30 pts. - Ms. Dooley's Science Class

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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BIOLOGY


SEMESTER 2 STUDY GUIDE

DAY 1

SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY

What is an independent variable?

What is a dependent variable?

Why does every experiment have to have a control?

What is a control in an experiment?


INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS


CHAPTER 10

& 11

Define: Homozygous



Define: Heterozygous



Define: Dominant:

Define: Recessive:

Define & give an example of a Phenotype:

Define & give an example of a Genotype:

Punnet SQUARE:
The gene for a Red Eyed Vampire (R) is dominant over the ge
ne for orange eyes (r). A
homozygous dominant vampire is crossed with a heterozygous vampire. What percentage of baby vampires
will produce a homozygous dominant vampire?




What is the purpose of meiosis? Why do cells have to go through meiosis?

When d
oes crossing over occur during meiosis?

What does crossing over give us? (what is the benefit of crossing over?)


Your mom has blood type AB. Your dad has blood type AB. What are the predicted blood types for each of
their children? (MAKE SURE TO INC
LUDE THE PERCENTAGES)


_________/30 pts.


Label each generation

What is the Genotype of the F1 generation?


What is the phenotype of the F1 generation?


What is the genotype of the F2 generation?


What is the phenotype of the F2 generation?


What is the genotype of
the P generation?


What is the phenotype of the P generation?








Snooki


X “The Situation”


The Jersey Shore Dihybrid Test Cross

B = Black Eyes


b = blue eyes

S = Straight Hair


s = curly hair

What is the genotype for Snooki

who is heterozygous for both traits?



What is the phenotype for an offspring of Snooki & The Situation who has the following genotype: Bbss?



What is the probability one of their offspring will have black eyes & straight hair?




BIOLOGY


SEMESTER 2 STUDY GUIDE

DAY 2

DNA & RNA


Chapter 12

Arrange the following in order from smallest to largest:

Chromosomes


DNA


Nucleotide


Cell


Nucleus


Label the DNA strand with the following terms:

Deoxyribose Sugar, Phosphate Group, Strand 1,

Strand 2,
Nitrogenous Base


What are the 4 nitrogenous bases that are in DNA and how are they paired?

What are the 4 nitrogenous bases that are in RNA and how are they paired?

What is the difference between DNA & RNA?

What does DNA direct the synthesis o
f?

What is the complementary mRNA sequence for the following DNA sequence?

C

A

A

G

G

T

A

A

C

G

T

A

T

T

A


How is genetic information stored and passed to offspring?


What is the purpose of
transcription
?


What is a mutation?


_________/30 pts.

Briefly write down the steps

in order for the synthesis of a protein

1.

2.

3.


What causes genetic mutations?


CHAPTER 13


GENETIC ENGINEERING & HUMAN GENOME

Why is it important to know the DNA sequence of an organism?


What is genetic engineering?


What is a karyotype

and how is it useful?

Draw an example of one.



BIOLOGY


SEMESTER 2 STUDY GUIDE

CHAPTER 15


DARWIN & EVOLUTION

Why is Evolution a theory?











DAY 3


According to Darwin, what does a species need to have in order to survive?


According to Evolution


what is the best explanation for finding similar bone patterns in different species?








What is a vestigial structure? Give an example of one.


CHAPTER 16


EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS

What do organisms have to have in order to
be able to adapt to their environment? WHY?



How do populations evolve by means of natural selection?


Think about a

species that does not blend in to its’ environment (it is easy to see), and has a natural predator
(think about the arms up
bears from th
e teddy graham lab). Over time, what would happen to this
population? Why? In other words, what did you see happen to your population of your hands up bears from
the teddy graham lab?


What can we learn from Darwin’s Galapagos finches?

_________/30 pts.


What can we lear
n from Darwin’s Galapagos tortoises?


How do mutations affect evolution?



CHAPTER 17


HISTORY OF LIFE

What is a necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on Earth?


Why?


What is the first form of life to appear on Earth according to the
fossil record? Why?

How did life evolve
from this?


What is a trilobite? Draw a picture.


What is a crinoids? Draw a picture.


What is the reason why both types of fossils were found in the
same

layer of rock?


How did sexual reproduction affect the p
rocess of evolution?







What can we learn from the graph below?



How does the changes in the Earth’s global climate affect living organisms?



CHAPTER
18
-

CLASSIFICATION














DAY 4

What can we learn by analyzing two species that have 98% of

their DNA in common? Explain why?


What can we learn by analyzing the amino acid sequence of two species? Explain why?


What is the name of the technique we would use to analyze the DNA of two species?


What are the 7 taxons of classification?


What 2
taxons does a scientific name consist of? What is the correct way to write it?