Genetic Engineering Notes Name _______________________________________________ Genetic Engineering Biotechnology refers to technology used to _________DNA. The procedures are often referred to_______ __ _____________.

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Genetic Engineering Notes


Name _______________________________________________


Genetic Engineering



Biotechnology refers to technology used to _________DNA.




The procedures are often referred to
_______ __

_____________
.




________

is the genetic materia
l of all living organisms.




All organisms use the
_________

genetic code.




_____________

________________: organisms that contain functional
recombinant DNA




Recombinant DNA refers to the
_____________

from the two different
sources.


Process



Cut



Cleave



Splice


1. Isolate the foreign DNA fragment to be inserted




DNA is cut into small pieces using restriction enzymes.



Restriction enzymes were discovered in ______________.



Bacteria use them as a defense mechanism to cut up the DNA of
viruses

or other bact
eria




Hundreds of different _________________ have been isolated




Each restriction enzyme or RE cuts DNA at a specific_______ _________.



For example, EcoRI always cuts DNA at GAATTC as indicated below










The sequence GAATTC appear three time in the be
low strand of
DNA, so it is cut into four pieces.














Fragments of DNA that has been cut with restriction enzymes have
unpaired nucleotides at the ends called________ _________.

Sticky ends
have complimentary bases, so they _____________ ________
_______.







2. Joining of DNA with a vehicle (vector) to transport it




_____________________
: carries foreign DNA into host c
ell; can be
mechanical or biological



________________ _____________: pipette or gene gun



Biological vector:

plasmid or
______________



Plasmids & viruses are the most commonly used vectors




A plasmid is small ring of DNA in a bacteria.



A vector must be c
apable of self
-
replicating inside a cell.



3.

Transfer of DNA into a suitable host. When the host reproduces, it will
reproduc
e the desired protein or enzyme.



What we can do with genes?



Gene therapy



Replacing a defective gene with the normal gene



Gene splicing



Rejoining cut fragments of DNA



Gene cloning



Creating genetically IDENTICAL copies



Applications of Genetic Engineerin
g


Agriculture



Strawberry plants resistant to frost



Round up ready ______________



Bovine growth hormone


increase milk production in cow by 10%



Goats
-

produce milk containing high levels of a human protein that
dissolves blood clots



B.T. cotton


BT bact
eria make a toxin against insects


_________ ______



Glowing tobacco plant



Industry



Degrade oil in oil spills



Bacteria extract minerals from ores



Medicine



Human Growth hormone



Interferon


treat cancer



Human insulin



Phenylalanine (PKU)



Used to map the

human genome



Recombinant DNA techniques are used in DNA fingerprinting



Gene therapy can be used to help cure a genetic disease by replacing the
defective one.


Safety and Ethical Issues



__________ ___________________may be accidentally produced




Organism
s that are intended to be released in the environment may be
engineered with genes that will eventually kill them
.



There is _______ __________________on the use of genetic screening
and information produced by screening




The technology is increasing the ab
ility to diagnose genetic diseases


pre
-
natally, adding new complexity to the abortion controversy
.



Ethical questions have been raised over whether we should modify the
_______________________ _____ _____________________.



Genetic screening

and gene therapy are __________ and may be
unavailable to the poor
.



___________ _____________could be created using biotechnology
.