Far-From-Equilibrium Behavior of Electrons in Si Transistors

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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The

curves

show

how

the

conductivity


,

at

a

fixed

temperature,

changes

with

time

t

after

a

temporary

change

of

the

electron

concentration

during

the

time

t
w
.

Obviously,

t
w

has

a

dramatic

effect

on

the

relaxations,

both

qualitatively

and

quantitatively
.

At

very

long

times,

σ

approaches

its

equilibrium

value


0

(zero

on

the

vertical

axis)
.


log t(s)

Far
-
from
-
equilibrium

behavior,

where

system

properties

change

with

time,

is

poorly

understood

although

some

of

the

most

striking

phenomena

in

nature,

such

as

life

itself,

occur

out

of

equilibrium
.

The

nonequilibrium

dynamics

is

also

believed

to

underlie

complex

behavior

of

many

new

electronic

materials
.

This

group

has

already

demonstrated

that,

at

very

low

temperatures,

electrons

in

silicon

transistors,

the

basic

building

blocks

of

the

electronics

industry
,

represent

excellent

model

systems

for

studying

nonequilibrium

phenomena
.

New

work

shows

that

this

system

also

exhibits

“aging”,

i
.
e
.

that

its

electrical

conductivity

σ

depends

not

only

on

time

t

but

also

on

the

measurement

history

(“age”)
.

σ
(
t
)

was

measured

after

the

temporary

change

of

the

electron

density

during

time

t
w
.

The

history

was

varied

by

changing

t
w

and

temperature
.

The

observed

complex

dynamics

of

the

electronic

transport

is

strikingly

similar

to

that

of

other

out
-
of
-
equilibrium

systems
.

This

is

important

for

the

development

of

proper

theories
.

Physical

Review

Letters

99
,

046405

(
2007
)

Supported

by

DMR
-
0403491

(PI
:

D
.

Popovi
ć)

and

NHMFL
.


Far
-
From
-
Equilibrium Behavior of Electrons in Si Transistors


J. Jaroszy
ński and Dragana Popović


National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University