Mixed method research designs

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

MK. METIL
-
PDKL
-
PPSUB


CONTOH
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CONTOH

PUBLIKASI


The
Journal of Mixed Methods Research

(
JMMR
) is an
innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international
publication that focuses on empirical, methodological,
and theoretical articles about mixed methods
research across the social, behavioral, health, and
human sciences.


The journal's scope includes delineating where mixed
methods research may be used most effectively,
illuminating design and procedure issues, and
determining the logistics of conducting mixed
methods research.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/…… 21/9/2012


Mixed methods research (also called
mixed research) is becoming
increasingly articulated, attached to
research practice, and recognized as
the third major research approach or
research paradigm, along with
qualitative research and quantitative
research.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

A History of Mixed Methods Research


We would position mixed research between the extremes Plato
(quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed
research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these
viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many
(research) problems of interest.


Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism.


Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to
knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple
viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including
the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and
behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers
and methodologists who believed qualitative and
quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they
addressed their research questions.


For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of
including what we, today, would call qualitative and
quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural
anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork
sociologists.

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Denzin

(1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of
methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon” .


The four types of triangulation:

1.
Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a
study),

2.
Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different
researchers),

3.
Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and
theories to interpret the results of a study), and

4.
Methodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods
to study a research problem).

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Jick

(1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation:



1.
It allows researchers to be more confident of their results;

2.
It stimulates the development of creative ways of
collecting data;

3.
It can lead to thicker, richer data;

4.
It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories;

5.
It can uncover contradictions, and

6.
By virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the
litmus test for competing theories.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Greene,
Caracelli
, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or
rationales of mixed methodological studies:


1.
Triangulation

(i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of
results from different methods studying the same phenomenon),

2.
Complementarity

(i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement,
illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results
from the other method),

3.
Development

(i.e., using the results from one method to other
method),

4.
Initiation

(i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to
a reframing of the research question), and

5.
Expansion
(i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry
by using different methods for different inquiry components).

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


Collins,
Onwuegbuzie
, and Sutton (2006) identified four
rationales for conducting mixed research:


1.
Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative
research to optimize the sample using techniques that include
recruiting participants),

2.
Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility
of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring
performance of human instruments),

3.
Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention),

4.
Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of
data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings).


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Definitions of Mixed Methods Research


Huey Chen:

Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of
quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for
purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding
of a phenomenon.

Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative
and quantitative methods retain their original structures and
procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two
methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the
research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed
methods).




Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


John Creswell:

Mixed methods research is a research design (or
methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and

mixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and
qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase program

of inquiry.


Steve Currall:

Mixed methods research involves the sequential or
simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative data

collection and/or data analysis techniques.

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Isadore Newman:


Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be
used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures
reflects the research question(s) better than each can
independently.

The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should
better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed
methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach
enables the investigator to answer the research question(s)
embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or
is needed; the justification) of the study.

(Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.)

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher
or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and
quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and
quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference
techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of
understanding and corroboration.


This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research:


A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a
mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of
research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of
studies.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes

of Mixed Methods Research

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


What are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the
research process?

Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and
quantitative data using data analysis software.

Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making
metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and
quantitative strands in research studies).


The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of
integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further
explicate this process.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


Does mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of
philosophical and methodological positions?


Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be
welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace
these differences as an important part of the mixed methods
research paradigm.


It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate”
philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self
-
reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically).

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


Are equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative
epistemologies) possible?


To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with
research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called
commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which
the meta
-
inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed
worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and
integration” .


The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed
only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and
quantitative perspectives.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


Should and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and
quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully
developed and differentiated?


Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be
explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research
paradigms or will they develop as distinct types?


This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and
methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives
construct and systematize these subtypes.

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of
human research?


That is, exactly


1.
When and under what conditions should qualitative research be
considered the appropriate approach,

2.
When and under what conditions should quantitative research be
considered the appropriate approach, and

3.
When and under what conditions should mixed research be
considered the appropriate approach?


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of
human research?


A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths
and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are
recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important
and needed, albeit in different circumstances.


A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the
mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix
methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g.,
given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize
usefulness of information and evidence?).

Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


A fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to
the logic of mixed research.


We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of
logics.

When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research
should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods,
approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary
strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.


Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is
required in relation to situational contingencies.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


Tenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods
designs that can be broadly agreed upon?


Currently, several typologies are available including, for example,
Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and
Tashakkori (2006).


Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed
methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest
that the answer is yes.


Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research


Eleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research,
metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches?


For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan,
QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types
might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods,
collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)?


We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and
designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods
research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research
problems and situations.



Diunduh dari:
http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues

Karen A. Jehn and Karsten Jonsen

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 313
-
341

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/313.abstract …… 21/9/2012

Sensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal
health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and
sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences.



In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple
quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational
issues.


This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques
(e.g., tree graphs, third
-
person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance
of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry.


The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying,
categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs.


The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and
multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems
accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.

Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods
Research to Explore Contradiction

Pamela M. Wesely

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 295
-
312
.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/295.abstract …… 21/9/2012

This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration
of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition
from a language immersion program.

A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary
immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were
interviewed.


Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data,
a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration
of the qualitative and quantitative findings.


It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing
about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer
new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can
accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.


The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research

José F. Molina
-
Azorίn

.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 7
-
24

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012

The prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed
methods articles published in two management fields are
examined through a sequential mixed methods design with
four phases.

The results show that mixed methods articles are published
in management journals with different prevalence rates and
characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and
added value of mixed methods to the field of management is
carried out.


Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals
with regard to the application and publication of mixed
methods research are examined.

Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach:
Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services

Valorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory
Johnston.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 77
-
95
.

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012

Drawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods
research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location
analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural
British Columbia, Canada.

The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of
residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing
specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents
older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be
accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas.


Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a
newly identified factor:
community readiness
.


They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed
methods approach to location analysis model development.

A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and
Data Analyses

Felipe González Castro,

Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert Kopak

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 342
-
360

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/342.short?rss=1&amp%3bssource=mfr …… 21/9/2012

Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years,
although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain
mixed methods research designs and methods.

The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate
various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence
across qualitative and quantitative modalities.

Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from
quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure”
explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses.


This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot
research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It
presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic
procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also
presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative
mixed methods research studies.

Multiple Research Approaches
.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/ …… 21/9/2012

IJMRA

=
International Journal of Multiple Research
Approaches is an international peer
-
reviewed journal for
timely publication of global research, scholarship,
educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on
multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic
(combined effect), integrated and cultural research
approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community
based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American
and African regions, as well as European and North
American.


The journal's primary focus is effectively to combine various
theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to
address current research questions appropriately.

Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient
satisfaction

Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb,
Patricia M Davidson.
IJMRA 2011 5(1): 052
-

063.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/1/article/3854/beyond
-
the
-
ceiling
-
effect …… 22/9/2012

This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical
critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig
-
Beymer Patient Satisfaction
Questionnaire (PSQ
-
7) was used, and included structured items and semi
-
structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients.
Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The
distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect.
Principal component analysis yielded a one
-
component solution which explained
48% of the variance.


NVivo
®

was used to match PSQ
-
7 scores with qualitative data. Participants'
comments were categorised as positive, negative or 'yes, but'. Just over half the
patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made
negative comments. Three categories: 'communication', 'nursing care delivery'
and 'the hospital environment' emerged from the qualitative data.


A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect
of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful
explanation of patient satisfaction.

Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches
via the phenomenological method

William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner

IJMRA 2011 5(1): 089
-

103.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/1/article/3856/integrating
-
qualitative
-
and
-
quantitative
-
research …… 23/9/2012

Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods
are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical
orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at
cross purposes with each other.


The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate
qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards
uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour.
Three characteristics of a qualitative
-
quantitative methodological
pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability
and the display of anomaly.


When combined with networked information technologies, new
opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively
precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the
health sciences.

Tracking employees' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods
approach to assessing change in the psychological contract

Sarah Bankins

IJMRA 2011 5(3): 351
-

366

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/3/article/4462/tracking
-
employees
-
twists
-
and
-
turns …… 21/9/2012

The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both
academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation
of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised
importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical
investigation has fallen into a 'methodological rut' [Conway & Briner,
2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its
temporal and dynamic nature.


This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods
study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative
modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in,
the psychological contract.

Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research
design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the
psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource
management and broader organisational behaviour fields.

.

Mixed method research designs: A case study of their
adoption in a doctor of business administration program

Peter John Miller, Roslyn Cameron

IJMRA 2011 5(3) : 387
-

402


Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/3/article/4445/mixed
-
method
-
research
-
designs …… 23/9/2012

The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed
method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research
projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program
was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully
graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across
the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia.


The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research
utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most
frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within
the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number
of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and
Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods
research in business and management research and the teaching of
mixed methods are discussed.

.

Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia


Sebastian Levine, Benjamin Roberts

IJMRA 2008 2(2): 205
-
211

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e
-
contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/2/issue/2/article/2368/combined
-
methods
-
in
-
poverty
-
analysis …… 23/9/2012

We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series
participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income
and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research
processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These
results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different
perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys.

Using a Q
-
Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based
on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the
quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting
finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure,
established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have
higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q
-
Squared
measure based exclusively on non
-
monetary criteria.


We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in
consumption
-
based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues
related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues
related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the
participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data
point to deteriorating living conditions.

QUALITY & QUANTITY:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY.

Diunduh dari: http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/journal/11135 …… 23/9/2012


Quality
and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and
non
-
European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more
rigorous scientific results in the social sciences.


The
journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for
constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy
sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility,
mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and
feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical
research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and
similar topics.


Quality
and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically
correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social
sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology
.


Passenger satisfaction: a multi
-
group analysis

Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto Toma

Quality & Quantity. 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11135
-
012
-
9771
-
7

..

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/102985/?Content+Status=Accepted&MUD=MP ……
23/9/2012

To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport
service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation
Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much
some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the
service.

The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service
organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and
regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the
level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of
staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction.
Applying a further analysis on different sub
-
samples, based on individual
characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant
for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and
partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and
reason of use.

The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender
or education level of the passengers.

. Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social
cooperative

Maurizio Carpita and Silvia Golia

Quality & Quantity
. 2012 46(6): 1659
-
1685

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r7n84400q456/ …… 23/9/2012

Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and
discussion in labour economy.

Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various
subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator).


In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model
and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives
carried out in 2007.

The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some
overall variables of the quality of work.


Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to
evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker
(gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic
area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and
type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).

Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality

Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma.

Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April 2012 . P. 795
-
812

.

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0033
-
5177/46/3/ …… 23/9/2012

Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative

qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed
-
methods. The aim
of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the
combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those
pertaining to qualitative techniques.

The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from
the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they
provide.

The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are
qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the
subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the
combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our
methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby
improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured.


Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined
within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on
their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in
terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to
assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative
labels.

.

A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations
Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services Industry

Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka

Management Science January 2012 vol. 58 no. 1 203
-
217
.

Diunduh dari: http://mansci.journal.informs.org/content/58/1/203.abstract …… 23/9/2012

We use an incentive
-
compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a
large financial services firm to identify the norms for on
-
the
-
job behavior among
financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group
has of the other.

We examine whistle
-
blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the
client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a
client.


We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the
two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante.
However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and
the actual norms of advisers.


When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication
from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers.

Finally, we show that when advisers' personal ethical opinions do not match
group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for
money in a second experiment.

.

MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN
.

Diunduh dari:
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wie/courses/degrees/docs/who/students/edrhal/research/design/armpaper/ ……
23/9/2012

The nature of mixed methods design of the research


Being a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed
methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research
which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and
qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected
concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).

.

MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN
.

Diunduh dari:
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wie/courses/degrees/docs/who/students/edrhal/research/design/armpaper/ ……
23/9/2012

The nature of mixed methods design of the research



According to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in
circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about
the research setting or research problems.


In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to
design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are
either unknown or not sufficiently understood.


The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide
clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further
investigation.’


.
Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process
-
Culture
-
Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13


September 2010.

Diunduh dari: http://www.qualitative
-
research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1560/3073 …… 23/9/2012

Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first
trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived
from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the
dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation.
Both approaches partially contrast each other.

The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm
-
level
provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation
management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of
innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization's innovation processes.


Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem
-
centered interviews, structural analyses,
and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview
-
based single
case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created
a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an
innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic.


The main finding in our study is the dynamic role
-
model that innovation managers in large
service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our
methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in
the future.

.
Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process
-
Culture
-
Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13


September 2010.

Diunduh dari: http://www.qualitative
-
research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1560/3073 …… 23/9/2012

.

The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for
innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440 …… 23/9/2012

As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco
-
efficient services have
been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However,
they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the
primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco
-
efficient services is the
mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings.

In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs
through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300
potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU
or globally.

The paper discusses what kinds of eco
-
efficient services customers need and
under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco
-
efficient services
by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency
services for managing side streams and non
-
core processes.

They primarily seek cost and broader business
-
efficiency improvements from
these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear
business case when marketing services.

Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer
companies find they are not being marketed actively.

.

The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative
services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440 …… 23/9/2012

Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco
-
efficient
services according to previous research.


Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440…… 23/9/2012

Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of
innovative B2B eco
-
efficient services.

.

The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative
services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Diunduh

dari
:
http://publications.mcgill.ca/medenews/files/2010/12/mixed
-
methods
-
research
-
figure2.jpg…… 26/9/2012

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