Expansion of Distribution


5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

126 εμφανίσεις

Expansion of Distribution
Automation with Communicating
Faulted Circuit Indicators

Cameron Smallwood, P.E., IEEE Senior Member

Michael Lattner, E.I.T

Ted Gardner

IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference 2011


United’s efforts to automate its distribution

Long distribution feeders make fault
identification and repair time consuming

Standard FCIs require visitation to get

Cooper Power Systems’ Automated FCI offers
instant feedback to dispatch

AFCI Overview




Minimum 3A line current

“Signature pattern of a fault”

Cellular modem



Other Smart Grid Implications

As an electronic device deployed downline with
link to SCADA, the opportunity to gather
distribution system information is there.

Fault status

Battery voltage

Device temperature

Momentary outage counter

Nominal current

Peak current

More beneficial information could be gathered

Limitations of AFCI

Minimum load current of 3A

Minimum load + fault current of 360A

AT&T or Verizon data coverage areas

Cellular data rates limit amount of information

Implementing the AFCI

Install YGS

Configure firewall

Install sensors

Set up data bridge

Set up SCADA presentment

AT&T data plan

Strategic Deployment of Sensors

AFCI sensors will be deployed only on three
feeder lines.

AFCI sensors will be deployed within 1 span on the
source side of a normally closed switch.

AFCI sensors should be deployed approximately halfway
between the upline distribution automation (DA) device
and the next downline DA device or the end of the line.

AFCI sensors should be deployed at the takeoff point of
large three
phase taps where a DA device is not already

Planning personnel will evaluate locations based on load
current availability an operational benefit.


SCADA Presentment

SCADA Presentment

Initial Results

How has United put the AFCIs to use?

Not many chances to find out

Momentary fault notification

Loss of power in association with a trip

Challenges during implementation

Momentary Fault

Upline triple
single recloser operates once

AFCI reports momentary fault shortly after

Crew patrols downline of ACFI

Crew finds birds on the lines of another utility
that crosses over United’s line

Clearance issue found and fixed

Loss of Power during Feeder Switching

Circuit was back
fed for line work

Sensors were on the section where line was de

Simultaneous loss of power messages

Outage was planned, but proved the concept

Implementation Challenges

Minimum 10A load current requirement

Becomes less challenging with 3A minimum

Training line crews and dispatchers

Too much information/too many alarms

Loss of power vs. fault

24 hour first
message delay

The Future

Deploy 50
60 sensors per year to a total of ~900

Install DA reclosers at normal open points to
quickly re

Include AFCI sensors in scripting automated
feeder reconfiguration

Have the AFCI communicate directly to OMS