Biometrics

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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Biometrics



Biometrics

is the science of
uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more
physical or behavioral
traits
. In
information technology
, in particular, biometrics is used as a
form of
identity access management

and
access control
. It is also used to identify individuals
in groups that are under
surveillance
.


Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:



Physiological

are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not
limited to
fingerprint
,
face recognition
,
DNA
, hand and palm geometry,
iris
recognition
, which has largely replaced
retina
, and odo
r/scent.



Behavioral

are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not
limited to
typing rhythm
,
gait
, and
voice
.



Strictly speaking,
voice

is also a physiological trait because every person has a
different
vocal tract
, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way
a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.



It is possible to understand if a human characteristic
can be used for biometrics in
terms of the following factors:



Universality



each person should have the characteristic.



Uniqueness



is how well the biometric separates indiv
iduals from another.



Permanence



measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance
over time.



Collectability



ease of acquisition or getting the factor for measurement.



Performance



accuracy, speed, and toughness of technology.



Acceptabilit
y



degree of approval of a technology.



Circumvention



ease of using a substitute and getting around the technology.



A biometric system can operate in the following two modes:



Verification



A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored
template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be.



Identification



A one to many comparison of the captured biometric a
gainst a
biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual.



The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an
enrollment
. During the
enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. In subsequent uses,
biomet
ric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of
enrollment. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be
secure if the biometric system is to be robust, or tough.


When thieves cannot get access to secure
properties, there is a chance that the thieves will
stalk and assault the property owner to gain
access. If the item is secured with a biometric
device, the damage to the owner could be
irreversible, and potentially

cost more than the
secured property. For example, in 2005,
Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a
Mercedes
-
Benz S
-
Class

owner when attempting
to steal the

car.


The modern science of using the body to
At Walt Disney World biometric
measurements are taken from the fingers of
guest to ensure that the person's ticket is
used by the same person from day to day.

What is biometrics?

MY NOTES

What parts of the
body are commonly
used in biometrics?

What factor(s) do you think
is the hardest to guarantee in
biometrics? Why?

What can happen if the
biometric is really secure
and a thief is
determined
to gain access to the
information?

What types of bio
metrics
have been used for years?

verify a person's identity dates back to 1882,
when Frenchman Alphonse Bertillion proposed
a forensic system of identifying people based on the size of their bodies, heads and limbs.
This system quickly lost favour, however, to an alternative method of fingerprint analysis
(dactyloscopy) that was descr
ibed in the late 1800s by English scientist Sir Francis Galton and
adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 after being formally developed by Sir Edward Henry.


Cancelable biometrics


One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re
-
issued. If a token or
a password is lost or stolen, it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. This is not
naturally available in biometrics. If someone’s face is comp
romised from a database, they
cannot cancel or reissue it. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection
and the replacement features into biometrics.


The United States government has become a strong advocate of biometrics with the
in
crease in fear of terrorism since
September 11, 2001
. The FBI is currently spending $1
billion to create a new biometric database, which will store DNA, fingerprints,
and other
biometric data. The computers running the database will be contained in an underground
facility about the size of a
football

field.


Both the Department of Homeland Security and

DARPA

are heavily funding research
into facial recognition systems. The
Information Processing Technology Office
, ran a
program known as
Human Identification at a Distance

which developed technologies that
are capable of identifying a person at up to 500 ft by their facial features.


Starting in 2005, US passports with facial (image
-
based) biometric data were scheduled
to be produced. Privacy activists in many countries have criticized the technology's use for
the potential harm to civil liberties, privacy, and the risk

of identity theft. Currently, there is
some apprehension in the United States (and the European Union) that the information can
be "skimmed" and identify people's citizenship remotely for criminal intent, such as
kidnapping.


Biometric technologies have b
een found in a number of popular cinema released films.
This alone has created an interest, from general consumers, as a means of identifying
oneself. In 2003 both
X
-
Men 2

and
Hulk

used biometric recognition technologies in the form
of hand access control in X
-
Men 2 and fingerprint access in Hulk.


It wasn't however until 2004
when
iRobot

was released, starring American actor,
Will
Smith
, that biometrics were truly showcased. The film set well into the future had some of
the most advanced technologies on show, many of which hadn't, and still have not been
developed today. The usage however of voice and palm recognition in the
film cemented
the futuristic look of the film in the audiences' mind, and both of which are in constant use
today for securing buildings or sensitive data, these though just being two of many
applications.


Adapted from
http://www.biometricsaustralia.com/article.html

and
http://www.biometrics.org/introduction.php


Comprehension questions:


1.

What parts of the body are vital in biometric
identification?

2.

What method of biometric identification do you think is the most accurate?

3.

Why might some people disagree with biometric identification?

4.

How might biometric identification make your future more secure?


What is one disadvantage
of biometrics?

What agencies and
companies use
biometrics?

How does the general
public typically know abou
t
biometrics?

Where in your life are
biometrics used?