Evolution towards Smart Grids: Research and Development in Europe

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29 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Evolution

towards

Smart

Grids:


Research and Development in Europe



(Evolução rumo às redes inteligentes:
pesquisa e desenvolvimento na Europa)




P.F.
Ribeiro
, PhD, IEEE Fellow

PAGE
2

The design and operation of life sustainable infrastructures such as electric
energy grids can no longer ignore the increasing demands of more and
sophisticated users, the scarcity of energy resources and the environmental
concerns.


Within this context, the concept of smart grids has surfaced and some
significant technological developments are taking place.


However, and due to the great complexity of such systems, which involve a
number of interwoven technological systems and societal aspects, engineers
and designers concentrate on the methodological side of the engineering
design and pay less attention to the ontological, epistemological and ethical
aspects.

Introductory Words

Introductory Words


The electric power grid is a crucial part of society infrastructure and
needs constant attention for maintaining its performance and reliability.



A power systems grid is a widespread, interconnected system and is as
strong as its weakest link and/or its control operation strategies during
emergency conditions.



Security and energy sustainability have become major priorities to both
customers and electric companies.



Deployment of sustainable / renewable energy sources are crucial to a
healthy relationship of society and the environment.



An aggressive search of sustainable sources and a sensitive, but firm
implementation of solutions is much needed.



Solutions need to taken into account a sensitive balance of societal
needs, environment al concerns and the economics of energy projects.



Unfolding of Meaning

Action

Meaning

Worldview

Technology

Introductory Words

Reality

Technology

Culture

History

Technology

Culture

History

Introductory Words

Nature

Materials

Parts

Sub
-
System

Product /
System

Aspects

Society





Complexities

Parts

Transistor

Properly

Biased

Properly
Specified

Parts

Example


Arithmetic


Spatial


Kinematic


Physical

Sub
-
System

Complete
Circuit

Functional
Sub
-
System

Interface
with other
sub
-
systems

Sub
-
System

Example


Logical / Physical


Communications


Economics

Product /
System

Electric
Utility

Functions

Design
Specs

Product
/ System

Example


Concepts


Specs


Theory


Quantitative Analysis


Practical Considerations


Design Instrumentalities


Arithmetic


Spatial


Kinematic


Physical


Biotic


Sensitive


Logical


Historical


Communications


Social


Economics


Aesthetics


Juridical

Aspects

Aspects

Technical


Scientific


Technological

Business


Market


Political

Societal


Juridical


Ethical

Example

Society

Culture

Tradition

Religion

Society

Engineering Design Philosophical
Questions

Essence

Nature

Scientific

Technological

Market

Political

Juridical

Ethical

Themes

Society

Politics


Multidisciplinary

Platforms

Business

Technologies


.

Multidisciplinary

Research

Bach
. stud.

R&D



TU/e Electrical Engineering Department

PAGE
13

OED

ECO

EM

MSM

SPS

ES

CS

EPE

EES

Electrical Engineering

Conn. World

Care & Cure

Sm. & Sust.S.

COBRA

CWTe

PCTC

CSP

PAGE
14

Electrical Energy Systems (EES)

Electromechanics

and Power Electronics (EPE)

Design Methodology for Electronic Systems (ES)

Mixed Signal Micro Electronics (
MsM
)

Control Systems (CS)

Signal Processing Systems (SPS)

Electro
-
Optical Communications (ECO)

Opto
-
Electronic Devices (OED)

Electromagnetics (EM)

TU/e Electrical Engineering Department

Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES)


Mission:


Generation of
knowledge

to support the supply and
efficient use of electrical energy



Call for a sustainable society:


Intelligent networks
and their
components

are needed
to integrate distributed and sustainable generation


Disturbance free design
(EMC) is needed to enable an
all electric sustainable society


Pulsed Power Technology

is needed for the efficient
recycling of material flows

PAGE
15

Electrical Energy Systems Group (EES)


12 professors


6 technical staff


23 PhDs and post
-
docs


4 guests


More than 25 master students (EE and SET)

PAGE
16

People involved in education and research

Conn. World

Care & Cure

Smart
&
Sust
. Soc.

Facilities in the “Corona” building

PAGE
17

PAGE
17

Power quality and RES laboratory

EMC laboratory

High
-
voltage laboratory

-

Pulsed power

-

EMC

-

Intelligent test methods


Further outside facilities with companies

PAGE
18

The evolution towards smart grids

Residence

Factory

Wind

Microturbine

Commercial

Central

Generation

Fuel Cell

Flywheel

Substation

Photovoltaic

Battery

Power & Communications Link

Microturbine

Hyper car

Flowbattery

Pumped Storage

Dispatchable


DSM

Smart grids onderzoek: uitdagingen en
resultaten


Wat zijn relevante thema’s voor Universitair onderzoek


Wat denken we daarmee te bereiken


Wat zijn onze partners, wie is onze klant


Waar staan we over 10 jaar

PAGE
19

Roadmap for research (example EU project)

PAGE
20

2010
-

2030 Research roadmap

(same example EU project)

PAGE
21

TU/e
EES

Scope

PAGE
22

Transition towards
new Electrical
Infrastructures

Handling Power
Quality Issues

Design, Control and
Protection of
Distribution
Networks

Short circuit

detection

Tuning

System

behavior

Model of

decentral

generation

Protection

Research on smart grids

Design, Control and Protection of
Distribution Networks (overview)


Finished thesis work of
Frans Provoost

on “Intelligent Distribution
Network Design”


Finished thesis work of
Roald de Graaff

on

“Flexible distribution
systems through the application of multi back
-
to
-
back converters”


Finished thesis work of
Edward Coster

on “Distribution Grid
Operation Including Distributed Generation”


Ongoing research of
Else Veldman

on “Flexible and Efficient
Electricity Distribution Grids”


Ongoing research of
Panagiotis Karaliolios

on “Short
-
circuit
behaviour of distribution networks with high penetration level of DG”


Ongoing research of
Petr Kadurek

on “Intelligent and Decentralized
Management of Networks and Data”




PAGE
23

Intelligent

Node



=



=

out

in

Design, Control and Protection of
Distribution Networks (some results)

PAGE
24

V1set

V1

V2

2

1

V2set

2

1

Concept of an Intelligent Node

(Research of
Provoost

theoretical,
De Graaff

practical)

Design, Control and Protection of
Distribution Networks (some results)

PAGE
25

Voltage profile at the MV
busbar

during and after
a 100ms s/c event in HV grid (research of
Coster


CHPs and
Karaliolios


DG in general)

Design, Control and Protection of
Distribution Networks (some results)

PAGE
26

households with
normal
electricity
use

houses with 5 m
2

solar panel

electric vehicles

heat
pumps

micro
-
CHP boilers

combination 1

800

400

100

125

200

combination 2

800

100

400

-

200



Daily load profiles
for different
combinations of
residential load
elements
(Research of
Veldman
)

Design, Control and Protection of
Distribution Networks (some results)

PAGE
27



LV and MV voltages measured
at smart substation. Impact of
voltage control with smart
transformer
(Research of
Kadurek
)

Handling Power Quality Issues

(overview)


Finished thesis work of
Sjef Cobben

on “
Power Quality:
Implications at the Point of Connection



Finished thesis work of
Cai Rong

on

“Flicker Interaction Studies
and Flickermeter Improvement”


Almost finished thesis work of
Peter Heskes

on “
Minimizing the
Impact of Resonances in Low Voltage Grids by Power Electronics
based Distributed Generators



Ongoing research of
Sharmistha Bhattacharyya

on “
Power Quality
Requirements and Responsibilities at a Customer's Point of
Connection in the Network



Ongoing research of
Vladimir

Ć
uk

on “Power Quality Modelling
Techniques”


PAGE
28

Handling Power Quality Issues

(some results)

PAGE
29

-
0.66

Unbalance

Voltage

level

Dips

Flicker

Harmonic

distortion

1

0.66

0.33

0

-
0.33

-
1

PQ
classification
system
developed by
Cobben

Handling Power Quality Issues

(some results)

PAGE
30

PQ responsibilities sharing among different parties
in the network (Research of
Bhattacharyya
)

Handling Power Quality Issues

(some results)

PAGE
31

Harmonic current
interaction


AC/DC
converter and industrial
lamps

(Project of
Ćuk
)

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (overview)


Finished thesis work of
Phuong Nguyen

on “
Multi
-
Agent System based
Active Distribution Networks



Almost finished thesis work of
Jasper Frunt

on “
Analysis of Balancing
Requirements in Future Sustainable and Reliable Power Systems



Ongoing research of
Ioannis Lampropoulos

on “
Evaluation and
assessment of local balancing resources



Ongoing research of
Khalil el Bakari

on “
Operation and Design of Smart
Grids with Virtual Power Plants



Ongoing research of
Greet Vanalme a.o.

on “
Transition Roadmap for the
Energy Infrastructure in the Netherlands



Starting research of
Frits Wattjes

on “
Concept of an Integrated Smart Grid
where both System/Network operators and market parties create value



Starting research of
Ballard Asare
-
Bediako
on “Intelligent Energy
Management System at Household Level”


Starting research of
Helder Ferreira
on “
Reliability analyses on distribution
networks with dispersed generation




PAGE
32

PAGE
33

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

The use of
agents for
power routing
and power
matching
(research of
Nguyen
)

PAGE
34

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

Aggregation
of DERs
under the
VPP concept
(Research of
El Bakari
)

Windmills

(solo)

micro
-
CHP

(Households)

Solar

panels

230
-
400 V

10
-
50 kV

110
-
150 kV

220
-
380 kV

Interconnections

Wind

farms

(bio
-
)CHP

(Industry
)

Wind farms

(Offshore)

CHP

(Industry
)

G

G

Power Plants

Load

Load

Load

TSO

VPP

Operators

Other renewable

Controllable loads

Storage devices

Operator: Large Scale Virtual Power Plant (LS
-
VPP)

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Operator: Virtual Power Plants (VPP)

Smart

meter
s

Intelligent
devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

Intelligent

devices

DSO

VPPs can be
operated by
commercial market
players as well as
system operators

PAGE
35

Projected load profiles for
2.45m flexible devices (of
each type which means
30 %
of the households having
these) for 5 days

Covered prediction errors
between 1h
-
ahead and
15min
-
ahead forecasts of 2.5
GW wind production in
assuming 30 % of active
households for DSM
(research of
Lampropoulos
)

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

PAGE
36

Functional overview Smart Home
Installation (research of
Asare
-
Bediako
)

PAGE
37

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

Interaction Gas and Electricity Network
Development (
TREIN

project)

Prices for
energy and AS

Cleared
volume and
price for
energy and
AS per PTU

TSO

PX market

AS
market

BRP
1

BRP
m

Prosumers

Prosumers

Communication and interfaces in ahead energy
markets (research
Frunt and Lampropoulos
)

Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

PAGE
38

Request to
reserve
capacity

Bilateral
contracts &
capacity
bids

Bilateral

contracts

Bid curves for
energy and AS



Transition towards new Electrical
Infrastructures (some results)

PAGE
39

PAGE
39

Interaction between Market and System

(research of
Frunt
)

LAB
-
SETUP at ECN

Mini Testgrid

Laboratory equipment


Triphase

development system

o
Rapid prototyping of power electronics
applications

o
Controlled by pc (
Matlab
-
Simulink)



Mini test grid 20 kVA @ 50 Hz

o
Motor / synchronous generator

o
RLC
-
loads

o
DER simulator

Lab equipment (converters)

Mini testgrid


20kVA


40
-
60 Hz



Triphase Development
System


www.triphase.com


Triphase Development System

EERA SmartGrids

SP1
-

Network Operation

www.eera
-
set.eu


Network


Operation


-

Sub Program partners

Overview
-

Approach in EERA SG
-
SP1


Potential problems in the future grid

o
Onset of grid instability


Background of frequency stability

o
Variable generation and the swing equation

o
General characteristics of potential control measures


What does literature tell us?


Research field
-

EERA SG SP1 "Network Operation"

o
Objective: Need for a universal "Primary" Smart Grid Control
structure

o
Main Problems Addressed



Conventional and Future Grid Control

o
Central Grid Control

o
State
-
of
-
the
-
art in Smart Grid control

o
Local Grid Control

Future grid problems & their principal cause

(simplified grid layout)

Onset of grid instability

General order of instability events:


First Voltage instability

o
Indicates failure in power delivery


Then frequency instability (if things go really
wrong)

o
Indicates significant power imbalance


A stable grid starts with a stable frequency

Objective: Need for a universal "Primary"
Smart Grid Control structure

A universal and relatively simple "primary"
control structure for Smart Grids is to be
developed to a mature concept



Basic grid operation is guaranteed by giving the
primary control structure precedence over all other
algorithms



ICT
-
layers for purposes like energy trading and
grid asset management may be added depending
on local needs

Main Problems Addressed


Developing and choosing effective new
control structures


Grid integration of new control structures

o
Normal operation

o
Emergency situations and micro grids

o
Flexible control centre cycles

Central
Grid Control

Subdivision of control time scales
--

conventional
control algorithms & techniques


Control time
scale

Control algorithm

Associated
technique

Communication
signals

Aim

Synchronising torque



Rotating inertia



Voltage phase
angle

Short term
imbalance energy
buffer

System balancing by grid operator

30 sec


15 min

Primary control



Frequency
-
Power


Voltage
-
Reactive
power



Local controller



Droop control



system frequency

Instant balancing

25 sec


15 min

Secondary control



Load
-
Frequency
Control



Inter
-
area
controller



droop curve
shifting



Inter area power
flow

Inter area balancing
by grid operator

10 min


1 hour

Tertiary control



15 min set points
from Day
-
ahead
market



Electronic
message one day
ahead



Generated power



Day
-
ahead
generation schedule

Scheduling / Energy
trading

1 ms


30 sec

Synchronous machine response

State
-
of
-
the
-
art in Smart Grid control


Supply and Demand Matching algorithms


Electrical energy storage


Virtual Synchronous Machine algorithms


Micro grids


(

)

One algorithm and associated techniques
alone cannot stabilise the future Smart Grid


each algorithm and associated technique has
its own
operational time frame


The electrical system however operates in real
-
time
across
all conceivable time frames


Control time
scale

Control algorithm

Associated
technique

Communication
signals

Aim

Synchronising torque



Virtual inertia



Voltage phase
angle

Short term
imbalance energy
buffer

System balancing by grid operator

30 sec


15 min

Primary control



Frequency
-
Power


Voltage
-
Reactive
power



Virtual inertia



Droop control



system frequency



SOC


of local
stores

Instant power
balancing

5 min


30 min

Secondary control



Load
-
SOC Control


SDM control



( SDM = Supply and
Demand Matching)




SOC of local
stores



(SOC=State of Charge)

Short term storage
balancing

10 min


1 hour

Tertiary control



15 min set points
from Day
-
ahead
market



Electronic
message one day
ahead



Generated power



Day
-
ahead
generation schedule

Scheduling / Energy
trading

1 ms


30 sec

Synchronous machine response

Local
Grid Control

Subdivision of control time scales
--

Smart Grid

control algorithms & techniques


Complementary
actions of:


Conventional control


o

Inertia and P
-
f droop control


Instant power balancing

o
Virtual inertia and P
-
f droop


Short term storage
balancing

o
SDM control



(SDM = Supply and Demand Matching)

16
-
11
-
09

Local
grid operation

Instant Power
balancing

0
-
10 minutes

Stabilisation of:


Frequency



Voltage

Short term
storage
balancing

5
-
30 minutes


Restoration of
local balance

Normal
operation

Severe
Disturbance

Local Grid

Main Grid

Synergetic benefits of





Instant Power Balancing &




Short Term Storage Balancing


Instant Power Balancing with Virtual Inertia:

o
Stabilises local grid up to 10 minutes under unbalanced conditions

=> Low bandwidth communications system sufficient



Short Term Storage balancing with Supply and Demand
Matching:

o
Restores local system balance continuously

=> Limited energy store sufficient



Together:


Builds business case for future grids

Statements (for discussion)


The reliability of the Future Grid may be:

o
low in a classical top
-
down control structure

o
enforced by using loosely connected micro
-
grids

o
weakened by a too heavy ICT footprint


For a Future Grid we need algorithms that:

o
stabilise interconnected local
-
grids

o
offer a local stabilising equivalent to:


Primary control


Secondary control

o
Reduce the ICT footprint


Key to the success of Future Grids is:

o

A gradual transition from the conventional top
-
down control
structure to peer
-
to
-
peer local
-
grid control structure

Technologies for Sustainable
Smart Grids

Barriers

Cost

Unreliability

T&D Incompatibility

Load Flow Control

Voltage Control

Protection

Power Quality Issues

Politics

Regulations

Intelligent /
Sustainable

Cities

Buildings, Houses
,
Transportation,

Electric Grid

Distributed
(Renewable)
Energy Sources

Regionally
Optimized Portfolio
/Mix of Renewable
Energy

Integration with
Macro and Micro
Grids

Normative
Practices

Economics, Market,
Business

Political Will

For Caring and Just
Communities

Smart Living

Attractively /
Aesthetically /
Ecologically Friend /
Stable

Environment

Intelligent /
Sustainable

Cities

Buildings, Houses
,
Transportation,

Electric Grid

Distributed
(Renewable)
Energy Sources

Regionally
Optimized Portfolio
/Mix of Renewable
Energy

Integration with
Macro and Micro
Grids

Political Will

For Caring and Just
Communities

The Big Picture


Smart Living

Identity, Functions and Structure

Smart
-
Grid

Fundamental

Functions

Highest

Subject

Functions

Qualifying

Functions

Working

Functions

Generation

Physical

Physical

Physical

Physical

Distribution

Physical

Physical

Physical

Physical

Customers

Loads

Social

Social

Economical

Physical

Physical

Market

Economical

Economical

Social

Economical

Economical

ICT

Physical

Physical

Physical

Physical

Concluding Remarks

Distributed generation, micro grids,
super
-
grid, and
renewable energy
sources offer many benefits (including increasing the security of supply and
reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, etc.).


Although these benefits are clearly identified, DG and Renewables, etc. are
not always economically viable. Their viability depends heavily on energy
prices, stimulation measures and the consideration of all societal aspects
and not only the technical side.


Technical
difficulties and
customer responses
should not be trivialized
-

though they offer an opportunity for engineering creativity.


A vigorous political initiative with regard to stimulation measures for DG and
Renewables is necessary to encourage serious investments by the market.


Smart
-
Sustainable
-
Micro
-
Grids can provide the required integration and
higher reliability, security, flexibility and more sustainable electric energy for
smarter living.