# The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Parts List

Part

Value

Quantity

Resistor

10K

2

Resistor

1M

3

Resistor

100K ohm

10

Resistor

1M ohm

4

Capacitor

.1uf

2

Capacitor

.47uf

1

Capacitor

220uf
-
470uf

1

Speaker

8 ohm

1

LM324 / TL084 / TL074

1

Transistor 3904

NPN

2

Battery + Clip

9V

1

Voltage = Water Pressure
-

Stored
Potential Energy

Current = The Amount of water flowing
through an area at a given time.

Positive current convention tracks flow
from positive voltage to negative

Electrons flow from negative to positive.

Water Analogy
-

How Electricity
Moves

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit

Battery

Lamp

Switch

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit

Electricity Basics
-

The DC Circuit

Current flows when the switch is
closed.

Basic Theory + Parts

Imagine a circuit like a system of pipes
and valves

Battery = water pump

Conductors/Wires = main pipes

Resistors = smaller pipes of varying sizes

Capacitors = water balloons

Transistors = valves controlled by water flow

Integrated Circuits = pre
-
built, super miniature
circuits

Parts + Symbols

Transistors

Transistors come in many flavors these days.

Bipolar Transistors are
semiconductor components with the three connections:

Base, Emitter, and Collector

A small current flow applied to the Base of the transistor permits a larger
(and proportional) current flow between the Collector and Emitter

NPN
-

is active when a positive current relative to the emitter is applied
to its base

PNP
-

is active when a negative current relative to its emitter is applied
to its base

NPN

PNP

Transistors can be used as an
electrically controlled switch!

Applying a positive
current to the base
of T1 at 5 volts
through the 47k
ohm resistor causes
it to go into
saturation.

Transistors can be used to
drive LEDS as shown:

Applying a positive
current to the base
of T1 at 5 volts
through the 47k
ohm resistor causes
it to go into
saturation.

Current then flows
through R1 and the
LED causing it to
light.

IMPORTANT NOTE!

Our Transistors have a non
-
standard pin
-
out

From Left to Right (with flat side facing you and
legs pointed down)

Pin 1 = EMITTER

Pin 2 = COLLECTOR

Pin 3 = BASE

Operational Amplifiers

Two inputs

Non
-
Inverting (+)

Inverting (
-
)

Fixed gain factor

Open loop gain

Feedback used to
control gain and
to produce other
useful circuits.

Operational Amplifiers

Virtual Ground

Analog audio signals swing both positive
and negative relative to a fixed voltage.

When powering audio electronics from a
battery supply, a virtual ground reference
must be generated.

This can be done using a voltage divider
and a voltage follower.

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Circuit Breakdown

Inputs

Circuits

Voltage Divider

Voltage Follower

Inverting Amplifier

Summing Amplifier

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic

Amplifying Signals

The Analog Feedback Machine Full Schematic