology dis
semination activities in Malawi
will therefore aim at
:
improving the content and accessibility of technology messages and knowledge products around
maize

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

2

technologies; improving the capacity of DARS and DAES to strengthen technical training of lead
farmers
, extension agents and advisory

service providers around maize
; strengthening the capacity of
DARS dissemination officers; private sector and civil society engagement; and improving farmer
-
research
-
extension feedback mechanisms to obtain a better analysis
of farmer preferences. APPSA
will

also support regional information sharing and exchange activities with other participating countries.


1.
1
.
1.
2

Center of Leadership Strengthening


The second component would support capacity building for Regional
Centres

of Leadership
.

Within
Malawi, APPSA would support: (i) the upgrading of research infrastructure; (ii) improving management
and performance systems; (iii) scientific training at the post graduate level and to upgrade skills through
short courses or targete
d training; and (iv)

strengthening seed

regulatory and related services.
Investments in physical infrastructure will focus on improving existing facilities in Chitedze

in Lilongwe,
Mbawa in Mzimba, Lifuwu and Chitala in Salima, Bvumbwe in Thyolo and Kasint
hula in Chikwawa.

Investments in seed and related services will focus on increasing the capacity of pre
-
basic and basic
seed production for targeted commodities under APPSA, increasing analytical capacity for GMO
detection and mycotoxin analysis, and techn
ical assistance to identify and address regulatory gaps
within the technology generation and dissemination system, if necessary.


1.
1
.1
.3

Coordination and Facilitation


The third component would support implementation of the program and coordination activi
ties. At the
national level the program would be fully integrated into MoAFS. Given the high vacancy rate within
DARS there is an urgent need to identify human resource requirements for program implementation to
be met through Government budget. APPSA als
o provides an opportunity to scale up the use of multi
-
stakeholder platforms within the program to ensure all actors within the national agricultural research
system are involved.


At the regional level the program would finance regional facilitation
activities including: (i) regional
planning, monitoring and evaluation activities needed to establish and monitor regional collaborative
activities; and (ii) regional exchange of information, knowledge and technologies. These functions are
most efficiently

provided by a regional entity and CCARDESA is in the process of developing a more
detailed proposal on how it could
fulfil

these functions in APPSA.


Each participating country will allocate resources to CCARDESA based on an agreed upon work plan
establis
hed during the preparation process.


1.
1
.2

Proposed Research Priorities, Objectives and Expected Outcomes

of APPSA Program

The main goal of the program is to improve productivity of maize/legume farming systems through
improved nitrogen use efficiency,
reduced loss of crop production from field pests and diseases and
post
-
harvest handling, diversification and improved nutrition. In collaboration with CIMMYT, the Malawi
Maize Research team has developed and released stress
-
tolerant maize varieties, some w
ith enhanced
nutritional characteristics. These include hybrids and open
-
pollinated varieties (seed of the latter may
be saved by farmers from one year to the next for future crops) that are tolerant to drought and pre
-

and
post
-
harvest pests. Those well a
dapted and farmer preferred varieties are fast
-
tracked for release and
scale up of seed production, and subsequently integrated and promoted as part of more productive,
sustainable and risk
-
averting local livelihood systems.


The objectives of the programm
e are:

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

3



To improve cropping systems through development and dissemination of maize based

technologies in Malawi and within the region.



To strengthen capacities of research institutions dealing with maize based cropping systems
through training and improvement of infrastructure.



Develop and promote integrated pest and disease management technologies in Maize.



To strengthen seed production
, quality control, supply and delivery systems in Malawi and
within the region.



To strengthen quality control systems provided through biotechnology



To strengthen collaboration and linkages between institutions involved in maize based
cropping systems rese
arch in Malawi and within the region



To develop and promote postharvest/agro
-
processing and value addition technologies



To develop, adapt and popularize farm mechanization technologies


The programme is expected to deliver the following outcomes by the en
d of its implementation period:



Improved maize varieties, suitable for the prevailing ecologies and with acceptable attributes



Use of improved maize and legume seed increased



Integrated pest and disease management technologies for pre and post
-
harvest
identified and
utilized



Improved maize and legume technologies developed and adopted



Average level of nitrogen use efficiency increased



Maize
-
legume intercropping technologies promoted



Seed production, supply and delivery systems in Malawi and within th
e region strengthened



Quality control system like GMO detection and mycotoxin analysis strengthened



Collaboration and linkages between institutions involved in maize based farming systems
research in Malawi and within the region strengthened



Post harvest/a
gro
-
processing and value addition technologies developed and promoted



Labour saving technologies developed and promoted

P
riority research areas proposed
are
as follows:



Breeding for resistance to pests and diseases of economic importance



Breeding for to
lerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought



Integrated Pest and Disease Control



Strengthening of seed production, supply and delivery systems



Quality control of agricultural produce through GMO detection and mycotoxin analysis



Germplasm collection,
characterization and conservation for future research



Soil fertility improvement and other soil and water management options



Post harvest processing, marketing and value addition



Development of labour saving technologies



Capacity building

1.
1
.3

Proposed
research activities with regional spillovers

Malawi has been adopting a series of policy instruments to support smallholder agricultural
development and it is perhaps
the only sub
-
Saharan African country providing direct support

of farm
inputs at low cost

to farmers to farm, and this has shown significant impacts in maize production and
productivity.

Capitalizing on the strong policy support, the integrated technology and value chain interventions of the
CoL are expected to enhance productivity and food se
curity which may also provide useful lessons and
Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

4

spillovers for the other APPSA participating countries of the Southern Africa

-

Zambia and
Mozambique
,

and the region. Some of the specific activities with spillover effects include
:



Developing and promoting

demand
-
driven
crop
varieties (includes resistance to

biotic

and
abiotic stresses, market preferred traits. This may be done through

regional

collaborative trials
with CGIARs, like CIMMYT,
relevant partners for example

Alliance


for Green Revolution in
A
frica
-

AGRA)



Develop and promote value
-
added maize
-
based products



Develop and promote appropriate post
-
harvest technologies for maize that
would

be useful
for farmers in Malawi and neighbouring countries.



Develop and promote improved soil
and
water mana
gement and maize
-
based cropping system
interventions.



Collect, characterize, conserve and utilization of maize and associated legume germplasm for
local and international scientists.

1.
1
.4

Proposed dissemination activities to link Center of Leadership
outputs to national
technology dissemination system

The Centre of Leadership will implement the following activities in the dissemination of technologies to
ensure increased adoption:



Promotion of the Lead farmer approach that promotes farmer to farmer
extension to bridge the
gaps on interface between the extension service providers and the farmers.



Promotion of participatory approaches in research, extension and advisory services in the
interest of empowering the communities for ownership and sustainabi
lity.




Mounting on farm demonstrations as one of the innovation platforms for technology adoption
along the value chain
.



Organizing National and Regional Scientific conferences for public, private, Civil Society
Organizations and Universities to share inf
ormation and best practices on topical issues
affecting technology generation and dissemination
.



Field Days will be organized by farmers, researchers, universities, Civil Society organizations
and private sector to showcase some of the successful innovatio
ns.



Strengthening Research and Extension in the promotion of maize production through Farmer
field schools to tap on the farmers’ indigenous knowledge in technology generation and
dissemination
.




Opening Farmer Business Schools to instill a culture among f
armers of taking farming as a
business
.



Publications or print media (newsletters, bulletins, calendars, posters, fliers, extension circulars,
leaflets)
.




Production of training materials for extension workers and Lead farmers.



Exchange visits for farmers

and staff (National and International) tours



Displays to popularize the value addition technologies in promoting the cottage industry



Campaigns using mobile vans, village meetings



Documenting and exchanging maize based technology information through websi
te.



Organizing farmers into radio listening clubs and linking them to the national, private and
community radio stations to promote the culture of information sharing through radio



Promoting gender, HIV and AIDs responsive programming for technology dissem
ination

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

5

1.
1
.5

National coordination and implementation arrangements

MoAFS will have overall responsibility of APPSA supervision and coordination in Malawi. Consistent
with GoM policies on harmonization and alignment of donor projects, APPSA will be fully e
xecuted
through existing country institutions and DARS and DAES will be the main implementing agencies. The
project will be integrated
in
to the ASWAp management struct
ure approved in September 2011.

Similar to other MoAFS projects and programs, the ASWAp E
xecutive Management Committee will
oversee APPSA execution from the policy and strategic perspective. The Committee will provide
strategic direction and ensure inter
-
ministerial coordination on research and extension activities
developed under APPSA and i
t will review and validate the project’s annual work plan and budget.


The “Technology Generation and Dissemination” Technical Working Group (TWG), co
-
chaired by
DARS and DAES Directors, will review and refine APPSA annual work plans and budget before
submission to the ASWAp Executive Management Committee. This TWG will ensur
e coordination of
APPSA proposed activities with other MoAFS investments and similar projects.

To ensure a closer and more regular supervision and coordination of APPSA implementation, DARS
and DAES, along with other project partners, will set up a Technical Implementation Coordination
Committee.


DARS will also be in charge of: (i) coordinating th
e preparation of APPSA annual work plans and
budgets, including liaising with the PPD and ASWAp secretariat to ensure incorporation of APPSA
proposals in the overall MoAFS budget; (ii) compiling information for proper coordination and
supervision by MoAFS;

(iii) preparing quarterly progress reports and organizing meetings of the
technical implementation coordination committee; and (iv) preparing annual implementation reports for
presentation to the “Technology Generation and Dissemination” TWG.


Financial
management and procurement modalities for APPSA will follow the principles and procedures
already in place under ASWAp
-
SP
.

Project activities will be implemented by DARS using the country
financial management
(FM)
and procurement systems.
DARS is
governed
by the Public Procurement
Law, its Regulations and Desk Instructions. The Office’s annual budget and Procurement Plan
provides a framework for checks and balances for the smooth running of procurement, disbursement
and disposal system in accordance with S
ection (3) of the Public Procurement Act. Due to the limited
knowledge that the current procurement staff have in World Bank procedures,
the Project will recruit a
t
echnical
a
ssistance
as
Procurement Specialist who should initially support the project for
a period of
24
months as the staff are being mentored.
The Project will
also
finance t
raining
in
World Bank
procurement
procedures
for DARS staff.
To mitigate
FM
risks
,

DARS will deploy qualified and
experienced personnel to head accounting function of the project. Additionally, the project will recruit a
technical assistant as FM specialist to be responsible for setting up an accounting system for the
project and train
DARS staff in FM and disbursement. DARS will also acquire an accounting package
for transaction processing and reporting purposes.


In line with its mandate to support regional collaboration in agricultural research, CCARDESA is
expected to play a role in
supporting implementation of APPSA. CCARDESA is well placed to facilitate
a range of regional activities including convening stakeholders, facilitating networking, providing
technical backstopping and peer review, monitoring and evaluation, and policy harm
onization and
advocacy.

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

6

1.
1
.6

Project Implementing Agency


The project implementing agency is the Ministry of Agriculture and Fo
od Security (MoAFS).
The
Ministry’s contact address is:


The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security

Capital Hill

P O Box 301
34

Lilongwe 3

Malawi


1.
1
.7

Project Cost Estimates

The total project cost is approximately US$
30

million
. Table 1.1 provides a breakdown of the total
project cost by activity, amount and percentage of total.

Table 1.1: Breakdown of Total Project Cost

Components

TOTAL (US$)

% TOTAL

Technology generation and Dissemination

11
,
4
00,000.00

38
%

Strengthening Regional Center of Leadership

13
,
0
00,000.00

43
%

Coordination and Facilitation


5
,
6
00,000.00

19
%

TOTAL

3
0,000,000.00

100%




1.
2

Rationale for
the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment


This
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (
ESIA
)

identifies

the environmental and social
impacts of the A
PPSA

and determines their mitigation measures. This ESIA therefore

incorporates

the
Malawi EIA procedures for meeting
national
environmental and social management requirements, as
outlined in Appendix C of the EIA Guidelines. The ESIA also
integrates consideration for

the World
Bank Operational Policies for environmental management
of projects.


1.
3

Objective of the
ESIA

The objective of the ESIA is to
identify

the potential environmental
and social
impacts of increased
agricultural
research, dissemination,
production and productivity in the project areas.
The p
otential
impacts
identified, assessed

and analyzed relate
to
activities targeted at improving food security

through
development and dissemination of improved maize based technologies
.
The

proposed

project
activities could also generate negative impacts such
as
increased

u
se of
land, and agro
-
chemicals
including
pesticides

and

fertilizers
.

T
he
ESIA

presents

mitigation and monitoring measures as well as
institutional arrangements for environmental and social management under the
APPSA
.


1.
4

Users of the ESIA


This ESIA has been prepared for use by
MoAFS and
key stakeholders involved in the planning,
implementation and management of the proposed
APPSA
. The ESIA would be useful to the following
APPSA

key stakeholders:

(a)

Funding and donors agencies
;

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

7

(b)

Department of
Agricultural Research Services and other government institutions to be involved in
the implementation of the project
;

(c)

Government extension workers

and lead farmers

in the
APPSA

project areas;

(d)

Non
-
governmental organizations
involved in the activities of the

APPSA
;

(e)

Contractors and consultants to be engaged under APPSA
;

and

(f)

Planners
of

the
APPSA

project activities.


1.
5

M
ethod
ology in
Preparing the ESIA

In the development of the ES
I
A,
consultations with key stakeholders were employed

from 21

September

to
16 October
2012
.

A
summary

of the consultations proceedings are provided in Annex
1
.
The rationale of
these
consultations
wa
s to solicit views of a cross s
ection of people, at the local level in
this case research stations to participate in APPSA
activitie
s
and Central Government level.
Lead
farmers were also consulted during the field investigations
.
W
alks along
part of
the boundaries

and
within the area of land

of the visited research stations were conducted to
appreciate the research
activities currently

being conducted
,

to
verify boundaries

and assess if there are any land
-
related

problems on proposed land to be used for APPSA.
However, d
uring the field investigations no
farmer
encroachment was observed

on research land proposed for APPSA activities.

Ke
y stakeholders consulted included:

(a)

staff
at
the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security
,

(b)

staff of
Mbawa,
Chitedze,
Chitala,
Lifuwu,
Bvumbwe
and
Kasinthula

Agricultural Research
Station
s
;

(c)

staff of other relevant
M
inistries and
D
epartments including
the
Environmental Affairs
;

(d)

World Bank staff;

(e)

Farmers around the proposed research stations where on farm trials could be conducted
;

(f)

Agricult
ural Extension Staff;

and

(g)

ASWAp Coordinating Unit.



T
hese consultations
were carried out to share the views of key stakeholders and to obtain their input in
the
identification of environmental and social impacts of the
A
P
P
SA
.
A list of individ
uals and institutions
consulted
,
proceeding
s from consultations and how the findings have been incorporated in the report
have been
included in Appendix 1
.

Most of the findings have been included in the environmental and
social management and monitoring plans, as part of the project implementation
plan. In addition, the
findings form part of the institutional arrangement and capacity building for APPSA and specific
recommendations for this ESIA report.


The strategies
used
and activities performed
in the preparation of the ESIA included
:


a.

Review of
existing
national

biophysical and social conditions
.
Some of the sources of
information included
Socio
-
economic
Profiles
and
E
nvironmenta
l Reports
;

b.

Review of
the
implementation approach and processes for the proposed
APPSA
.

This
information was obtained from the project description, project concept note
,

project appraisal
documents

and other related literature
;


c.

Determination of the
APPSA

project stages
and activities which are likely to have
environmental and social impact
s
;

d.

Identification and analysis of potential environmental and social impacts of the

APPSA
,

based
on the field investigations and public consultations, project description
, other similar documents

and professional knowledge;

Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

8

e.

Determination of the environment
al and social components to be impacted by the project
activities;

f.

Identification of appropriate mitigation measures for the potential e
nvironmental and social
impacts
;

g.

Preparation
of a
n

environmental
management plan
(EMP)
for addressing the impacts
during

the different project
stages and
activities and;

h.

Preparation of
a

monitoring
plan for
effective

implementation of the EMP
.


1.
6

Constraints and Limitation of the Study

The major challenge faced during the development of this ESIA report is that
there
was

lack of clear
knowledge on
the subproject
activities to be funded under the APPSA project

by the officials consulted
in the research stations visited during the preliminary consultations.


1.
7

Organization of the Report



This report is
organized into seven chapters as follows:

Chapter One

provides background information on the
APPSA

and describes its project components,
estimated costs,
national coordination and
implementation arrangements. It further introduces the
Environmental and
Social Impact Assessment ESIA, its rationale and objectives, methodology used in
undertaking the ESIA and constraints and limitation of the study. This chapter also defines the target
audience for the ESIA.


Chapter Two

provides an overview of the environm
ental and social setting of the project by describing
the biophysical environment including its topography, hydrology,

and

biodiversity
of the project areas
.


Chapter Three
gives the socioeconomic environment mainly in relation to agriculture.



Chapter

Four

outlines relevant Malawi policies and legislation applicable to the
APPSA
. The chapter
also
provides

relevant World Bank Safeguard Policies that are triggered by the
APPSA
.


Chapter
Five
describes the environmental and social impacts that are likely to be generated by the
three project components
(
i.e.
Technology Generation and Dissemination, Center of Leadership
Strengthening and Coordination and Facilitation
)
. The environmental and soci
al impacts are the basis
for the development of environmental and social management and monitoring plans in Chapter Five.


Chapter
Six

outlines the Environmental and Social Management Plans for addressing the program

s
environmental and social impacts. The

Management Plans
include

information on the environmental
component likely to be
affected,

the activity that may cause the impact and the mitigation measures to
be put in place. The Chapter also provides environmental and social monitoring plans for proje
ct
impacts
;

provides

information on the monitoring activities, monitoring indicators, frequency of
monitoring and the institutions to carry out the monitoring.


Chapter Seven

gives an overview of the proposed institutional arrangement for implementation of

APPSA

activities
. The chapter highlights key institutions and their roles. It further proposes capacity
building and training requirements to be undertaken for
the
successful implementation of the
Environmental Management Plan (EMP).


Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

9

Chapter
Eight

makes
recommendations for effective and successful implementation of the
Environmental and Social Management Plans that contribute towards
environmentally
and socially
sustainable
attainment of the
APPSA

goal
s

and objectives.


Agricultural Productivity Program Southern Africa (APPSA)

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Draft Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report

10

CHAPTER TWO:


THE BIOPHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT


2.1

APPSA Project locations

and Land Size

The
proposed project activities for
APPSA will take place in the six

existing research stations within the
agricultural sector. Chitedze Research Station has been
designated

to be the Regional Centre of
Leadership
for the project while the
research stations

below

will be part of the national system for the
generation and dissemination of the new technologies
:




Mbawa Agriculture Research Station in Mzimba;



Lifuwu Agriculture R
esearch Station in Salima;



Chitala Agriculture Research Station in Salima;



Bvumbwe Agriculture Research Station in Thyolo; and



Kasinthula Agriculture Research Station in Chikhwawa.


Table 2.1 presents
the total
hectare

for each research station, land currently being used for research
activities and idle land.

Findings from field investigations indicate that t
here is adequate land in the
targeted research stations for proposed APPSA activities

with no encumbrances
.


Tabl
e 2.1: Summary of Total Land for Research Stations

NAME OF STATION

TOTAL LAND (Ha)

IN

USE (Ha)

IDLE LAND (Ha)

Chitedze

486
.0

430
.0

56
.0

Bvumbwe

287.3

285.3

5
.0

Kasinthula

260
.0

110
.0

150
.0

Lifuwu

250
.0

210
.0

40
.0

Chitala

485
.0

124
.0

361
.0

Mbawa

486
.0

286
.0

200
.0


The EIA process for Malawi (EMA, 1997) requires that the baseline situation of the existing biophysical
and socio
-
economic environment be established, before any project that might significantly impact on
the environment is implemented. The following secti