The Challenge of Managing Crises in a Rapidly Changing World

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The Challenge of Managing Crises

in a Rapidly Changing World


Dr. Stephen F.
Lintner


Senior Technical Advisor, World Bank

and

President Elect, International Association for

Impact Assessment (IAIA)


XI International
Health

Impact

Assessment

Conference


Granada, Spain

April 2011

World Bank Group


Founded 1944


Over 185 Countries as Members Represented by a Board
of Executive Directors


Headquarters in Washington, DC


An Extensive Network of Offices Throughout the World


Includes:


International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD)


International Development Association (IDA)


International Finance Corporation (IFC)


Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)


World Bank


Focus on Poverty Reduction, including the
Millennium Development Goals


Commitment to Environmentally and Socially
Sustainable Development, supporting outcome of
Rio and Johannesburg Summits


Addressing Climate Change


both Mitigation and
Adaptation


as a Development Issue

Uses an Interdisciplinary Approach in Providing
Support for Policies, Plans, Programs,

Projects and Capacity Building






World Bank


Since 1989 the World Bank has had a Board
Approved Policy on Environmental Assessment


Including Project Related Health Impacts



Making Extensive Use of Strategic Assessments
at Multiple Levels



Process for Updating and Consolidation of
Policies in Process


Will Broaden Range of
Instruments


Including Specific Reference to
Health Impact Assessment as an Option




The Challenge of Managing Crises in
a Rapidly Changing World




Facing a threefold global crisis:



Economic


Food


Climate.



Need to understand:



Vital importance of inter
-
linkages among them


Identify missed opportunities in putting these pieces
together


Undertaking complementary proactive and preventive
measures



Health Sector

Fiscal Year 2011 Approved and Planned Health Sector
Support: US $ 3.1 Billion



Child Health



Communicable and Non
-
Communicable Diseases


Health System Performance


Human Development



Nutrition and Food Security





HIV/AIDS








Malaria



Tuberculosis


Complemented by National and Thematic Studies






Protecting Pro
-
Poor Health Services
During Financial Crisis


Poor nutrition and lower level use of health care
when needed



Women, children, poor and informal sector workers
are most at risk



A special risk exists in many low
-
income countries in
maintaining access to essential health commodities
that are often imported



Protecting Pro
-
Poor Health Services
During Financial Crisis


Real spending per capacity can decline due to
reduced revenues, currency devaluation and
potential reductions in aid flows



Low
-
income Countries with weak fiscal policies are
most vulnerable



Minimize adverse impact on health outcomes and
health expenditures




Protecting Pro
-
Poor Health Services
During Financial Crisis


Broad strategies that maintain overall levels of
Government spending on health tend not be
successful, failing to protect access to quality health
services especially for the poor



Targeted demand
-
side approaches like conditional
cash transfers may be more effective broader
approaches



Import to make effective use of social safety net
programs which include support for nutrition and
health





Cost

of
Environmental

Degradation


2000
-
2010: Cost of Environmental
Degradation (COED) in Algeria,
Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon,
Morocco, Syria and Tunisia


Estimates the annual COED in
selected countries (% of the
countries’ GDP)


Summarizes their impacts at
national and regional levels


Training manual in French, Arabic,
English

Overview: Six Categories


Agricultural Land
-

Agricultural productivity on
croplands and rangelands


Forests
-

Wood, grazing, watershed protection,
biodiversity


Water
-

Systemic impacts of water salinity,
contamination, sedimentation, groundwater
overexploitation


Air Quality
-

Systemic impacts of air pollution on health
and environment


Waste
-

Impacts of inappropriate waste collection on the
environment and public welfare


Coastal Zone
-

Losses of recreational and landscape
value due to unsustainable coastal activities

COED Can Vary Substantially …

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tunisia
Jordan
Syria
Lebanon
Lebanon
(conflict)
Algeria
Morocco
Egypt
Iran
% of GDP

Coastal zone
Waste
Air
Land
Water
2.1

2.4

3.7

3.7

4.8

3.5

3.4

3.4

7.4

12

Tunisia

-

Cost

of water
degradation

= 0.6%
of GDP

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
% of the total cost

Tourism

(
18%)

Groundwater
(21%)

Agriculture
(33%)

Health (18%)

1.2% in
Morocco
, 2.8% in Iran

Impact on Investments

Algeria


First Economic Recovery Program included institutional
reforms and pilot investments in the environment sector for
2001
-
2004 (US$450 million)


Egypt



Second Pollution Abatement project to reduce pollution from
energy and industrial sectors (US$198 million)


Morocco
:




First Water Sector Development Policy Loan (US$100 million)


Solid Waste Sector Development Policy Loan (US$132 million)


Investments in pollution control in the
Sebou

basin (US$25
million)


Three Major Themes



Integration


Innovation


Implementation


Importance of Addressing Both Major New
Challenges and Continuing Challenges


Information
on
World Bank Group
Environmental and Social


Safeguard Policies




Safeguards Website



www.worldbank.org/safeguards


Use of Country Systems Website



www.worldbank.org/countrysystems


Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Tool Kit Website



www.worldbank.org/seatoolkit


IFC’s Sustainability Policy Framework


www.ifc.org


Environmental Health and Safety


www.ifc.org/ifcext/enviro.nsf/context/EnvironmentalGuidelines









International Association for


Impact Assessment (IAIA)


Annual Meeting


“Impact Assessment and Responsible
Development for Infrastructure, Business and Industry”


Puebla, Mexico (May 28


June 6, 2011)


Special Symposium on SEA Implementation and Practice:
Making a Difference?


Prague, Czech Republic (September
21
-
23, 2011)


Special Symposium on Climate Change and Impact
Assessment


Beijing, China (proposed for December 2011)


Contact: www.iaia.org



Contact


Dr. Stephen F. Lintner

Senior Technical Advisor

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW

Washington, DC 20433

USA


E
-
Mail: slintner@worldbank.org