The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

heartlustΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Parts List

Part

Value

Quantity

Resistor

10K

2

Resistor

1M

3

Resistor

100K ohm

10

Resistor

1M ohm

4

Capacitor

.1uf

2

Capacitor

.47uf

1

Capacitor

220uf
-
470uf

1

Speaker

8 ohm

1

LM324 / TL084 / TL074

Quad Op Amp

1

Transistor 3904

NPN

2

Battery + Clip

9V

1

Voltage = Water Pressure
-

Stored
Potential Energy


Current = The Amount of water flowing
through an area at a given time.


Positive current convention tracks flow
from positive voltage to negative


Electrons flow from negative to positive.

Water Analogy
-

How Electricity
Moves

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit


Battery



Lamp


Switch

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit

Current flows when the switch is
closed.

Basic Theory + Parts


Imagine a circuit like a system of pipes
and valves


Battery = water pump


Conductors/Wires = main pipes


Resistors = smaller pipes of varying sizes


Capacitors = water balloons


Transistors = valves controlled by water flow


Integrated Circuits = pre
-
built, super miniature
circuits

Parts + Symbols

Transistors

Transistors come in many flavors these days.


Bipolar Transistors are
semiconductor components with the three connections:






Base, Emitter, and Collector


A small current flow applied to the Base of the transistor permits a larger
(and proportional) current flow between the Collector and Emitter















NPN
-

is active when a positive current relative to the emitter is applied
to its base

PNP
-

is active when a negative current relative to its emitter is applied
to its base



NPN

PNP

Transistors can be used as an
electrically controlled switch!

Applying a positive
current to the base
of T1 at 5 volts
through the 47k
ohm resistor causes
it to go into
saturation.


Transistors can be used to
drive LEDS as shown:

Applying a positive
current to the base
of T1 at 5 volts
through the 47k
ohm resistor causes
it to go into
saturation.


Current then flows
through R1 and the
LED causing it to
light.

IMPORTANT NOTE!


Our Transistors have a non
-
standard pin
-
out



From Left to Right (with flat side facing you and
legs pointed down)


Pin 1 = EMITTER

Pin 2 = COLLECTOR

Pin 3 = BASE

Operational Amplifiers


Two inputs


Non
-
Inverting (+)


Inverting (
-
)


Fixed gain factor


Open loop gain


Feedback used to
control gain and
to produce other
useful circuits.

Operational Amplifiers

Virtual Ground


Analog audio signals swing both positive
and negative relative to a fixed voltage.


When powering audio electronics from a
battery supply, a virtual ground reference
must be generated.


This can be done using a voltage divider
and a voltage follower.

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Circuit Breakdown


Inputs


Touch Pads (thumb tacks optional)


Circuits


Voltage Divider


Voltage Follower


Inverting Amplifier


Summing Amplifier

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Amplifying Signals

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Adding Signals Together

Full Schematic