Genetics Review Sheet Answers - AnneReganWiki

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Good Morning Ladies!


1.

Prayer

2.

Pass back homework

3.

Trade & Grade Genetics & Protein Synthesis 5

4.

Purple Review Sheet


HW: Study for the TEST TOMORROW


Tomorrow is a double period

(1)

practice

Part II Regents
genetics
questions

(2)

TEST



10 vocabulary



30 multiple choi
ce



5 short answer


Living Environment





Name _______________________________________________

Genetics & Protein Synthesis Review Sheet


Our test on Genetics and Protein Synthesis is on FRIDAY, April 30.


We will have review



in class on Thursday



2:45 pm
on Thursday


Room 305



7:15 am Friday


Room 301


I need the following to study:



DNA Structure & Protein Synthesis Note Packet



Gene Expression Note Packet



Mutations Note Packet



Biotechnology Note Packet



Genetics & Protein Synthesis Quiz



Genetics & Protein

Synthesis Homeworks 1


5
(answers on wikispace)



Genetics & Protein Synthesis Vocab Packet



Review Book


Topic 3 Readings



Wikispace


awesome review links!



This review sheet


Topic
s I need to know:



Genes



Structure of DNA



Nucleotides



DNA vs. RNA



DNA Rep
lication



Transcription



Translation



Gene Expression



Mutations



Biotechnology



Genetic Engineering (gene splicing)



Genetically Modified Organisms



Selective Breeding


I should be able to:

Define gene



a segment of DNA (on a chromosome) that
contains the code

for a specific trait






List the parts of a nucleotide



(1)

sugar (deoxyribose in

DNA and ribose
in

RNA)


(2)

phosphate group


(3)

nitrogenous base (adenine,
thymine, guanine,
cytosine;
uracil in RNA)

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA












Replicate DN
A by making the complementary
strand


ATG

CTA

GTC

GAT


TAC GAT CAG CTC


Complementary strand


Transcribe an RNA segment from a DNA segment

ATG

CTA

GTC

GAT



䑎D⁔emplate

U
AC GA
U

CAG⁃
U
A




mR乁 獴sand


Deoxyribose

A, T, C, G

In the nucleus

Double Stranded


Made of
nucleotides


Genetic codes


Ribose

A, U, G, C

found all over cell

Single Strand

Messen
ger, transfer,
ribosomal


Translate an RNA segment into its amino acids

UAC
|
G
AU
|
CAG
|
CU
A



mRNA strand










Amino Acid sequence to






make a protein
(polypeptide!)


State what affects gene expression


Factors in the environment (such as radiation,
chemicals, viruses)


Define mutation


any a
lteration in the sequence of bases

in DNA


Give examples of mutations



(insertion, deletion, substitution)


ATG|
C
TA
|
GAT
|C

-

insertion

ATG|AGA|TC



-

deletion

ATG|
G
TA|GAT


-

substitution

State effects of mutations on phenotypes or
proteins made

1.

Sometimes nothing (neutral) because it still
codes for the same amino acid


same
protein

2.

Sometimes lethal


kills the organism

3.

Sometimes beneficial


reproductive
a
dvantage (makes organism better
-
suited for
environment so they can have lots of babies)

4.

Sometimes harmful


causes genetic
disease (i.e.

sickle
-
cell anemia) or cancer!


Give examples of biotechnology

1.

Selective breeding
(Artificial selection)


2.

Genetic engineering
(gene splicing)

3.

Genetically modified
organisms


4.

Cloning






Know the steps of gene splicing (genetic
engineering)

1.

Cut out
the
desired
gene
using a
specific


enzyme

2.

Insert (Splice) the

gene into
the DNA of

another organism

3.

The genetically modified organism now

expresses that gene (makes the protein the

gene codes for)


Give an example of gene splicing


Human gene for insulin is

spliced into bacteria.
The bacteria then make human insulin.


Interpret a draw
ing

of gene splicing


Give pros and cons of selective breeding

(artificial selection)

Pros






Cons

Put desirable traits
together


Can’
t always predict outcome

Advantages of

both parents


Disadvantages of parents too

Could eliminate diseases or


Less genetic diversity



harmful traits


Give pros and cons of genetically modified organisms

Pros








Cons

Can feed lots of people




Unknown safety to consumers

Less chemical
s (pesticides, herbicides)

Unknown effects
on ecosystems

Less harm to environment



Domination by companies who

Disease resistance






make GM seeds


make $

Tolerance to stress like drought


Ethics


rights of animals









Not always labeled or regul
ated











Compare and contrast selective breeding

(artificial selection)
and genetic
engineering (gene splicing)


Selective breeding









Gene Splicing





m
ating two
organisms


s
electing

desirable

traits


can take a

long time


n
o mating

(putting

gene of
one organism
into another)



usually f
aster


Ex: bacteria that

make human
insulin


Changing the

DNA in a
population


Biotechnology


*May result in loss
of

biodiversity
(offspring made to
have similar traits)