implementation method catalog

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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Engineering of IT management automation
along tasks, loops, function allocation,
implementation method catalog

Ralf König

LMU München, Germany


May 15 2009

Dagstuhl Seminar „Self
-
healing and self
-
adaptive systems“

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

2




How can we replace IT mgmt automation as an
art with a more step
-
wise, engineering
-
style
method along steps?

Idea:
Combine knowledge from:



IT management


Systems engineering


Automation engineering


Engineering in general

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

3


Applications for system design

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

4


Vision: IT mgmt autom. workbench


Task analysis
and task
allocation

Requirements
engineering

Design
constraints

Model
forecasts

Mgmt automation
building blocks


loops and loop


steps


machine cap’s


(human cap’s)

Managed IT
resources

Cost benefit

analysis

Simulation of
behavior

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

5





Q1:

What are relevant entities in IT mgmt
automation and how do they relate to each
other?

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

6


The essence of IT mgmt automation

Task
Resource-related
IT management tasks
e.g.:
- configuration management
- update management
- backup and restore
- capacity management
- availability management
Task
Task
Machine-performed mgmt activities
e.g. an IT solution/appliance
Human-performed mgmt activities
Managed resource pool
process
by management automation systems
by admin staff
hardware
software
code
OS's
Mw
Apps
network
power
servers
storage
mgmt (automation) system(s)
action
action
...
process
process
action
action
...
action
action
...
hardware
software
OS's
Mw
Apps
network
power
servers
storage
mgmt
interactions
mgmt
interactions
AUTOMATION
action
action
...
mgmt
interactions
People

IT resources

Tasks

Implementation

methods

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

7


Split of concept and implementation

Task
Resource-related IT management tasks
Task
Task
Machine-performed mgmt activities
by management automation systems
code
mgmt (automation) system(s)
action
action
...
IT mgmt automation
Task
Task
Task
Machine-performed mgmt activities
by management automation systems
code
mgmt (automation) system(s)
action
action
...
Automation Engineering
Resource-related IT management tasks
machine capability
...
Software Development
machine capability
Resources x Tasks

Implementation

methods

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

8






Q2:

Can we give tasks a structure?

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

9


Step 1:

Task Analysis

Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
Automation Engineering
Resource-related IT management tasks
machine capability
...
machine capability
Machine capabilities / Implementation methods
Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
Task Analysis
Resource-related IT management tasks
machine capability
...
machine capability
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Sources of inspiration: (Albus, NIST: A Reference Model Arch. for Intelligent Systems Design, 1970’s)




(Sheridan, Humans and Automation, 2002)

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

10


Tasks and task decomposition


Hierarchical task
decomposition

-
tree structure

-

rooted in sys. engineering
and robotics

-

proposed by Sheridan (MIT)
and Albus (NIST)



Workflow based task
decomposition

-
E.g. in BPMN

-
Fits well with IT mgmt!

-
BUT: No common internal
structure!

task
task / mission
task
task
task / skill
task
task
task
task
task
task
task
task
task
task / skill
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

11






Q3:

Is there a common structure, that we can
align all tasks to, that groups sub
-
tasks

according to functionality?

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

12


Step 2:

Common loops

Sources of inspiration: Sheridan, Kephart

Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
Task Analysis
Resource-related IT management tasks
machine capability
...
machine capability
Machine capabilities / Implementation methods
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task Analysis
Resource-related IT management tasks
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
machine capability
...
machine capability
Machine capabilities / Implementation methods
Task to Loop Transformation
Sensor
Effector
Sensor
Effector
Monitor
Knowledge
Execute
Analyze
Decide
Plan
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

13


2/3: Loop alignment
-

Use MAPDEK!

sensor
effector
monitor
analyze
plan
knowledge
execute
sensor
effector
managed system/
environment
Kephart
Autonomic Computing
observe
orient
act
decide
Boyd, ~1970
event
condition
action
ECA rules from
Policy-based management
check
act
do
plan
Deming improvement
cycle
subjective/
objective
assessment
plan
SOAP notes used
in medical care
define/
measure
analyze
control
improve
acquire
information
analyze
& display
decide
action
implement
action
Six Sigma
quality management
Sheridan, 2002
Humans and Automation
manager system
detect
integrate
model
evaluate
execute
goal
Albus, 1993
RCS-3 NASA/NBS
standard reference model
plan
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

14


3/3: Also Control Loops fit well

target system
trans-
ducer
controller
-
+
disturbance input
noise input
control input
measured output
control error
reference input
transduced
output
sensor
effector
monitor
analyze
plan
knowledge
execute
sensor
effector
managed system/
environment
Kephart
Autonomic Computing
observe
orient
act
decide
Boyd, ~1970
event
condition
action
ECA rules from
Policy-based management
check
act
do
plan
Deming improvement
cycle
subjective/
objective
assessment
plan
SOAP notes used
in medical care
define/
measure
analyze
control
improve
acquire
information
analyze
& display
decide
action
implement
action
Six Sigma
quality management
Sheridan, 2002
Humans and Automation
manager system
detect
integrate
model
evaluate
execute
goal
Albus, 1993
RCS-3 NASA/NBS
standard reference model
plan
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

15





Q4:

How to handle task allocation to

humans/machines?

How to design levels of automation?



Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

16


Step 3:

Allocation to Human/Machine

Inspiration: Sheridan

Task
Task
Task
Task Analysis
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
machine capability
...
machine capability
Machine capabilities / Implementation methods
Task to Loop Transformation
Task
Task
Task
Task Analysis
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
action
action
...
machine capability
...
machine capability
Machine capabilities/
Implementation methods
Task to Loop Transformation
Task Allocation
Mapping to implementation
methods
Sensor
Effector
Sensor
Effector
Monitor
Knowledge
Execute
Analyze
Decide
Plan
Sensor
Effector
Sensor
Effector
Monitor
Knowledge
Execute
Analyze
Decide
Plan
Automation Level
(A)
Automation Level
(B)
Human capabilities
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

17


Levels of Automation

Source:

Sheridan, Humans and Automation, Wiley, 2002.

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

18






Q5:

How to categorize the implementation
methods?

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

19


Step 4: Implementation Method Catalog


actions

parameter
setting

transaction
handling

real
-
time

methods

network
management
set
instructions

smart
actuator

serialization

output
translation

common
actor
types

non
-
physical

physical

message
encoding
Execute

tag knowledge, fade out
old knowledge

knowledge representation

knowledge sharing

knowledge update

inference and reasoning

machine
learning

models

graphs

Petri
nets

state
machines

promises

scheduling,
queueing

coordination
-
> time
planning and task
planning

resource/capacity
planning

task dependencies

deadlines and real
-
time
planning

planning trade
-
offs

short execution time

easy recoverability

task
parallelizatio

recovery

way
-
point planning

planning horizon

short term planning

long term planning

strategic planning

reasoning

relevance
assessment

Bayesian
networks
and
filters

neural
networks

fuzzy
logic

expert
systems
(
classification
,
categorization
,
symptoms
-
>
cure
)

constraint
satisfaction
solver

clustering

sorting
,
indexing
,
searching
-
Google

pattern
matching
(
e.g
.
regular
expressions
)

event
correlation

regression

interpolation
/
extrapolation

heuristics

situation
analysis/mapping

data reduction

compression

piggybacking

aggregation

source
format
translation

data
cleansing
(
duplicate
detection
and removal,
missing
values
in
data
series
)

add
meta
information
for
:

synchronization
(
time
-
stamp
)

quality
of
measurement
values
(
accuracy
,
variance
)

measurement
conditions

correctness
assessment
,
plausibility
checks

relevance
assessment

thresholding

metric
for
surprise
:
entropy
Knowledge
Plan
Analyze
Monitor

actions

parameter
setting

transaction
handling

real
-
time

methods

network
management
set
instructions

smart
actuator

serialization

output
translation

common
actor
types

non
-
physical

physical

message
encoding
Execute

tag knowledge, fade out
old knowledge

knowledge representation

knowledge sharing

knowledge update

inference and reasoning

machine
learning

models

graphs

Petri
nets

state
machines

promises

scheduling,
queueing

coordination
-
> time
planning and task
planning

resource/capacity
planning

task dependencies

deadlines and real
-
time
planning

planning trade
-
offs

short execution time

easy recoverability

task
parallelizatio

recovery

way
-
point planning

planning horizon

short term planning

long term planning

strategic planning

reasoning

relevance
assessment

Bayesian
networks
and
filters

neural
networks

fuzzy
logic

expert
systems
(
classification
,
categorization
,
symptoms
-
>
cure
)

constraint
satisfaction
solver

clustering

sorting
,
indexing
,
searching
-
Google

pattern
matching
(
e.g
.
regular
expressions
)

event
correlation

regression

interpolation
/
extrapolation

heuristics

situation
analysis/mapping

data reduction

compression

piggybacking

aggregation

source
format
translation

data
cleansing
(
duplicate
detection
and removal,
missing
values
in
data
series
)

add
meta
information
for
:

synchronization
(
time
-
stamp
)

quality
of
measurement
values
(
accuracy
,
variance
)

measurement
conditions

correctness
assessment
,
plausibility
checks

relevance
assessment

thresholding

metric
for
surprise
:
entropy
Knowledge
Plan
Analyze
Monitor
Decide

-

N
-
modular redundancy

-

voting schemes

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

20


Impl. method catalog by behavior (loops)


monitor

-

monitor some managed
object (often an event queue or set
of configuration parameters),
display the events/parameters in
some view


configurator
(often called wizard)
-

group parameters into logical
groups, provide configuration
interface at a higher level of
abstraction


solution adviser

according to
customer
-
level requirements


notifier
monitor some managed
object, send message when
applicable


watchdog
monitor some managed
object, trigger alarm or predefined
action when applicable


load balancer
balance incoming
load by assigning parts of the load
to resources in a pool


filter
monitor an event queue, drop
certain events


stabilizer
protect some system
parameter from external distortions


optimizer
optimize some system
parameter regarding some goal
function


classifier
put incoming events into
one of several categories


planner
plan the next steps to reach
some goal, build a plan


scheduler
take jobs, assign start
and end times in a schedule


simulation environment

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

21


Conclusion


Task analysis
and task
allocation

Requirements
engineering

Design
constraints

Model
forecasts

Mgmt automation
building blocks


loops and loop


steps


machine cap’s


(human cap’s)

Managed IT
resources

Cost benefit

analysis

Simulation of
behavior

Future work: Use
Matlab/Simulink for an
update mgmt automation
example

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

22


Ralf König


<koenig@mnm
-
team.org>

Thank you for your attention!

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

23


Paper titles, example 1

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
Automatic
failure diagnosis support ...
... in distributed large-scale software systems...
... based on timing behaviour anomaly detection
many more
many more
Implementation Methods
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
People
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

24


Conclusion: Eng. IT mgmt automation


Transfer concepts from systems engineering of classical automation
domains with to IT management automation!


Input of the method:

-
IT management automation scenario

-
Tasks

-
Operator Roles

-
Resources

-
Policies and Design Constraints


Output of the method:


-
Task decomposition into loops

-
Loop decomposition into loop steps along MAPDEK struct.

-
Selection from a catalog for the allocation of loop steps

to humans/machines

-
Selection from a catalog of methods to implement

machine
-
executed loop steps


Out of my (!) scope:

-
Non
-
resource related IT management tasks

-
Economic effects of automation (e.g. cost reduction)

-
Staffing (choosing the right people for the right job)

-
Software implementation of the individual machine functions

Decomposed
Tasks
Loops
Loop Steps
(„functions“)
Allocation
to humans/
machines
Methods
for machine
functions
EIMA
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

25


Request by organizers


Avoid conference
-
style talks!

-
These tend to provide more answers than
questions.


Instead,
present questions
,
show your current
ideas

and insights, but
not all the details
.

-
These are better discussed personally by the
few people who are really interested!

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

26


Paper titles, example 2

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
many more
many more
... dist. systems
... for self-healing ...
Implementation Methods
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
People
Generic techniques ...
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

27


Paper titles, example 3

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
many more
many more
Implementation Methods
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
People
Failure prediction for ...
...
proactive
fault mgmt
many more
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

28


Paper titles, example 4

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
many more
many more
Implementation Methods
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
People
Robustness in query optimization
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

29





Q1:

What are relevant entities in

IT management automation?

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

30


Entities in IT mgmt automation

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Implementation Methods
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
many more
many more
system operations
theory
implementation
People
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

31


The main entities

IT resources
IT mgmt tasks
Implementation Methods
Capacity Management
Update Mgmt
Availability Mgmt
Performance Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt
Routers
Servers
OS's
Applications
Network Links
Event correlation
Automated planning
Mgmt protocols
Redundancy
Machine learning
many more
many more
many more
system operations
theory
implementation
People
?
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

32


Loops 1/3: Basis: MAPEK from ACI

Source:

An architectural blueprint for autonomic computing. 4th ed., IBM,
June 2006.

Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

33


A large solution table is a bad idea

failure diagnosis
Distributed large-
scale software
system
timing behaviour
anomaly detection
Implementation Methods
IT resource
IT management task
Distributed system
self-healing
(=autom. fault mgmt)
Generic techniques
Failure prediction
fault mgmt
Robustness in query
optimization
?
?
?
plus many more lines in this look-up table ...
Ralf König

Engineering of IT management automation

34


IT Mgmt and Engineering fit together!

Ad
-
hoc
management

OSI managent
Sys Mgmt
Funct. Areas

ITIL V2

Autonomic
Computing

Systems Eng.

Ad
-
hoc fault
analysis and
correction

Fault Mgmt

Incident Mgmt
Problem Mgmt

Continuity Mgmt

Availability Mgmt

Self
-
Healing

Reliability Eng

Ad
-
hoc
configuration

Configuration
Mgmt

Configuration Mgmt
Change Mgmt

Self
-
Configuration

(Configuration
Mgmt/Eng)

Flat pricing

free services

Accounting
Mgmt

Service Level Mgmt

-

-

Best effort
performance

Performance
Mgmt

Service Level Mgmt
Capacity Mgmt
Availability Mgmt

Self
-
Optimization

Performance Eng
Scalability Eng
Operations
Research

Ad
-
hoc
reaction to
security
incidents

Security Mgmt

Security Mgmt

Self
-
Protection

Security Eng

Safety Eng