Mona Lisa Walters CIS 105 Outline Biometrics Biometrics is the ...

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Mona Lisa Walters

CIS 105

Outline


Biometrics


I.

Biometrics is the science of measurement and analyzing the people’s identity
using their physical characteristics.


II.

There are
five

main biometric identifications.

A.

Face

scanning
m
easures the different features and the bone structure of the
face.

1.

Just need a good camera and proper software.

2.

Scan a face and converts the photo into numerical code and compare with
the database codes.

3.

Used by law enforcement, airports, casinos, Super B
owl 2002

4.

Takes few seconds to complete.


B.

Fingerprint scanning
use the same principle as the traditional
fingerprints
but
scanning is
faster and more convenient
.

1.

The tiny ridges of persons’ fingers are stored in a tiny digital file
and a
computer scan in just seconds.

2.

Does not require technicians to manually examine each print using ink and
card.

3.

The scanners are fairly small, compact, and inexpensive and require
minimal training.


C.

Hand scanning
uses a plate reader that measures the

length, width, thickness
and surface area of a hand.

1.

Hands are made of 27 bones and intricate web of interconnected joints,
muscles and tendons.

2.

Typically used to gain entry to building, airports, prisons and factories


D.

Iris/Retina is the most promising
f
orm of identification

1.

Both requires special trained machine operators

2.

Iris scanning measures the patterns of lines and colors on the eye

3.

Iris, which is the most
accurate

identifier, does not change over time

4.

Requires the subject to look at a camera from a

distance of 3
-
10 inches

5.

Retina scanning measures the membrane at the back of the eye that
transmits images to the optic nerv
e

6.

Retina scanning requires the subject to look into a reticle and focus on a
visible target.

2


7.

Retina can alter over time and is not
reliable in the long term but is still
better than the other identifier


E.

Voice verification measures the pitch
, cadence and tone of the people’s

voice.

a.

Voice is pre
-
recorded and compare to their live voice

b.

Use only as a “back up” system if place is highly
restricted

c.

Most commonly used in office complex

d.

Not good enough because voice can be change over time such as during
illness and can be stolen by third party (taping
)


III.

The main operations of a biometric system perform
an enrollment and test.

A.

Enrollment or registration is the first entry of the biometric information of
the people stored in the database.

1.

Sensor is the interface between the people and the system. The data is
collected.

2.

Pre
-
processing


the removal of artifacts from the sensor to

enhance the
input

3.

Feature extractor involves the finding of the true biometric pattern
amid noise and signal degradation, preserving the critical information and
discarding the redundant or unnecessary data. The system focuses on
the features that do not

change.

4.

The extracted features are used to create a template in the template
generator.

5.

Then the templates are stored in the databases or on a card or both.

B.

During the test, the system detects and compares the “live sample” to the
stored information.

6.

Dur
ing matching phase, the obtained data is passed to a matcher that
compares it with the template. The program will analyze the template and
the live sample.

7.

Finally, the output of the specified use or purpose.


IV.

The functions and
advantages of Biometrics

A.

A
tool to detect terrorist and/or criminals such as in airports (using facial
recognition)

B.

Immigration


biometric information (finger print) is encoded in visas to
keep track of millions of immigrants and foreign visitors in the US.

C.

Used in the bus
iness

1.

Identify an employee logging onto the companies computer system

2.

Making sure that employees are honest in their hours of work (hand
recognition)

D.

Better than the traditional identification because no need for password &
PINs which could be compromised

3


E.

Elimi
nate Identity theft

F.

Safeguard things that need authorization such as medical records.


V.

Concerns and disadvantages of biometrics

A.

Cameras and facial recognition software in public places disregards people’s
privacy.

B.

There is no way to collect the biometric i
nformation
of terrorists.

C.

The fear that the government or those who have unlimited access to
biometrics data could use or abuse against the people.

D.

Danger to owners of secured items e.g. Malaysian thieves cut off the finger
of a Mercedes
-
Benz S
-
Class owner

when they were trying to steal the car.


VI.

Course of actions against the concerns

A.

The government is required to create regulatory laws that will protect
individual privacy.

B.

Manufacturers of biometric devices have self
-
imposed guidelines called four
crucial
“bio
-
privacy” rules.

1.

First,
before collecting the people’s data, the people are made aware of
what kind of data to be collected and for what purpose.

2.

Second, the amount of data collected must be minimized just for the
purpose.

3.

Third, data must only be used

for the purpose.

4.

Finally, users must have the opportunity to review and correct any
incorrect or incomplete data.


VII.

References.


“Biometrics.”
Issues & Controversies On File

11 Sept. 2006. Issues & Controversies.

Facts On File News Services. 8 Apr. 2008
http://www.2facts.com


Abernathy
,

W & Tien
,

Lee. “Biometrics: Who’s Watching You?”
Electronic Frontier

Foundation

Sept. 2003.
http://www.eff.org/wp/
biometrics
-
whos
-
watching
-

you


"Biometrics."
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
. 03 Apr 2008, UTCWikimedia

Foundation, Inc. 3 Apr 2008

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biometrics&oldid=206810522




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