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Network


Dieter W. Storr

January 2002

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How can I connect two PC’s ?

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Network
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Contents


Basics


KVM Switch


Network


Wireless Network


OSI Reference Model


Intranet / Internet

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Network
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Basics

SNA
-

Systems Network Architecture


Proprietary IBM architecture and set of implementing
products for their network computing within an
enterprise.


It became part of IBM’s System Application Architecture
(SAA) and it is currently part of IBM’s Open Blueprint.


IBM is finding ways to combine its own SNA within the
enterprise with TCP/IP in a larger network

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Network
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Basics

LAN
-

Local Area Networks


It’s a group of computers and associated devices that
share a common communications line and typically
share the resources of a single processor or server
within a small geographic area (for example, within an
office building).


A local area network may serve as few as two or three
users (for example, in a home network) or many as
thousands of users (for example, in an FDDI network).


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Network
-

Basics

LAN
-

Local Area Networks


The main local area network architectures are:


Ethernet


Token Ring


ARCnet
(Attached Resource Computer Network)


FDDI
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface)


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Network
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Basics

Ethernet


IEEE 802.3:

Ethernet is the most widely
-
installed local area network (LAN) protocol.
Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet
was originally developed by Xerox and then
developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. An
Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or
special grades of twisted pair wires.

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Network
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Basics

Ethernet


10BASE
-
T:

The most commonly installed
Ethernet systems are called 10BASE
-
T and
provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbit/s.
Devices are connected to the cable and
compete for access using a Carrier Sense
Multiple Access with Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) protocol.

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Network
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Basics

Ethernet


100BASE
-
T or Fast Ethernet

provides
transmission speeds up to 100 megabits per
second and is typically used for LAN backbone
systems, supporting workstations with 10BASE
-
T cards.


Gigabit Ethernet

provides an even higher level
of backbone support at 1000 megabits per
second (1 gigabit or 1 billion bits per second).

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Network
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Basics

token ring


A token ring network is a local area network
(LAN) in which all computers are connected in a
ring or star topology and a binary digit
-

or token
-
passing scheme is used in order to prevent the
collision of data between two computers that
want to send messages at the same time.

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Network
-

Basics

token ring


Second most widely
-
used protocol on LAN’s
after Ethernet. The IBM Token Ring protocol led
to a standard version, specified as IEEE 802.5.
Data transfer rates of either 4 or 16 megabits
per second.

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Network
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Basics

ARCnet
(Attached Resource Computer network)


ARCnet is a widely
-
installed local area network (LAN)
technology that uses a token
-
bus scheme for managing
line sharing among the workstations and other devices
connected on the LAN.


The LAN server continuously circulates empty message
frames on a bus (a line in which every message goes
through every device on the line and a device uses only
those with its address).


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Network
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Basics

FDDI


FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for
data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area
network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km
(124 miles).


The FDDI protocol is based on the token ring protocol.
In addition to being large geographically, an FDDI local
area network can support thousands of users.

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Network
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Basics

FDDI


An FDDI network contains two token rings, one for
possible backup in case the primary ring fails.


The primary ring offers up to 100 Mbps capacity. If the
secondary ring is not needed for backup, it can also
carry data, extending capacity to 200 Mbps.


The single ring can extend the maximum distance; a
dual ring can extend 100 km (62 miles).

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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


In data communications, a
hub

is a place of
convergence where data arrives from one or more
directions and is forwarded out in one or more other
directions. A hub usually includes a switch of some kind.


See USB 7
-
Port Hub

To connect several

USB devices

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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


In telecommunications, a
switch

is a network device
that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to
its next destination.



See 8
-
Port Network Switch


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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


A
switch

may also include the function of the
router
, a
device or program that can determine the route and
specifically what adjacent network point the data should
be sent to.


In general, a
switch

is a simpler and faster mechanism
than a router, which requires knowledge about the
network and how to determine the route

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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


In telecommunication networks, a
bridge

is a product
that connects a local area network (LAN) to another
local area network that uses the same protocol (for
example, Ethernet or token ring).

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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


On the Internet, a
router

is a device or, in some cases,
software in a computer, that determines the next
network point to which a concept of packet should be
forwarded toward its destination.


See 4
-
Port Cable/DSL Router

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Network
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Basics

Hub / Switch / Bridge / Router


The
router

is connected to at least two networks and
decides which way to send each information packet
based on its current understanding of the state of the
networks it is connected to.


A
router

is located at any gateway (where one network
meets another), including each Internet point
-
of
-
presence. A router is often included as part of a network
switch.

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Network
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Basics

LAN Server


Typically, a suite of application programs can be kept on
the LAN server. Users who need an application
frequently can download it once and then run it from
their local hard disk. Users can order printing and other
services as needed through applications run on the LAN
server. Read and write access is maintained by a LAN
administrator.


A LAN server may also be used as a Web server if
safeguards are taken to secure internal applications and
data from outside access.

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Network
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Basics

Wireless LAN


Mobility


Cost Savings


Disaster Recovery


Concerns

Radio signal interference, power management, system
interoperability, network security, connection problems,
installation issues, health risks

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Network
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Basics

NOS
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Network Operating System

Artisoft's LANtastic, Banyan VINES, Novell's
NetWare, and Microsoft's LAN ManagerNetware,
MS NT Server

One thing comes through loud and clear in the year
2000 State of the VAR Market survey data about
network operating systems (NOS). The NOS race seems
to be over. Windows has won, and Netware is slowly
just going away.

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Network
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KVM Switch

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Network
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KVM Switch


KVM Switch PS/2 Platform


Control 2 and more

computers from one console.


Price starts at $74.99


Cable Kit starts at $19.99

per Computer

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Network

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Networking Starting Kit


One 4
-
Port Cable/DSL Gateway Router


Two Desktop Network

PCI Cards


Two 14' Snagless

Molded RJ45 CAT
-
5e

Patch Cables


Price saw at Belkin:

$83.99


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Network Switch


8
-
Port Network Switch (10/100Mbps)

Package



One 8
-
Port Network Switch

(10/100Mbps)


One Power Supply


One CD
-
Rom (Belkin SOHO

Networking Software)


Compatible with Windows® 98,

Windows® 2000, Windows® Me, Windows® XP.


Price: $87.99

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Network Switch


8
-
Port Network Switch (10/100Mbps)

Features



Share your Internet connection


Exchange data quickly between connected PCs and notebooks,
share printers and other peripherals, and communicate via e
-
mail


Auto
-
sensing feature offers future scalability of 10Base
-
T Networks
into 100Base
-
T Networks


Add computers to your network at anytime with the uplink port(s).


Use the dedicated bandwidth provided for each port to enjoy an
efficient and error
-
free network


Compliant with Ethernet IEEE 802.3 and 802.3u standards

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Network


Ethernet Card

($24.99 per PC) already installed in most PC’s


Router
-

8 port Network Switch

($87.99, e.g. Belkin)


RJ45 CAT
-
5e Patch Cable

(starts at $6.99 per PC)


Software

Windows NT or free
Belkin SOHO Networking Software

included w/ router


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Wireless Local Area Network

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Wireless Local Area Network


Wireless Desktop PCI Network Card
($164.99)


Wireless Desktop PCI Network Adapter
($49.99)


Wireless Network Access Point
($199.99)


Wireless Notebook Network Card
($109.99)


Wireless Cable/DSL Gateway Router
($249.99)


Wireless USB Network Adapter
($109.99)


Networking Software
($?.??)

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Network
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Internet Access

KVM Switch

DSL Gateway Router

NAT Firewall

LAN Server

Internet

All Servers have access

to the Internet

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Network
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Intranet / Internet

LAN Server

Internet

Web Server

Software:

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Proxy Server

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Cache Server

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Gateway Server

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Firewall Server

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Router

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Switch