Genetic Engineering Notes Name _______________________________________________ Genetic Engineering Biotechnology refers to technology used to _________DNA. The procedures are often referred to_______ __ _____________.


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Genetic Engineering Notes

Name _______________________________________________

Genetic Engineering

Biotechnology refers to technology used to _________DNA.

The procedures are often referred to
_______ __



is the genetic materia
l of all living organisms.

All organisms use the

genetic code.


________________: organisms that contain functional
recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA refers to the

from the two different





1. Isolate the foreign DNA fragment to be inserted

DNA is cut into small pieces using restriction enzymes.

Restriction enzymes were discovered in ______________.

Bacteria use them as a defense mechanism to cut up the DNA of

or other bact

Hundreds of different _________________ have been isolated

Each restriction enzyme or RE cuts DNA at a specific_______ _________.

For example, EcoRI always cuts DNA at GAATTC as indicated below

The sequence GAATTC appear three time in the be
low strand of
DNA, so it is cut into four pieces.

Fragments of DNA that has been cut with restriction enzymes have
unpaired nucleotides at the ends called________ _________.

Sticky ends
have complimentary bases, so they _____________ ________

2. Joining of DNA with a vehicle (vector) to transport it

: carries foreign DNA into host c
ell; can be
mechanical or biological

________________ _____________: pipette or gene gun

Biological vector:

plasmid or

Plasmids & viruses are the most commonly used vectors

A plasmid is small ring of DNA in a bacteria.

A vector must be c
apable of self
replicating inside a cell.


Transfer of DNA into a suitable host. When the host reproduces, it will
e the desired protein or enzyme.

What we can do with genes?

Gene therapy

Replacing a defective gene with the normal gene

Gene splicing

Rejoining cut fragments of DNA

Gene cloning

Creating genetically IDENTICAL copies

Applications of Genetic Engineerin


Strawberry plants resistant to frost

Round up ready ______________

Bovine growth hormone

increase milk production in cow by 10%


produce milk containing high levels of a human protein that
dissolves blood clots

B.T. cotton

BT bact
eria make a toxin against insects

_________ ______

Glowing tobacco plant


Degrade oil in oil spills

Bacteria extract minerals from ores


Human Growth hormone


treat cancer

Human insulin

Phenylalanine (PKU)

Used to map the

human genome

Recombinant DNA techniques are used in DNA fingerprinting

Gene therapy can be used to help cure a genetic disease by replacing the
defective one.

Safety and Ethical Issues

__________ ___________________may be accidentally produced

s that are intended to be released in the environment may be
engineered with genes that will eventually kill them

There is _______ __________________on the use of genetic screening
and information produced by screening

The technology is increasing the ab
ility to diagnose genetic diseases

natally, adding new complexity to the abortion controversy

Ethical questions have been raised over whether we should modify the
_______________________ _____ _____________________.

Genetic screening

and gene therapy are __________ and may be
unavailable to the poor

___________ _____________could be created using biotechnology