Stratigraphy and fossils

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Stratigraphy and fossils

Figure 8.2

(page 201)

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Sedimentation in

lake or sea

Sedimentation in

lake or sea

Sediments are deposited in horizontal

layers and slowly change into rock.

Younger

Older

Younger

Older

If left undisturbed, the youngest layers

remain above the oldest.

Key Figure 8.3

(page 202)

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Stratigraphy and fossils

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Some of the fossils found in

outcrop A are the same as

fossils found in outcrop B,

some distance away.

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Some of the fossils found in

outcrop A are the same as

fossils found in outcrop B,

some distance away.

Layers with the
same fossils are
the same age.

Outcrop A

Outcrop B

I

II

II

III

Some of the fossils found in

outcrop A are the same as

fossils found in outcrop B,

some distance away.

Layers with the
same fossils are
the same age.

Stratigraphic

succession

A composite of the two outcrops.

Younger rocks

Older rocks

I

II

III

Select the principle of relative dating that is most useful
in correlating rock strata among widely separated areas
(regionally).


A. Superposition

B. Faunal succession

C. Cross
-
cutting relationships

D. Original horizontality

Stratigraphy and fossils

Select the principle of relative dating that is most useful
in correlating rock strata among widely separated areas
(regionally).


A. Superposition

B. Faunal succession

C. Cross
-
cutting relationships

D. Original horizontality

Stratigraphy and fossils

Who established the Principle of Faunal Succession?


A. James Hutton

B. Nicolaus Steno

C. William Smith

D. Harry Hess

Stratigraphy and fossils

Who established the Principle of Faunal Succession?


A. James Hutton

B. Nicolaus Steno

C. William Smith

D. Harry Hess

Stratigraphy and fossils

True or False: The Principle of Faunal Succession only
applies to a single region, and it cannot be used to
correlate stratigraphic sequences on different
continents.


A. True

B. False

Stratigraphy and fossils

True or False: The Principle of Faunal Succession only
applies to a single region, and it cannot be used to
correlate stratigraphic sequences on different
continents.


A. True

B. False

Stratigraphy and fossils

Select the kind(s) of geologic data that can be used to
globally correlate strata.


A. Fossil data

B. Paleomagnetic data

C. Seismic data

D. Radioactive isotope data

E. All of the above

Stratigraphy and fossils

Select the kind(s) of geologic data that can be used to
globally correlate strata.


A. Fossil data

B. Paleomagnetic data

C. Seismic data

D. Radioactive isotope data

E. All of the above

Stratigraphy and fossils

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

Figure 8.11

(page 209)

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Rubidium
-
87 nucleus

Neutrons

Protons

Electron

Rubidium
-
87 nucleus

Neutrons

Protons

Electron

A neutron decays,

ejecting an electron…

Rubidium
-
87 nucleus

Neutrons

Protons

Electron

Strontium
-
87 nucleus

A neutron decays,

ejecting an electron…

Rubidium
-
87 nucleus

Neutrons

Protons

Electron

A neutron decays,

ejecting an electron…

Strontium
-
87 nucleus

…and producing a proton,

which changes the atom.

What do all isotopes of any given element have in
common?


A. Number of protons

B. Number of neutrons

C. Combined number of protons and neutrons

D. All of the above

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

What do all isotopes of any given element have in
common?


A. Number of protons

B. Number of neutrons

C. Combined number of protons and neutrons

D. All of the above

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

True or False: The half
-
life of a radioactive isotope does
not vary with changes in temperature and pressure.


A. True

B. False

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

True or False: The half
-
life of a radioactive isotope does
not vary with changes in temperature and pressure.


A. True

B. False

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

A mineral forms and initially incorporates only the parent
atoms of a radioactive isotope and no daughter atoms.
The parent has a half
-
life of 5000 years. How long before
the parent to daughter ratio is 1:3?


A. 5000 years

B. 10,000 years

C. 15,000 years

D. 20,000 years

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

A mineral forms and initially incorporates only the parent
atoms of a radioactive isotope and no daughter atoms.
The parent has a half
-
life of 5000 years. How long before
the parent to daughter ratio is 1:3?


A. 5000 years

B. 10,000 years

C. 15,000 years

D. 20,000 years

The radioactive decay of rubidium
to strontium

The principles of Original Horizontality and
Superposition allow for ____________ dates to be
determined.


A. Absolute

B. Numeric

C. Relative

D. Radiogenic

Original Horizontality

The principles of Original Horizontality and
Superposition allow for ____________ dates to be
determined.


A. Absolute

B. Numeric

C. Relative

D. Radiogenic

Original Horizontality

In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks where
do the oldest rock strata occur?


A. At the top of the sequence

B. At the bottom of the sequence

C. It depends on the depositional environment

Original Horizontality

In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks where
do the oldest rock strata occur?


A. At the top of the sequence

B. At the bottom of the sequence

C. It depends on the depositional environment

Original Horizontality

True or False: Sediments can remain unlithified for
millions of years before becoming lithified sedimentary
rocks.


A. True

B. False

Sedimentary bedding

True or False: Sediments can remain unlithified for
millions of years before becoming lithified sedimentary
rocks.


A. True

B. False

Sedimentary bedding

What kind of unconformity occurs between two
horizontal sedimentary beds?


A. A disconformity

B. A nonconformity

C. An angular unconformity

Sedimentary bedding

What kind of unconformity occurs between two
horizontal sedimentary beds?


A. A disconformity

B. A nonconformity

C. An angular unconformity

Sedimentary bedding

What is the approximate maximum age a piece of
charcoal can be in order to determine its date using the
carbon
-
14 method of dating?


A. 4,000 years

B. 70,000 years

C. 1,000,000 years

D. 50,000,000 years

Wasatch Fault

What is the approximate maximum age a piece of
charcoal can be in order to determine its date using the
carbon
-
14 method of dating?


A. 4,000 years

B. 70,000 years

C. 1,000,000 years

D. 50,000,000 years

Wasatch Fault

Transgression/Regression

When sea
-
levels fall, the sedimentary record of
depositions along the coast records this change, which
is described as:


A. a transgression

B. a turbidity current

C. global warming

D. a regression

Transgression/Regression

When sea
-
levels fall, the sedimentary record of
depositions along the coast records this change, which
is described as:


A. a transgression

B. a turbidity current

C. global warming

D. a regression

Transgression/Regression

When a transgression is observed in the sedimentary
record, it is interpreted from a shift to off
-
shore marine
facies as a result of:


A. decreasing global temperatures

B. sea
-
level rise

C. subduction

D. sea
-
level fall

Transgression/Regression

When a transgression is observed in the sedimentary
record, it is interpreted from a shift to off
-
shore marine
facies as a result of:


A. decreasing global temperatures

B. sea
-
level rise

C. subduction

D. sea
-
level fall

Transgression/Regression

While hiking in the Grand Canyon of northern Arizona,
you stop and observe an outcrop that exposes three
different sedimentary rock types. On the bottom is a
layer of shale, which is overlain by a layer of limestone,
which is in turn overlain by a layer of sandstone. This
stratigraphy sequence indicates that a _________ or a
_________ in sea
-
level occurred in this location in the
past.



A. transgression; fall

B. transgression; rise

C. regression; fall

D. regression; rise

Transgression/Regression

While hiking in the Grand Canyon of northern Arizona,
you stop and observe an outcrop that exposes three
different sedimentary rock types. On the bottom is a
layer of shale, which is overlain by a layer of limestone,
which is in turn overlain by a layer of sandstone. This
stratigraphy sequence indicates that a _________ or a
_________ in sea
-
level occurred in this location in the
past.



A. transgression; fall

B. transgression; rise

C. regression; fall

D. regression; rise

Transgression/Regression

What trend would you expect to find in sediments
accumulating in any single location along the coast
during a sea
-
level rise?


A. the sediment size should decrease as you look up
-
section

B. the sediment should become better sorted as you look up
-
section

C. the sediment should become more rounded as you look
up
-
section

D. all of these

E. none of these

Transgression/Regression

What trend would you expect to find in sediments
accumulating in any single location along the coast
during a sea
-
level rise?


A. the sediment size should decrease as you look up
-
section

B. the sediment should become better sorted as you look up
-
section

C. the sediment should become more rounded as you look
up
-
section

D. all of these

E. none of these

Transgression/Regression

Changes in global sea
-
levels are most often caused by
shifts in climate. For example, a transgression would be
caused by an increase in the melting rate of polar ice
caps, which is in turn driven by:


A. a reduced greenhouse effect

B. an increase in atmospheric dust

C. an increase in global temperatures

D. a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide

Transgression/Regression

Changes in global sea
-
levels are most often caused by
shifts in climate. For example, a transgression would be
caused by an increase in the melting rate of polar ice
caps, which is in turn driven by:


A. a reduced greenhouse effect

B. an increase in atmospheric dust

C. an increase in global temperatures

D. a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide

Transgression/Regression