SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY -CMOS-

heartlustΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

78 εμφανίσεις

2013/11/2

1

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY

-
CMOS
-

Fire Tom Wada

2013/11/2

2

What is semiconductor and LSIs


Huge number of transistors can be integrated in
a small Si chip.


The size of the chip is roughly the size of nails.


Currently, 1000M transistors can be integrated.


1000 times integration comparing to 20 yrs ago.


The cost of the chip is roughly same.


All electronic equipments are powered by LSIs.


PCs, Cellular phones, 3D graphics, Internet.

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PC mother board

Large Scale
Integration

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SONY PLAYSTATION 2 MAINBOARD

Rendering LSI

High Speed Memory

Graphics LSI

Direct RDRAM

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Mobile Phone Mainboard

Memory, Logic, Analog

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Key device is LSI

INTEL Pentium III module

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This is a packaged LSI

-
Pentium III 300MHz Cache LSI
-

15 mm

20 mm

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Si chip is molded in the package.

2 million transistor
Chip is connected
to the pins thru
wires.

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6 inches Si wafer

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8 inches Si wafer

Hundreds
of Chips

on

a Si Wafer

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Several hundreds of chips are
fabricated on a wafer simultaneously.

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Chip photo

-

Motion Estimation Chip for HDTV camera
-

9.1 mm

8.6 mm

Your small
finger

s
nail size.

200M
transistors.

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Scanning Electron Microscope photo

-

Cross
-
section of the LSI
-

0.5 micron

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Structure Of CMOS LSI


Isolation


PN
-
Isolation, Local oxidation


Si Substrate


Bulk,
epitaxial
, SOI


Well Structure


N
-
type well in P
-
type Substrate


Latch Up


PNP Bipolar Transistor and NPN Bipolar Transistor


Fabrication Process Technology

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Cross
-
section of the LSI

P
-
type Si substrate

N
-
type well

N+

N+

P+

P+

Metal wiring

Poly
-
silicon

Poly
-
silicon

N
-
type MOS transistor

P
-
type MOS transistor

Si wafer

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Transistor module



FEP)

65nm

Li thography(VUV, EPL)


Mask

CMPplanari zation

Low Resistance

Contact wi th

Hi gh Aspect rati o

High κ

Gate insulator

Fi ne Cu i nterconnect

Low κ

interdielectric

Si Ge/Metal gate

Mul ti
-
level Metal ization
Module


BEP)

Low Resistance
Ultra shallow
junction

Low stress Shallow
Trench Isolation

Advanced Process Development

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LSI integration trend

-

Moore

s law
-

Wide
-
TV, PHS phone

DVD player

DVD
-
ROM

DVD
-
RAM

DVD recorder

Source: SEMATEC

81

10B

1B

100M

10M

1M

100K

10K

1K

83

85

87

89

91

93

95

97

99

01

03

05

07

09

0.8

0.5

0.3

0.18

CHANNEL LENGTH (MICRON)

0.13

Digital HDTV receiver

Number of transistors on a chip

The number of
transistors are increasing
by 58% per year.

-

Moore

s Law
-

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Communications and Consumer Products
Drive Semiconductor

Sources: Applied Materials Corporate Marketing estimates, Dataquest

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

CAGR %

(1997
-
2002)

Semiconductor

Industry

Application Market

Growth

SC Content (As % of Equipment Cost)

3rd Generation

2nd Generation

1st Generation

Color

TV

Car

Radio

Video

Camera

Portable

Computing

Switching

& LAN

HDTV

Multimedia

PC

Advanced Desktop

PC and Workstation

Automotive

Applications/GPS

DVD

Player

Set
-
Top

Box

Internet

Game Consoles

Smart

Cards/Kiosks

Smart

Appliance
-
Phone

Digital Camera

40%

45%

50%

55%

40%

45%

Cellular Phones

FABRICATION PROCESS ISSUES

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Ultra Clean Room

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Basic LSI process

Layer
Deposition


lithography

etching

cleaning

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

SEM photo of Logic LSIs

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Projection

A


A A A A A A A A A A A A A A


A A A A A A A A A A A A A A


A A A A A A A A A A A

Lens

Si Wafer

Mask

Lens

Light Source

X

Y

Stage

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Wafer Test

scribing

Chips

Mounting

Bonding

Enclosing

marking

Final Test I

Burn
-
In

Ex.)Vcc:7V

Temp.:125

, 24

42hrs

Remove Process
defect Chips

Functional Test

DC Test

Assembly Flow

Shipping Test

Final Test II

Packaging & Test

Sample

Wafer

Functional Test

DC/AC Test

Functional Test(at Speed)

DC/AC Test

Pre Test

Testing

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Large Scale Integration


NMOS , PMOS and Wiring


All Logic Function can be made


Memory Element Can be made


Billions of Transistors and wiring make LSI!

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CMOS NOT (Inverter)

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CMOS NAND


NOR

A

B

f

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

A

B

f

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

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Classification Of LSI

1.
Logic LSI: Micro Processor,
Digital Signal Processor (DSP), FPGA

2.
Memory LSI: RAM (DRAM, SRAM), ROM (Flash Memory)

3.
Analog LSI: ADC, DAC, Filter, Amplifier



Micro Processor (PC

s central processing Unit)


Perform Digital computation according to the program in Memory


Integration in 7000 times in 25 years, (Moor

s Law)


Clock Speed : 700 times in 25 years


Memory LSI:



Dynamic Random Access Memory: Main memory for Computer, 4
-
times
density in 4 years


Static Random Access Memory : work memory for mobile equipments


Flash Memory : Nonvolatile memory , Digital Camera Storage


Analog LSI:


Used for interface, high speed RF interface,
Analog to Digital
Conversion
, Digital to Analog Conversion

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Analog to Digital Conversion

ADC LSI


Analog to Digital


Sample the analog wave


Convert to Digital format in Binary


Same as f(t) to An

Continuous
time

Discrete time

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SoC

Flash Memory

Chip photo 1

Chip photo 2

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Mobile Digital TV receiver